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Full text of "History of Knox and Daviess County, Indiana : from the earliest time to the present; with biographical sketches, reminiscences, notes, etc. ; together with an extended history of the colonial days of Vincennes, and its progress down to the formation of the state government"

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3 1833 01703 9808 

Gc 977.201 K77hi 

History of Knox and Davif 
Counties, Indiana 




From the Earliest Time to the Pkesbnt ; with Biographical Sketches, 

Reminiscences, Notes, Etc.; Together with an Extended 

Hlstory of the Colonial days of Vincennes, and 

ITS Progress JDOWN to the Formation of 

THE State Government. 


1^11 hi 


John MoRflie CoMPA^ 




UR history of Kuox and Daviess Counties, after months of persist- 
ent, conscientious labor, is now completed. Every important 
'■ field of research has been minutely scanned by those engaged in its 
preparation, and no subject of universal public value has been omitted 
save where protracted effort failed to secure trustworthy results. The 
impossibility of ingrafting upon the pages of this volume the vast 
fund of the counties' historic information, and the proper omission 
of many valueless details, have compelled the publishers to select such 
- matters as are 4eemed of the greatest importance. Fully aware of oiu- 
'^_ inability to furnish a perfect history fi-om meager public documents, 
f\ inaccurate private correspondence, and numberless conflicting tradi- 
■^ tions, we make no pretension of having prepared a work devoid of 
*>■ blemish. Through the courtesy and the generous assistance met with 
everywhere, we have been enabled to rescue from oblivion the greater 
,_ portion of important events that have transpired in past years. We 
^1 feel assured that all thoughtful people in the counties, at present and 
•Sin the futui-e, will recognize and appreciate the importance of the un- 
J <Sertaking and the great public benefit that has been accomplished. 
^ It will be observed that a dry statement of fact has been avoided, 
' and that the rich romance of border incident has been woven with 
statistical details, thus forming an attractive and graphic narrative, 
and lending beauty to the mechanical execution of the volume and ad- 
ditional value to it as a work of perusal. We claim superior excel- 
lence in our systematic manner of collecting material by workers in 
specialties; in the division of the subject matter into distinct and ap- 
propriate chapters; in the subdivision of the individual chapters into 
topics under subheads, and in the ample and comprehensive index. We 
also, with pride, call the attention of the public to the superb mechan- 
ical execiition of the volume. While we acknowledge the existence of 
unavoidable errors, we have prepared a work fully up to the standard 
of our promises, and as accurate and comprehensive as could be 
■expected under the circumstances. 


10. )1.4-& 




Colonial History of Vincennes 

Aboriginal Customs 

Chippecoke Town 

Carignan-Saliires, The Regiment.. 

Canadian Residents, The First 

Ecclesiastical Mysticism 

Feudalism, A Species of 

Fur Trade, The 

Indian Villages 

Miamis, The 

New Village, The 

Religious Enthusiasts 

Shawanees, The 

Colonial History, Continued.. 

British Indian Policies 

Braddock's Defeat 

Burning of Vinsennf , The 

Church, The First 

Commerce, etc 

Conflict at Detroit, The.. 

Croghan's View of Vincennes 

Demands of Gen. Gage 

Epidemic, A Destructive 

English Government at Vincennes.. 

French and English Contests 

Government of St. Ange 

Manitou, The Indians' 

Pontiac's Conspiracy 

Policy of the French King 

St. Ange Belle Rive 

Vincennes, Establishment of. 

Vinsenn^'s Promotion 

Western Company, The 


Colonial History, Continued 

American Flag over Vincennes, The 

British, Surrender of the 

Clark's Second Project 

Conquest of Kaskaskia 

Capitulation of Fort Sackville 

Consultation Between Hamilton and 


Conquest of Vincennes 

Excitement among the Inhabitants 

Filibustering Expedition, The First 

Fort Sackville, Investment of. 

Glbb'ault, Gratitude of 

Hamilton's Creditable Designs.. 

' Defenses, Description of.. 

Vincennes Campaign, Th 


Colonial History, Continued 51 

Capture of the English Fleet 61 

Court, Establishment of the 54 

Distinguished Prisoners, Disposal of the 53 

Delawares, Punishment of the 54 

Enthusiasm of the Inhabitants 52 

LaBalm's Expedition and Fate 55 

Latroumelles, Massacre of the 56 

Officers of the Garrison 54 

Promotion of Clark and Bowman 5S 

Peorias, Defeat of the 55 

Surrender, Ceremonies of the 51 

Vincennes, Pen Picture of. 56 


Geology of Knox County 5S 

Analysis of Coals 6S 

Bunker Hill Section, The 61 

Boundary and Drainage 58 

Coal K, Fossils over 65 

Connected Section of the County 58 

Coals near Edwardsport 65 

Economic Questions 67 

Limestone and Sandstone 66 

Local Details 69 

Merom Sandstone, The 61 

Other Sections 6S 

Strata in General, The 59 

Sections in Harrison Township 62 

View of the Coals, A 60 


Settlement of Knox County 68 

Ancient Titles or Land Grants 94 

Busseron Township 73 

Claimants, Catalog of 104 

Decker Township 85 

Distilleries and Ferries 86 

Early Settlers 69 

Early Residents of Harrison 77 

Forts, Block-houses, etc 78 

Grants to Settlers at Vincennes 125 

Heads of Families at Vincennes 110 

Harrison Township 77 

Industries of Widner 72 

.Johnson Township 80 

Land Claims at Vincennes 99- 

Militia Company, Roster 70 

McGowen, Massacre of. 74 

Milling Interests 79 

Mound Builders, The 92 

Miscellaneous Items 88 

Notes on the Northwest Territory 144 

Other Important Surveys 112 

Pioneers of Busseron 73 

Prehistoric Relics 75 

Pear Tree, The Great 77 

Palmyra Township 90 

Shakers, The : 

Steen Township 

Tan-yards, Mills, Forts, etc 

Vincennes Township 

Vigo Township 

Washington Township 

Widner Township 


Organization of the County 

Asylums, The 

Acts of the County Board 

Bonds of the County 

Boundary and Early Government 
County Ofl&cers. 


Court House, The New 161 

Displays at the Fair 154 

Election Keturns 164 

Finances of the County 169 

Jail, The New 152 

Knox County Fair, The 153 

Medical Society, The 156 

Name, Origin of 148 

Population of the Countv 166 

Paupers, The 157 

Plank Eoad, The 152 

Public Buildings 150 

Prisons 151 

Railroads 153 

Receipts and Disbursements, Fair 154 

Townships, Formation of. 148 

Taxation 161 

Votes Polled 166 


Tench and Bar 168 

Attorneys of the Present 200 

Bar, The Local 194 

Court, The First 170 

Character of Judges 175 

Circuit Court, The 183 

Common Pleas Court 176 

Circuit Judges, List of. 184 

Courts of 1853 181 

Death Penalty, The First 175 

Grand Jury, The First 171 

Jurisdiction of the Early Courts 169 

Judges, List of. 173 

Judges of Probate 179 

Knox County Organized 170 

Oyer and Terminer Courts 174 

Public Buildings 177 

Presentment for Murder 171 

Probate Court 178 

Professional Sketches 185 

Preliminary History 16S 

Sheriffs, List ot 173 

Trial of Offenses 171 

Territorial Courts 174 


Military History 

Artillery Company, The 


Battle of Tippecanoe 

Black Hawk Campaign, The 

Bounty and Relief, 

Casualties at Tippecanoe 

Companies, The First 

Camp Knox 

Companies at Tippecanoe 

Dodge's Company 

Drafts, The 

Eightieth Regiment, The 

Enlistments Under Last Call 

Fifty-first Regiment, The 

Flag Presentation 

Interview of Harrison and Tecu 
Militia Companies, The Old 


Mexican War, The 2ir 

Mass Meetings 213 

Officers of the Fourteenth 216 

One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment. 225 

Revolutionary Soldiers 204 

Rebellion, Outbreak of the 212 

Sketch of the Fourteenth 217 

Sixty-fifth Regiment, The 223 

Twenty-sixth Regiment, The 219 

Tippecanoe Campaign, The 206 

Thirty-third Regiment 

Views of The Sun. . 


History of the Towns 

Additions to Vincennes 

Business Houses 


Bruce ville 

Busseron , 


Commandants, The French 

Description of Fort Sackville 

Date of Founding Vincennes 

Dispute about Fort Sackville 





French and .Jesuit Missions 


French Fort. The Old 

Fisherman, The 

Incorporated Companies 

Land Grant, The Oldest 

Later Business Establishments 

Mound Builders, The 

Manufacturing Establishments 

Monroe City 


Ordinances of Vincennes 

Oaktown , 

Plantation of Grouseland 

Present Business 

Recorded History, The First 


Religious Condition, The 

Secret Societies 

Town and City Officers 

Vincennes, Old Town of. 

Vincennes, The Territorial Capital.. 

Vincennes in 1805 


Westphalia .' 


Educational History ™ 

County Seminary, The 

Disposal of the University 

Education in Busseron Township.... 


Johnson Township Schools 
Managementof the Seminary... 

Palmyra Educators 

Public Schools, The 

Schools of Decker 

Seminary Township, The 

Suits over the Property 

Schools of Washington 

.Statistics, Enumeration, Etc 

School Examiners 

Township Educational Affairs.. 

Teachers of Steen Township 

University, The Vincennes 

Vigo Schools 

Vincennes Public Schools 

Widner Township Teachers 


Religious History 

African Methodist Church... 

Bishops, The 

Busaeron, The Shakers 

Baptist Church at Vincennei 
Church Records, The Early.. 

Christian Church i 
Churches of Vigo.. 
Keeker Township Church 

Fathers, The Early 

Harrison Churches 

Methodist Church at Vincenne. 

Old Church Buildings 

Palmyra Organizations , 

Religious Condition of the French... , 
Religion in Washington Township.... 

St. Francis Xavier Cathedral 

St Vincent's Asylum 

Steen Keligious Organizations 

St. James' and St. John's Churches... 

Vincennes Presbyterian Church 

Widner Township Classes 

Busseron Township.. 

Decker Township 

Harrison Township.. 
Johnson Township... 
Palmyra Township... 


448 I Steen Township 

633 Vigo Township 

499 Vincennes Township 

Geology of the County 

Analysis of Coals 

Alfordsville Sections 

Boundary and Extent 

Building Stone 

Drainage ~ 


Iron, Clay, Ochre, etc 

Local Details 

Section of the County 

Sundry Bores 

Section at Hays' Farm 

Timber, Varieties of. 

Indian History 

Attack on Smith, Perry, etc.. 

Courage of Miss Case 

Design of Gen. Harrison.. 

Indian Alarms 

McGowen, Killing of 

Murder of Bogard and Hathaway.. 

Murder of Thomas Eagle 

Occupants of the Forts 

Pursuit of the Savages 

" Pioneer Papers," Ex 
Rangers, The.. 


Madison Township.. 

Pioneer Implements of Labor 

" Poetry" of the Pioneers 

Reeve Township 

Settler. The First 

Subsistence, Early Sources of. 

Steele Township 

Slavery in Indiana 

Supreme Court Decision 

Titles to Land Before 1814 

Threshing Machine, The First 

Trustee WarranU, The Township.. 

Township Orders Issued 

Veal Township 

Van Buren Township 


Organization of the County 

Act of Formation 

Agricultural Societies 

Acts of the Board, Sundry 


Board of Justices 

County Board, First Meeting 


ttleuent of the County.... 

Bears, Hunting of 

Bogard Township 

Barr Township 

Clothing Materials 


Court House of 1841, 

Elections to Aid Railroads 

Election Returns, Presidential 

Finances, The 

Jails, The Early 

Location of the County Seat 

Miscellaneous Acts of theBoard... 

New Counties Projected 

Original County Bounds 

Public Buildings, Later 

Paupers, The 



Railroad Stock Taken , 



Silk Culture, Encouragement of... 

Ad Quod i 

Assassination of Capt. McCarty 

Big File, Indictment of 

Bar, The Local 

Common Pleas Court 

Circuit Judges, Catalog of. 

Circuit Court, First Session 

Criminal Trials, Early 

Epitaph of Capt. McCarty 

Eminent Practitioners 

Grand Jurors, The First 

Indictments, The First 

Judges, The Early 

Murder of David Young 

Probate Court 

Present Attorneys 

Petit Jury, The First 

Sentence of McCarty's Murderers.. 

Sundry Trials of Offenses 

Scott's Murder Trial 

Trials of Note 


, first- 

Calls for Troops 
Company forthb ..».j " 

Casualties of the Sixth 

Conscripts, Disloyalty, etc.. 

Deeds of Patriotism 

Deaths of the Twenty-fourth.. 

Fall of Sumter, The 

Flag Presentation, Ceremony o 

Forty-second Regiment 

Fifty-second Kegin^ent 

Fifty-eighth Regiment 

Home War News 

"Legion," The 

McCarty's Company 

" Minute Men," The 

Military Credits, Summary of.. 

Mexican Soldiers, The Meetings 

Military Items, Sundry 

Newspaper Extracts 

Ninety-first Regiment 

Roll of Honor 

Revolutionary Soldiers 

Resolutions of Loyalty 

RecrulUs, Veterans, etc 

xth Regimen 


of the Twe 



History OF the Town^ 

Additions to Washington .... 


Business, The First 

City Charter, The 


Chelsea and Corbytow 

Glendale and Maysville 

Growth of Washington, Later 

Hudsonville and Tom's Hill 

Incorporation of Washington 

Lot Buyers, The First 

Leading Business Enterprises 




Officers of Washington 


Original Ownership of Washington 

Professional Men, Early 

Present Business 


Eesidents, The First 


Smiley & Farlen 

South Washington 

Secret Societies 

Temperance Society, An Early 



Attendance, etc 720 

Barring out the Teacher 712 

County Seminary, The '13 

Congressional Fund, The 719 

County Institutes 716 

Common School Fund, The 718 

Enrollment, Attendance, etc 715 

Enumeration of Children 722 

Early Schools of Washington 711 

Graded Schools, The.............. 715 

Graduates of the High School 71b 

Other School Buildings 714 

Statistics of Schools 719 

Superintendents of Schools 716 

Township Schools 719 

Teachers of Washington 713 


Churche-s of the County.... 723 

Articles of Faith, Baptist ^35 

, Baptist Congregations 

Cumberland Presbyterians 

Catholic Buildings i'° 

Christian Classes 7« 

Colored Churches '~ 

Early Presbyterians..... ■■ l^ 

Methodist Episcopal Churches 729 

Other Methodist Pastors 731 

Presbyterian Congregations 7« 

Pioneer Circuit Riders 7^ 

Presbyterian Elders 726 

Priests, The Catholic 727 

Roman Catholic Churches 



ureinreii, xuo 

J Baptist Organizations 
Washington MethodUt Ministers 


Bogard Township .. . 

Barr Township 

Elmore Township..., 
Harrison Township 
Madison Township.. 

Reeve Township 
Steele Township 
Veal Township 
Van Buren lownshin 
Washington Township 




prepared by oblan p. baker, a. m. 

Colonial History of Vincennes from 1608 to 1702— The Miamis and 
Other Tribes — Chippecoke — Savage Stoicism— The Canadian 
VoYAGEURS— Colonies Established by Keligious Enthusiasts— 
The Indian Fur Trade— The Regiment Carignan-Salieres— 
Colonial Government— The "JTew Village." 

AT about the period of the advent of the Europeans on the 
North American Continent, a division of the Algonquin 
race of savages left their country, bordering upon the waters 
of the Bay of Puans (Green Baiy), and wandering south and 
eastward, acquired a permanent lodgment at isolated stations 
along the Eiver St. Jerome (Wabash), from the Scioto to the 
Mississippi. Early in their migration they encountered the in- 
domitable missionary and the alert trader from the French settle- 
ments upon the St. Lawrence. From these they learned to speak 
the salutation prescribed by the early code of the forest — "J/on 
ami''' (my friend) — and whether, as claimed by a painstaking 
writer,! out of these French words was carved their family name 

* The author is under obligations for access to valuable records and documents to Ralph H. 
Donavan, Thomas P. Beckes, Hon. Henry S. Cauthorn, Charles P. Lasselle, Bishop St. I'alais (Je- 
ceased). Fathers Adrian and Peythien, Mrs. Helen Hediker, of Ft. Wayne, and the heirs of Robert 
Buntin; and has consulted in the succeeding four chanters, among others, the following authori- 
ties: Dr. Francis Parkman, Judge James V.Campbell. John B. Dillon, Judge John Law, H. M. 
Brackenridge, Count L'. F. Volney, Jared Sparks, C. C. Jones, Dr. Daniel Wilson, C. P. Drake, Mann 
Butler, Lewis Collins, "Transactions of New York Historical Society," "Transactions of Wiscon- 
sin Historical Society," " The Discovery of the West." Law's " Hintory of Vincennes," " Historical 
Series," " Records of St. Francis Xavier Cathedral," "Clark's Campaign," Butler's "History of 
Kentucky," "Political History of Michigan," Western Sun (sketches), 1804 to 1845, "Acts of Con- 

fProf. Hough, Cincinnati Public School. 


— Miami — or not, they were, of all the Western nations, the most 
faithful in their relations with their white neighbors. Although 
these ceremopious greetings have been obsolete for a century, 
and the dusky race of "friends" has disappeared with the vast 
forests in which it was cradled, rivers and hills and municipal 
divisions perpetuate in their names this meeting of races in the 
wilderness of America. 

At the junction of the rivers St. Joseph and St. Mary's, the 
site of the present city of Fort Wayne, stood Ke-ki-on-ga, the 
chief Miami village ; seven miles below the modern city of Lafay- 
ette, Ouitenon, and "two hundred leagues farther down by the 
windings of the current, on the left bank of the St. Jerome, sur- 
rounded by good lands for beaver," Chip-pe-coke (Brushwood), 
the Indian predecessor of Vincennes. Lodges and less impor- 
tant villages, inhabited by Weas, Mascoutins, Pottawattomies, 
Puans, Piankashaws, etc., "all speaking dialects of the same lan- 
guage, having the same customs and ceremonies as the Miamis — 
all Miamis," in many lines, extended from these principal towns 
eastward to Lake Erie, and southwest to the Ohio. Eelics res- 
cued fi-om shell-heaps, and the evident disjDosition of the dead 
revealed in exhumations, indicate that earlier than this possession 
by the Miamis the site of the village of Chip-pe-coke had been, 
for many years, the home of a people practicing the ceremonies 
and observing the customs peculiar to the Mandans, who, also, 
were wanderers from the sea-coasts of North Carolina. 


Between the time of the Mandans and the Miamis, the Shawa- 
nees had adopted this favorite spot for a temporary home. One 
of the rambles of the latter tribe, occurring since the estab- 
lishment of English colonies in America, serves to delineate the 
unstable life, the aimless shif tings, exterminations, and overlap- 
pings of one population upon another, out of which, doubtless, 
arose the deadly feuds imder which, in bloody and relentless wars, 
as the curtain rose to reveal to the European the red man of the 
woods, their numbers were even then melting away with such 
rapidity that, had the white man delayed his advent but a few 
centuries longer, he would have found an unpeopled wilderness 


to welcome him. At a treaty with Penn, near Philadelphia, the 
Shawanees were present, and conceded to be owners of portions of 
the soil upon the Delaware. Soon afterward they appear to have 
gone to the South, as guests of the Cherokees, where, fomenting 
strife, they were expelled the country, and took up their abode 
near the Chickasaws. Next they found a more permanent home 
at the confluence of the Wabash and Ohio (Shawaneetown), from 
whence, over their old hunting grounds, they passed up the Wa- 
bash to southern Michigan. 


The size of fields devoted to sepulture, the condition of re- 
mains exhumed in early excavations, almost uniformly well pre- 
served, and the large number of interments, indicate that while 
the Indian town of Chip-pe-coke was the center of a dense popu- 
lation, its occupancy by the Miamis had not extended, perhaps, 
over half a century of time when first visited by the white 
man. The customs of the Miamis so fully preserved by the 
whites, who so constantly maintained an intercourse with them, 
the suggestive character of individual names, and monuments of 
boundaries, preserved to us in ancient grants, enable us to, par- 
tially at least, reproduce this village of the savages as it was at 
the time when there came to it from the North that population 
of Old World origin the recital of whose history is to depict the 
dawn of civilization in Indiana. In person the Miamis were tall, 
lithe and well formed, regular featured, of a bright bronze com- 
plexion, in some cases, firom family admixtures, howev^, dark- 
ening into the shade of the Nubians.* They were vain in dress, 
fond of ornaments, and lavish in the display of curious medicine 
pouches, charms, talismans and amulets. Eminently social in 
the lodge, mirthful around the camp-fire and loquacious in coun- 
cil, the brave, in the presence of his enemies, under the agony of 
torture, could remain as taciturn and unyielding as stone. Upon 
the war-path he spared not even the babe clinging to its mother's 
breast ; deprived of the society of his own ofPspring he wasted to 
death with grief. The mother who toiled in the fields singing 
the while her affection for the child slung to her back, looked 


upon its brutal murder by the foe with unmoistened eyes, suffer- 
ing no sigh to escape fi-om her agonized breast, over whicli her 
tribal enemy might gloat. An incident related by a Jesuit 
father, who writes as an eye-witness, will well serve to illustrate 
how vain of the ability to exhibit brutal indifPerence to their own 
physical suffering the Indian was. The Father relates that while 
a religious procession at the feast of Corpus Christi was passing 
along the Rue Calvary, two wounded Indians just from some 
brawl, were observed in the street. One, bleeding from the face 
and neck, was moaning piteously; the other, with a gash in his 
abdomen fi-om which protruded his entrails, sat quiet until the 
religionists arrived opposite him, when he exclaimed: "See how 
a brave man dies," opened still wider his wound and cut piece 
after piece from his exposed viscera. The Miami was especially 
fond of festivals and dances ; some of his feasts, notably that of 
the "green corn," were celebrated with games and contests as 
exciting and honorable as those immortalized at Olympus. Upon 
occasion of these holidays, tales of adventure, recitals of legends, 
narratives of a mythological character, tribal traditions and hu- 
morous pantomimes, occupied the time between game and dance, 
contest and banquet, and never lacked an appreciative and de- 
lighted audience. His love of adventure was unsurpassed by any 
appetite except his passion for gambling. The first, with a love 
of gossip seemingly never satiated, sent him upon long solitary 
jaunts fi-om village to village of his nation; the latter often de- 
taining him upon the war path until his vengeance cooled. Their 
habitations were constructed of bark and boughs, and one often 
sheltered at the same time three and four generations. The coming 
into existence of a new family was provided for by extending the 
roof of the wife's parents a few feet and kindling a new domestic 
fire. Upon the eastern bank of the Wabash, at an elevation some 
twenty feet above the immediate plain stretching to the east, 
from near Broadway Street to Perry, amid a few barren, stunted 
oaks, about thirty such lodges, containing in all over 100 families, 
dominated at the northern limit by a large, circular structui-e 
designated as the council -house, were grouped to form the village 
where the first white settlement in Indiana was effected. It was 
under the totem (a family badge) of the turtle, and as such 


ranked equal, in Indian caste, with the larger capital Ke-ki-on-ga ; 
possessing the right, in the Miami confederacy, to be consulted 
before engagements in war, and with the prized though ignomini- 
ous right to share in the cannibal feasts of the tribe. 


Although, in the journeys often made before the close of the 
sixteenth century, by explorers, missionaries and traders from Que- 
bec, Montreal and Three Rivers to Kaskaskia upon the Missis- 
sippi, the Wabash was used as a highway, and, as this Indian 
village was the most important for so many leagues of the route, it 
was, doubtless, well known to such travelers, yet no trace of the 
presence of the French earlier than the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century can be found. It was in the early autumn of 
1702 when four Canadian boats, containing eight white men, con- 
voyed by a flotilla of Indian laden canoes, gathered from the 
various villages along the route, having accomplished their long 
journey by water and jjortage from the castle of St. Louis at 
Quebec, were stranded in front of the council-house upon the 
site of the present city of Vincennes. The names of but four of 
these voyagers have been preserved. They were Juchereau, the 
commander; Leonardy, his lieutenant; Goddare and Turpin, 
couriers des hois — travelers of the woods — the surf of the flowing 
tide of population, ever preceding the wave, slowly intruding up- 
on the realm of solitude and the savage. ImjDulses having their 
origin across the ocean, events transpiring in colonies upon 
the St. Lawrence, had molded their characters, and at last or- 
dained them to become truly light-bearers in a heathen wilder- 
ness. France planted a colony at Quebec in 1608. "For the 
glory of the crown, for the dominion of Christ's holy church," 
this colony soon came under the patronage of the State and the 
especial solicitude of the pope. Before Talon, before Guise or 
Lorain, this union of interest, and yet separation of duties, had 
been well expressed at the conclusion of a quarrel in the Canadian 
woods: "You show me my way to heaven," said the governor- 
general to the vicar, "and I will show you your path on earth." 


The religious sentiment of France felt the quickening spirit 


which had produced the reformation in the neighboring king- 
doms of Germany and England; and enthusiasts offering them- 
selves for martyrdom, devotees, counting sufferings experienced 
in propagating the true faith as earnests of jewels to be worn in 
their crowns in heaven, offered themselves in flocks to carry out 
schemes of the utmost madness. In the province of Anjou, at 
the town La Fl^che. lived Jerome de la Danversiere, an officer of 
the Income, an enthusiastic devotee, of mystical tendencies, who 
whipped himself with scourges of chains to mortify the flesh, and 
wore a belt with more than 1,200 sharp points, that he might be 
reminded how much better it is to suffer flnitely in this world 
than infinitely in the world to come; truly, a type of many such 
filling all France with pious sighs and groans, and aspiring to 
martyrs' crowns under the impatient belief that the world would 
soon become too pious to offer them. One day, while at his de- 
votions, he heard an inward voice, commanding him to become 
the founder of a new order of nuns, and establish under its con- 
duct a hospital upon an island called Montreal, in Canada. In 
the old church of St. Germain des Pr^s, a priest, Jean Jacques 
Olier, founder of the famous seminary of St. Sulspice, kneeling 
while the choir was chanting the words Lumen ad revclaiionem 
Genfinm, heard a voice from heaven commission him to be a 
light to the Gentiles. An inward voice at the same hour told 
Olier that he was to form a society of priests, and establish them 
upon the island of Montreal in a Canadian river. Danversiere 
proceeded to Paris immediately after his experience at La Fl(?che, 
and there in the church of Notre Dame, in the ecstacy of a 
trance, was led by the hand of the blessed Virgin to the presence 
of her glorious Son, who accepted the devotee as a servant. Thus 
confirmed in his miraculous call, he visited the old castle at Mue- 
don, where in its galleries he met Olier, and, although until 
then unknown to each other, they immediately embraced and sa- 
luted each other by name. "Monsiem-," exclaimed the priest, 
"I know your design, and I go to commend it to God at the 

Mademoiselle Jeanne Mance, while not of the cloister, had 
lived from a tender age the life of a nun, and under a vow of per- 
petual chastity. Inflamed with the Canadian enthusiasm so prev- 


alent, and desiring to emulate the fame of Madame de la Peltrie, 
of whom she had read so much, she determined to offer herself to 
the work in Canada. Setting out upon her journey, she proceeded 
to Rochelle to take ship. On the day of her arrival at this port 
she repaired to the Church of the Jesuits, and as she entered its 
doors she met Danversi^re. " Then," says Faillon, her biogra- 
pher, "these two persons, who had never seen nor heard of each 
other, were enlightened supernaturally, whereby their most hid- 
den thoughts were mutually made known." She had found her 
destiny. The ocean, the wilderness, the solitude, the Iroquois — 
nothing daunted her.* Out of these visions, in 1643, there arose 
upon the island of Montreal a seminary consecrated to Christ, a 
Hotel Dieu to St. Joseph and a college to the Virgin. This col- 
ony, fed with illusions, founded in dreams, the subject of prayers 
in unbroken vigils (a nun remained at the altar day and night 
praying for its preservation), under deceptive lights and false 
shadows, in the very realm of miracles, beset, in the diseased im- 
agination of its members, with devils and guarded by angels, 
with less blood, with less waste of human life, carried the light 
of the gospel of Christ farther into the desert, to more souls 
than any of all who came to civilize the human tiger in his Amer- 
ican home. 


With all the religious fervor, so strangely impelling men and 
women to leave refinement and luxury, and enter upon lives of 
deprivation and solitude, there went out to Canada the worldly 
motive of gain. The fur trade at Montreal, as well as at Que- 
bec, was accepted as the chief end and aim of colonial enterprise. 
Every one, from the governor down, was suspected, and probably 
justly, with having a part in it; and the struggle between the 
monopolies and the irregular traders provided voluminous charges 
and counter charges, freighting every ship returning to France. 
The church revenues were increased by it, its privileges were be- 
stowed as charities to widows and orphans, and sold profitably 
for their benefit. The result was that the country swarmed with 
couriers des hois, who were the indispensable agents of all who 
engaged in the traffic. But Louis XIV awoke to a new ambi- 

*Franci8 Parkman. 


tion. He had expanded into a great king, and, determined that 
Canada should not be abandoned to a company of merchants, an- 
nounced to his ministry that a new France should be added to 
the old. Under this new policy, in 1665, the royal patron sent 
out soldiers, settlers, horses, sheep and cattle, and young women 
for wives. 


The old regiment of Carignan-Salieres was the first regiment 
of regular troops ever sent to America by the French govern- 
ment. As out of its roll of officers there came Francis Morgan de 
Vinsenn^, from whom the city of Vincennes derived its name, 
the history of this corps will not be without interest. It was 
raised in Savoy by the Prince of Carignan, in 1644, and was 
soon employed in the service of France on the side of -the king, at 
the battle of Porte St. Antoine, in the wars of the Fronde. After 
the peace of the Pyrenees, the Prince, unable longer to support 
the regiment, gave it to the king, whereupon it was incorporated 
into the French armies. In 1664 it distinguished itself as part 
of the allied force of France in the Austrian war against the 
Turks. The next year, incorporated, it was consolidated with the 
fragment of a regiment formed of Germans, the whole placed 
under the command of Col. de Sali^res and oi'dered to America. 
Fifteen heretics were discovered in its ranks and quickly con- 
verted. Mother Mary, of the Incarnation, an Ursuline super- 
ioress, undertook to enlist them as new crusaders, and soon 
"made fully five hundred take the scapulary of the Holy Vir- 
gin."* Thus equipped and instructed, each soldier became more 
than an arm of the king — -he was an apostle. 


The fatherly care of the king sought to do still more for his 
colony. He wished to form a Canadian noblesse, and to this end 
stimulated marriages among ofiicers and others of the better sort 
by royal bounties. This care went farther. Bounties were 
offered on children. By decree of council it was ordered "that 
all inhabitants of the said country of Canada who shall have liv- 
ing children, to the number of ten, born in lawful wedlock, not 

♦Kelations of Jesuits, 1665. 


being jM'iests, monks or nuns, shall each be paid out of the mon- 
eys sent by his majesty to the said country a pension of 300 livres 
a year, and those who shall have twelve children a pension of 400 
livres."* Still another Canadian policy is worthy of review. 
The better protection of Montreal from the incursions of the sav- 
age Iroquois, led to a division of the lands along the Richelieu 
from its mouth to a point above Cliambly into large seigniorial 
grants, which were apportioned among several officers of the reg- 
iment of Carignan, who, in their turn, granted out the land to 
the soldiers. The officer thus became a kind of feudal chief, and 
the whole settlement a permanent military cantonment. The 
seignior, in a few cases, made grants of the soil which he had re- 
ceived gratuitously from the crown to other seigniors inferior 
in the feudal scale, and they granted in turn to their vassals, the 
hahUants or cultivators of the soil.f The seignior held by the 
tenure of faith and homage, the hahitani by the inferior tenure 
en censive. The office of commander carried with it, at all such 
cantonments, more than seigniorial powers over the ungranted 
adjacent territory; it conferred upon the officer the right to grant 
in the name of the crown in pprppfuam the fee, to those desiring 
to become settlers, to small places for homesteads, and to allot to 
all such in common sufficient fields for tillage, and others likewise 
in common for pasturage; These grants once made, and settle- 
ments so established, over all, regulating contracts, tenures, inher- 
itances, heirships and successions, was a vague civil code called 
the Coniume de Paris. As seignior of the lands acquired, often 
from evacuation by the Indians, more frequently by grants for 
favor, the military officer in command exercised judicial powers, 
from whose decrees, in grave matters, there was, however, au 
appeal to the commune, the whole of the adult male population 
of the district as a jury. And even still beyond, to the governor 
of the Province, the litigant might carry his grievance. ;|: 

In strict feudalism, land ownership conferred nobility; but 
this was changed in Canada. The king and not the soil was the 
parent of honor. So to provide a nobility, a gentry, for his 

*Edits et Ordoiinances I, 67. 

'fProjet de Eeglemenl fail par MM. de Tracy et Talon, January 24, 16G7. 

X\ have the record of such an appeal from this Post to Bienville, governor of Louisiana, 
April, \li2.— Author. 


beloved colony, Louis honored the officers of the regiment Carig- 
nan, many of whom were of the gentilhomme of old France, and 
others selected fi-om time to time, with titles. Wherever the col- 
onist settled beyond the borders, whatever had lured him to the 
interior, business of the crown, hope of gain in the fur trade, 
zeal for the propagation of the faith, it was as impossible for him 
to divest himself of any one of these impulses, and to rid himself 
of the influence of these laws and customs, as to suddenly forget 
his beloved language. 

The Sieure Juchereau was fi-om the Cote La Salle on the St. 
Lawrence, a regular trader bearing a permit to establish a ti-ade 
npon the river St. Jerome. Not even the faintest trace of his com- 
panions beyond naming three of them, except that Leonardy was 
in command at the Posie cle Oubache, preceding Vinsenne, can 
now be found. 


The Indians, soon after the arrival of the whites, conceded 
ground for the "new village upon the bank of the stream from 
the lower line of their village (Broadway Street) to the low 
lands."* " The fort," probably a palisade, formed of stakes 
planted in the earth leaning outward, enclosing a log magazine 
buried in the sand; a storehouse constructed poiteau en icrre 
(posts in the ground) with the interstices filled with mortar 
toughened by the long prairie grass, and a few rude sheds, or 
huts of bark, soon arose into the nucleus, around which has 
gathered all of our modern city, and at whose gates armed con- 
tests between nations have adjusted boundaries, created States, and 
determined the political institutions of mighty races and popula- 

*Bonneau, quoted bj Bishop Brute, first Bishop of Vineennes. 



The Foet and the Mission at Vincennes from 1703 to 1767— 
The Indian's Manitou and Religious Obsbkvances— The First 
Church at Vincennes— Regal Policies— The Western Company 
and the Indian Trade— Francois Morgan De Vinsenne— The 
Chickasaw Campaign— The Torture of Vinsenne— St. Ange 
Belle Rive— Vincennes in 1767— BraddockV Defeat— English 
Government in the West— Demands of Gen. Gage. 

THE Wabash, long only a pathway for the explorer, by the 
year 1710 had become a highway, over which were transported 
the commodities of exchange between Europe and the forests. 
Annual journeys to dispose of peltries collected and to secure the 
simple goods demanded in Indian barter, called into existence an 
employment in harmony with the roving disposition of the 
Canadian, and led to rapid increase in the population nominally 
inhabiting the post of Juchereau. The life of license, the free- 
dom from the conventional restraints of more refined society and 
the quick approximation of one race to the manners of the other, 
led to marriages with Indian girls, at which there was neither 
priest or civil magistrate. In his contemplative hours the devout 
son of the church longed to have his children, born of such unions, 
baptized and made Christians. Neither had he entirely lost his 
zeal to be counted an instrument in the conversion of the heathen. 
Under these emotions he invoked the company of the priest at 
every place where he even temporarily tarried. November 9, 
1712, Father Marest, a Jesuit at the mission of the Immaculate 
Conception, called Kaskaskia, wrote to Father Germon, of the 
same company: "The French having lately established a fort on 
the river Wabash, demanded a missionary, and Father Mermet 
was sent to them."* 

The conversion of the Indians was the prime motive of the 
zealous Jesuit, and while at the post he labored unceasingly to 

*Z>5 Francois itvint itabU un fort aur lejleure Oubache its demanderpni un miasionaire ; et le Pert 
Mermet leur fait enoye. Le Pere Orut devoir travailler a la cenvf-rsier d^s Mascuvtins qui avoienl faiCun 
village suT les hordes dumeme fleure &est unenalion Indian qui extends la langue Illinois." Lettres EdifanU 


that end. Thoroughly familiar with Indian character, he sotight 
a discussion with their chief medicine man in the presence of the 
whole tribe, that he might confound him in the meshes of logic 
and win his dupes from idolatry to the true faith. 


The Indian priest or medicine man worshiped the Manitou 
of the buffalo, which he asserted was the master of health, and 
the great healer of disease. After leading him on insensibly to 
the avowal that it was not the buffalo, but the Manitou or spirit 
of the buffalo (which was under the earth, and animated all the 
buffaloes) he worshiped, the Father asked, if other beasts, the bear 
for instance, worshiped by some of his nation, were not equally 
inhabited by a Manitou, which was under the earth? "Without 
doubt," said the Indian. " If this is so," the missionary rejoined, 
"men ought to have a Manitou within them." "Nothing more 
certain," said the grand medecine. " Ought not that to convince 
you," replied the priest, "that you are not very reasonable ? For if 
man upon the earth is master of all animals, if he kills them, and 
eats them, does it not follow that the Manitou which inhabits him 
must necessarily have a mastery over all the other Manitous? 
Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou of the 
bear and buffalo?" "This reasoning," says the Father "dis- 
concerted the charlatan, but," he adds, " this was all the effect it 

A severe malady broke out in the Indian village during the 
Father's sojourn, and the followers of the great medicine sought 
by costly sacrifices and din of prayers to drive away the plague. 
Assembling in front of the fort they sacrificed thirty dogs, one 
for each day the pest bad lasted, and with the bodies of their 
slain pets hoisted upon poles, paraded the boundaries of the 
afflicted village, dismally lamenting their misery. As the malady 
continued they at last appealed to the Frenchman to implore his 
God to interpose. Mermet prayed and ceased not his interces- 
sions, and entered their stricken homes and nursed their sick for 
many weeks ; but in that epidemic, more than half of the good 
Father's flock of rescued heathens died. The baptized victims of 
that terrible visitation, laid away by the hands of this loving 
priest, are sleeping in the old cemetery of St. Francis Xavier. 



Upon the square of ground to the southeast and separated 
from the fort by a narrow street, afterward designated as Eue Cal- 
vary, Father Mermet erected a church. In this rude building, 
without other floor than the earth, lighted by an opening in the 
roof, warmed by fires built after the manner of the camp in the 
central aisle, adorned with a rude print of St. Francis, the mys- 
tery of the Incarnation was taught, and the comforting sacraments 
of the church administered fij-st in the present great State of 
Indiana. How long Father Mermet remained in charge of the 
church he had here dedicated to St. Francis Xavier cannot be 
determined, but that he and Marest continiied to visit this post as 
late as 1730, is probable, from the statements in the church records 
at Kaskaskia. It is probable however, that Mermet returned to 
Canada with Juchereau, as he officiated at the mission at the Sault 
Ste. Marie, whither Juchereau repaired in 1719. 


The regiment Carignan-Salit-res distributed throughout the 
interior of the colonies trained oflicers, educated to command and 
accustomed to administering the affairs of isolated posts. And 
now when the policy of the king aimed at the union of the posses- 
sions on the gulf coast with those upon the St. Lawi-ence, by a 
cordon of military establishments, along the waters constituting 
the route between these two borders,' this regiment was called upon 
to furnish the comman dants for these stations. Under this ambitious 
project, the commerce of all New France (Canada) and New 
Mexico (Louisiana), was granted to Anthony Crozat, "counseller, 
secretary of household, crown and revenue " by letters of Sep- 
tember 14, 1712. In a few years thereafter Juchereau retired 
fi'om the Wabash to the lakes, and Pierre Leonardy, as the agent 
of Crozat, had charge of the fur trade upon the lower Wabash. 
Upon the death of Louis XIV, in the year 1717, Crozat surren- 
dered his grant to the crown of France. 


In August of that year, the province of Louisiana was ceded 
to the Western Company, an organization created by the famous 


banker, John Law. A new government was formed; an edict 
issued to collect and transport settlers into the valley of the Mis- 
sissippi ; the site for a central town was selected ; M. de Broisbrant 
was sent to the Illinois, and the settlement at New Orleans 
began. Over 800 French immigrants were brought into the 
colonies in the two succeeding years. Keports of the finding 
of rich mines of silver and gold, and even pearl fisheries, near 
Kaskaskia were spread abroad, and this tide of immigration 
fi-om the Old World was largely poured into the interior. In 1719 
the Western Company obtained from the crown of France the 
exclusive right to trade with the East Indies, China, and the 
South Seas, and assumed, in consequence, the name of la Com- 
'pagnie cles Indies; and having by stories of fabiilOus riches in 
mines and fisheries lured large numbers of laborers, peasants and 
artisans fi-om France, the directors endeavored to create a trade 
in Louisiana by stimulating agricultui-e. The agents of the 
company at each station were supplied with seed, and instructed 
to offer bounties for the production of rice, tobacco and indigo; 
and to relieve the settler of the severer toil, negroes were im- 
ported and sold on a long credit for sums payable in rice, tobacco 
and indigo grown in the province. Good, merchantable tobacco, 
in leaves or rolls, by decree of council September 2, 1721, were 
to be purchased by the company at the rate of 25 livres (about 
$5) per 100 pounds. In the same decree the inhabitants are 
urged not to. neglect the manufacture of silk, and to set out mul- 
berry trees upon their plantations that they may increase until 
the population will justifj^ the manufacture of silk, ilerchandise 
imported from France, it was provided, should be sold "at Illi- 
nois at 100 per cent advance on the French invoice price. Wine 
shall be sold at 125 livres per hogshead; brandy at 120 livres per 
barrel; and the half casks and quarter casks in proportion." In 
March, 1724, Louis XV published an exhaustive ordinance for 
the better government of Louisiana. The Jews were banished; 
slaves were educated in the apostolic Catholic religion and bap- 
tized. All other religious rites than those of the Catholic 
Church were prohibited. Sundays and holidays were scrupulous- 
ly observed; the marriage of blacks with whites was forbidden; 
children springing from marriages between slaves were the slaves 


of the owner of the mother, and the status of the mother and not 
of the father determined whether the children were fi-ee or slave ; 
markets were regulated, and a comprehensive slave code was 
established. On the 10th of April, 1732, the Company of the 
Indies surrendered their charter, France resumed the govern- 
ment of Louisiana, and its charge was entrusted to the Depart- 
ment of Marine. 


In May, 1712, at the instigation of the English interests in 
New York, a desperate attempt was made to destroy the fort near 
Detroit. Two villages of the Mascoutins and Outaganires had 
been established and fortified within pistol shot of the French gar- 
rison. The people determined to annihilate the post, and called 
to aid two large bands to help them. On the 13th of May Francois 
Morgan DeVinsenn^ arrived with seven or eight French. That 
night a Huron came into the fort, and announced that the Potta- 
wattomie war chief desired to counsel with the French, and would 
meet them in the old Huron fort. Vincenne went over and was 
told that 600 men from the villages upon the St. Jerome would 
soon arrive to help the garrison. Upon Yinsenne's return Dubuis- 
son, the commander, at Once closed the fort, the chaplain per- 
formed divine service, and all was put in readiness for a siege. 
The next day Dubuisson ascended a bastion and casting his eyes 
toward the woods saw the army of the nations of the South issu- 
ing from it. They were the Illinois, the Missouries, the Osages 
and other nations yet more remote.* The battle began at once be- 
tween these allies of the French and thfeir Mascoutin enemies. After 
four days the Mascoutins surrendered, and all but their women 
and children were slain. The loss of the allies was sixty Indians 
killed and wounded and seven French wounded. The enemy 
lost 1,000. 


For gallant conduct at this siege de Vinsennd was restored to 
a rank forfeited by a previous disobedience of orders, and pro- 
moted to a general command for the king in the Illinois, and sent 
by M. de Vandriel, the governor of Canada, to Sault Ste. Marie, at 

*Dubuiseon'8 Narrative, page 9. 


which place and Michillimacinac, he remained until 1732, when, 
under the order of Longueville, "for the king," he repaired to the 
command of the "Posie des Oubache de Leonardy." Vinsenne at 
once began the enlargement of the fortifications and the repair 
of the old palisade defenses, extending the line north to about 
Main Street of the present city, and along Eue St. Louis (First 
Street, and Eue Calvary (Bienville) to Eue de Perdupleur (of the 
Yost) now Barnet Street, and to the river bank, and mounting 
small cannon transported from Quebec. The settlement at Oui- 
tenon (Lafayette), made in 1720, was now broken up and the in- 
habitants removed to the post. 


In 1736 Vinsenne, in obedience to orders from M. D'Artagette, 
led his command from this post to engage in the war with the 
Chickasaws. The plan of the campaign required a force under 
Bienville to operate from the South, in conjunction with the 
troops under Vinsenne, who was to descend the Mississippi. 
The troops under Bienville were delayed, and Vinsenne, without 
waiting for their arrival, commenced hostilities by attacking and 
destroying some small villages inhabited by the hostile Indians. 
The Chickasaw warriors soon assembled in considerable numbers 
and defeated their assailants. About forty Frenchmen and eight 
of their Indian allies were killed. Vinsenn^ and four of his 
comrades, among them being Father Senat, pastor at St. Francis 
Xavier, were taken prisoners and burnt at the stake. Charlevoix 
learned afterward from an Indian, who was a prisoner at the time 
of the torture but afterward escaped, that M. de Vinsenn^ might 
have escaped, but preferred to die with his men, "whom he ceased 
not with his last breath to exhort to behave worthy of their re- 
ligion and their country." Father Meurin, probably the priest 
in charge of the church of St. Francis Xavier, succeeding Senat, 
without a line of explanation which has been preserved, but cer- 
tainly a beautiful and fit tribute to the heroism of this early mar- 
tyr, as early as 1717, inscribes his church records "done at Post 
de Vincennes." And after this almost unknown hero, whose 
ashes were scattered by the Avinds that fed the savage fires of 
torture in an Arkansas forest, this city, so prominent in the desti- 
nies of our nation in after years, derived its name. 



Not until after tlie war broke out between England and 
France, in 1744, so far as ascertainable, was any successor desig- 
nated to command at Vincennes. After that event, St. Louis 
St. Ange Belle Bive, was ordered from Fort Chartres on the 
Mississippi, eighteen miles from Kaskaskia, to take up the com- 
mand on the Wabash. This war ended by the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1748, and made no change iu the life and events in 
the great forests. After the treaty of peace St. Ange enlarged 
the church and procured at his own expense a bell (still retained 
in the upper gallery of the present Cathedral), tore away a por- 
tion of the old fortifications, and opened two new streets ; one, St. 
Honore (Second Street), led from the rear of the church to St. 
Peter's (now Broadway) at the lower line of the Indian village. 
He began to systematically apportion the lands and grant village 
lots to inhabitants, and appears to have organized a schooR'* As 
a specimen of the character of grants, and the quaint brevity of 
description, one of February 3, 1760, is here transcribed :f 

"Nous Giioitai/ie Oom'naiuliiiit pour le R>i an paste Vincennes Certifious 
avan consede an Sieure Antoine. Drouet da Richardville un JBinplacement de- 
vingt-cinq teises feu tout bordere a faces Rue Valearie, et autre Rue de perdu- 
pond (.'). Fait audo le iroia diem Februaire Mil. Sept. cent, soixante. 

"St. Ange." 

The policy of St. Ange led to the collection of several tribes 
of the Miamis, notably the Piankashaws and Pottawattomies, into 
villages about Vincennes;. and, as a measure for their better pro- 
tection, obtained a grant or concession to the French people of a 
large tract of land at that point. His interest in the welfare of 
the savages, whom he sought to bring under the civilizing in- 
fluences of church and state, led to the establishment and pro- 
mulgation of a code for the government of the villages, which re- 
pressed gambling, drunkenness and loitering, and encouraged in- 
dustry and piety by systems of punishment and rewards. Holi- 
days, or recesses fi-om irksome labor, were provided, and innocent 
games and amusements introduced to supply the place of seasons 

*Bonneau, quoted by Brute . 

tWe, captaia commiDdinffforthe kins at Post Vincennes, certify tliat there is conceded to 
Sieure Antoine Drouel dcRiciiardvilie, a lot tweutr-five yards on each face, bordering Kue Cal- 
vary street, on the other the "Street of the Lost" (?). Made on the third day of Fei>ruary, seven- 
teen hundred and sixty. St Ange. 


of debauch and contests of vice and cruelty so ingrained into the 
Indian character. New families — the Eichardvilles, Mellettes, 
Duboises, Brouillettes, Cardinals and Bouchies were induced to 
remove fi-om the settlements about the Isle St. Joseph and 
take up their abode at Vincennes. Gamelin and La Croix 
came from Montreal, while Quebec sent out Querrez, Lang- 
lois and Racine. The cultivation of the soil and the man- 
ufacture of salt at Saline Springs were objects of special 
solicitude to the commander; and that there might be less 
excuse for not planting grain, he caused the construction of a 
mill, after the manner in Holland (a wind-mill) ; and to afford 
facilities for the condensation of salt, presented the village with 
suitable kettles, which they were to transport to the springs. As 
early as 1767 Col. Croghan, a British ofScer, descending the 
Ohio from Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) being made a prisoner at the 
mouth of the Wabash at the hands of a party of Pottawattomies, 
and brought to Vincennes, in his diary of the journey wi-ites: 
"June 15th.' We set out very early, and about one o'clock came 
to the Oubache, within six or seven miles of Port Vincent. On 
my arrival there I found a village of about ninety French fami- 
lies, settled on the east side of this river, being one of the finest 
situations that can be foiind. The country is level and clear, and 
the soil very rich, producing wheat and tobacco. I think the lat- 
ter preferable to that of Maryland or Virginia." This writer, 
however, looked at the inhabitants who had developed this ex- 
ceptional agriculture through English spectacles, for he contin- 
ues: "The French inhabitants hereabouts are an idle, lazy peo- 
ple, a parcel of renagades from Canada, and are much worse than 
the Indians. They took a secret pleasure at our misfortunes, 
and the moment we arrived they came to the Indians exchanging 
trifles for their valuable plunder. As the savages took from me 
a considerable quantity of gold and silver in specie, the French 
traders extorted 10 half Johannes from them for one pound of 
Vermillion."* The art of tidiness in their homes and the habit 
of personal cleanliness was often the subject of discourse and 
lecture by the provident commandant. Count C. F. Volney, at 
his visit in 1796, remarked the pleasure to the eye the neat 

rnal of UeoIogy and Natural Science, Philadel- 


white houses gave after the long feast of green through the 
solitary woods.* 


Protected by a numeroiis nation of faithful allies from the 
incursions of the Iroquois, far south of the path of the deadly 
Sioux, the French at Vincennes lived a life of peace and content- 
ment. But eastward of the mountains there slowly arose a cloud, 
destined to pour out its, storms of war, to strike, with the light- 
nings of battle, the beloved ensign of the lilies from above the 
bastions of Vincennes, where it had so long signified the glory 
and splendor of La Belle, France, and leave, in its place, the red 
cross of St. George, as a taunt and reproach. The people of the 
English colonies regarded their Canadian neighbors with bitterest 
enmity. Their very name suggested blazing dwellings, children 
snatched from mothers' arms to be immured in convents and 
trained up in the abominations of Popery. The English settler 
in Vermont heard, with a shudder, the evening gun of Fort Fred- 
erick, fired by his intruding enemy, and retained the misunder- 
standing which arose out of the cession of Acadia, under the 
treaty of Aix la Chapelle. 

In the spring of 1753 French troops crossed Lake Erie and 
threw up fortifications at the point of Presque Isle, sending out 
parties of occupation to the northern branches of the Ohio. The 
next spring Capt. Trent, at the head of a company of Virginia 
backwoodsmen, crossed the mountains and began to build a fort 
at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny where Pitts- 
burgh now stands, Avhen suddenly they found themselves sur- 
rounded by a host of French and Indians, who with sixty batteaux 
and 300 canoes had descended from Le Boeuf and Venango. The 
English upon being ordered to evacuate the spot withdrew. 
Meanwhile Washington, then but a youth, with another party of 
backwoodsmen, was advancing from the borders; hearing of 
Trent's disaster he resolved to fortify himself on the Monon- 
gahela, and hold his ground until the arrival of succor. The 
French sent out a party, under M. Jttmonville, to watch his move- 
ments, but in the darkness of a stormy night, Washington sur- 

*View3 of America. 


prised them as they lay in a rocky gorge, killed the officer and 
captured the whole detachment, and then retired to his intrench- 
ments at Great Meadows. Here he was assaulted by 900 French 
and Indians under the command of the brother of the slain 
Jumonville. After a day and night of hard fighting, terms were 
agreed upon, under which Washington crossed the mountains, 
leaving the disputed territory in the possession of the French. 

In 1755 a fleet, sailing from Cork with English troops, under 
command of the famous Braddock, gained its destination in 
safety. Not so with a French vessel from Brest, freighted with 
munitions of war and a body of soldiers under Baron Dieskau, who 
suddenly found themselves under the guns of an English vessel 
belonging to the squadron of Admiral Boscawen. -'Are we at 
peace or war?" demanded the French commander. A broadside 
from the Englishman was the only answer, and the Frenchman 
struck his colors. 

beaddock's defeat. 

News of these two contests soon found its way into every 
French village in all New France, and preparations for hostilities 
upon an extended scale at once began. " Thus."' says Dr. Francis 
Parkman, " began that memorable war which, kindling among the 
forests of America, scattered its fires over the kingdoms of Europe 
and the sultry empire of the Great Mogul; the war made glori- 
ous by the heroic death of Wolfe, the victories of Frederic, and 
the exploits of Olive; the war which controlled the destinies of 
America, and was first in the chain of events which led on to her 
Revolution with all its vast and ixndeveloped consequences."' By 
the 8th of July, 1755, the French had gathered about Fort 
DuQuesne the hordes of the forest, from the Wabash under the 
Turtle, to the Mississippi and the lakes under Pontiac; from 
beyond the Father of Waters, gathered Miamies. Hurons. 
Ottawas, Objibwas, Delawares and Caughnawagas, interspersed 
with Frenchmen, from every fort from Chartres to Detroit. 
In the forests lay the armies of England, commanded by 
Braddock; with Gage, "who, twenty years later, saw his routed 
battalions recoil in disorder from before the breastwork on 
Bunker Hill;" with Gates, the future conqueror of Burgoyne; 


with one destined to a higher fame — ^George Washington. 
An ambush planned by Beaujeu, a captain in the garrison, 
commanded by Countrecouer, demolished the English army 
and made Braddock's field England's humiliation. But this 
victory of the French was never again repeated in America. 
Disaster attended their arms until, upon the plains of Abrahain, 
all Canada capitulated to British power. The treaty of Paris of 
1763 ended the French dominion in Canada. The consummation 
of this bitter fate for the western posts, by actual occupancy, 
was committed to Maj. Robert Rogers, a native of New Hamp- 
shire, who commanded the Provincial Rangers. 


From some cause this formality was delayed at Vincennes 
until 1766, when Lieut. Ramsey, of the Forty-second Regiment 
of British troops, displaced the banners of France from above 
the old fort, and into the hands of St. Marie Racine, for the 
people, were committed the " white lilies," which had so long 
signalized their home and their country. Under this new com- 
mander the life of the villager underwent but little change. 
The fort was repaired, greatly strengthened, and soon renamed 
Sackville. But trade, gossip, and long jaunts, even journeys to 
New Orleans, 1,500 miles away, to talk with friends, being not 
uncommon^ went on as usual. 


The Indian allies, who had tasted victory with the French at 
Braddock's defeat, and shared the disaster at Quebec, encour- 
aged by the overthrown French, developed a great leader in 
Pontiac, who sought by a secret blow, struck in concert at Vin- 
cennes, Fort Wayne, Detroit, and other points, to destroy the 
English settlements in the West. Foiled by treachery this great 
organizer, undaunted, set out from Vincennes to rally the Indians 
of Illinois and Missouri to his standard for another attack upon 
the English. Alone, at night, in the great woods of the Missis- 
sippi bottoms, as he bent over his camp fire, he was assassinated 
by an Indian who had prowled upon his trace for days, at the 
instigation of British gold. 



English power now began to make alliances with the Indian 
nations, and especially with the mighty tribes lying about 
Superior and northern Michigan. Belts of wampum and medals 
with the sovereign's likeness accompanied by speeches of amity 
and friendship, were scattered fi-om the Ohio to the head-waters 
of the Mississippi, and soon produced councils, treaties and com- 
pacts without number. Trade was not suffered to decline, and 
reversing the policy of the French, who sought to interdict the 
brandy trade, the English silenced all qualms of conscience by 
contemplating the immense gains it afforded, and abolished all 
restrictions upon its Sale. Soon, about each English fort, was 
gathered the scum of the savage population, to be near the " fire- 
water," and ready to earn by any act (no matter how revolting) of 
treachery and cruelty, a sip from the white man's brandy flask. 
This opening of trade without restrictions brought hither a flock 
of traffickers — -many like M. Graeter, Francis Vigo and M. 
Chatteau, honorable and enterprising merchants, but too many 
were unscrupulous, and void of all sense of restraint. By the 
year 1772 the central authorities began to look after his majesty's 
subjects in the AVest, and upon the 22d day of April, 1772, 
Thomas Gage, styling himself "lieutenant-general of the king's 
armies, colonel of the Twenty-second Begiment, general com- 
manding in chief all of his majesty's forces in North America," 
from his official residence in New York, addressed a proclamation 
to the inhabitants of the West. The proclamation begins by 
reciting " that many persons, contrary to the positive orders of 
the king, have undertaken to make settlements beyond the 
boundaries fixed by the treaties made with the Indian nations; 
and a great number of persons on the river Oubache, are leading 
a wandering life without government and without laws. Present 
orders are given,"' then concludes this document,, "to all those 
who have established themselves on the Oubache, whether at St. 
Vincent or elsewhere, to quit those countries instantly and with- 
out delay, and to retire, at their choice, into some one of his 
majesty's colonies." This proclamation arrived at Vincennes on 
the 1st of September following, and having been rendered into 
the French language, was read in the church by the priest Pierre 


Gibbeault. On the 14th of the same month St. Marie and fourteen 
other citizens, in behalf of the French inhabitants of Vincennes, 
dispatched their reply. They therein "deny that we are leading 
a wandering life, without law and without government. Our 
settlement is of seventy years standing, and we hold titles to our 
lands by grants from his Christian majesty, the king of France." 
This letter from the French people was laid before Gen. Gage 
in April, 1773, who proceeded to answer it by expressing surprise 
at the claims it asserted, which he would "cause to be transported 
to the feet of his majesty. In the- meantime," he adds, "I have 
to demand, without delay, the name of every inhabitant at Vin- 
cennes and its neighborhood, and by what title each one claims." 
But before this census could be taken, before the "numbering of 
the people " demanded could be accomplished, the Stamp Act and 
the tax on tea had made stirring times for "the king's officers and 
troops," far from the pleasant homes and peaceful haunts of the 
ancient French settlers upon the Wabash. 


The Colony from 1767 to 1779— British Eule— George Rogers 
Clark— His Dream of Empire— The First Filibustering Expe- 
dition—The Second Scheme of Conquest— DTescription of Fort 
Sackville— The Subjugation of Kaskaskia— The Movement 
UPON Vincennes— The British Occupation— Gemeralship of 
Clark— Investment of Fort Sackville— Correspondence Be- 
tween the British and American Commanders— The Capitula- 

A COLONY will not long remain separated from the parent 
stock, until it exhibits a peculiar and distinct character. At 
the seat of its origin, men and customs may slowly vary, in the 
colony occur developments, vast in their consequences, changing, 
often within a single generation, instincts and race peculiarities 
transmitted by inheritance through many centuries. The common- 
wealth of Oliver Cromwell was supplanted without difficulty by 
the restored monarchy: not all England could have reared a throne 
in her colonies after the battl6 of Bunker Hill. The French in- 


habitants of Vincennes, and their neighbors on the Mississippi, 
had little resemblance to the gay and frivolous Frenchmen of 
Louis XIV; and while around the old ancestral towns, his kins- 
men yet bent in awe at a syllable from the king, the Frenchman 
of the New World looked royalty in the face without pallor, and 
without servility demanded his rights. As early as 1773 these 
people maintained their agent in London (Daniel Blinn), and 
through him laid before Lord Dartmouth, a protest against the 
proposed exercise of power over them by the crown, in language 
of as lofty independence and just indignation as that contained 
in the immortal Declaration in Congress three years later. 


On the 19th of November, 1752, in the old county of Albe- 
marle, in the State of Virginia, was born George Kogers Clark. 
Let it be said in most patriotic reverence, as Washington 
achieved the title Father of his Country (and his name shall be 
forever adorned with that splendor), Clark, by deeds of valor 
and counsels of wisdom and prudence ; by braver acts ; by the grasp 
of vaster designs; am id the sufferings from greater privations; by 
generalship of surpassing brilliancy; and by an administrative 
policy never equaled, won the right to be called the Father of the 
West. In 1775 he entered Kentucky. It was the era of new 
governments, and it was Clark's purpose to erect an independent 
State out of the territory lying west of the Blue Ridge. And even 
after the great domain he had carved from Britain was irrevoca- 
bly joined to the Republic, this dream of a separate empire in the 
Mississippi Valley tormented him with its sublimity and swayed 
him by its magic. 


In October, 1786, he conceived the project of invading the 
Spanish possessions west of the Mississippi, and to that end en- 
listed over 100 infantry and a company of artillery at Vincennes, 
under the immediate command of Valentine Thomas Dalton. 
John Rice Jones was detailed from the militia to act as commis- 
sary, and that officer at once began provisioning the garrison by 
impressments from the Spanish merchants at Vincennes. At the 


head of a guard Dalton proceeded at night to the store-house of 
Laurient Barzedon, a Spaniard, upon the corner of Second and 
Broadway Streets, and demanded through an interpreter to be 
admitted into his cellar. The Spaniard asked what he wanted. 
Dalton answered he was sent by the commanding officer to search 
his cellar. The Spaniard lighted a candle and conducted the com- 
pany through his premises. A guard was left over the stores that 
night, and upon the succeeding day, there was transfered to Fort 
Patrick Henry, upon First and Church Streets, $4,000 worth of 
goods consisting of peltry, wine, tafia (a West India compound 
of rum and syrup), honey, tea, coffee, sugar, cordial, French 
brandy, dry goods and powder. Clark dispatched Maj. Francis 
Bosseron to the Illinois to inflame the inhabitants against the 
Spanish, and to justify his seizure of property " upon the ground 
of reprisal for certain alleged seizures of American property by 
the Spanish commandant at Natchez. February 28, 1787, the 
council of Virginia disavowed these acts of Clark, and on the 
24th of April succeeding, by a resolution of Congress, the Secre- 
tary of "War was directed to order the commanding officer of the 
troops of the United States on the Ohio to take immediate and 
efficient measures "for dispossessing a body of men who had in 
a lawless and unauthorized manner taken possession of Post Vin- 
cennes in defiance of the proclamation and authority of the 
United States." November 14, 1787, Gen. Josiah Harraar was 
directed by the Secretary of War "to form a post of such 
strength, if in your power, as will be able to prevent the passage" 
of any party with hostile designs out of the United States into 
Spanish territory. Thus ended the first American filibustering 
expedition, the first of those lawless dreams which have since 
made the Antilles and the Peninsula the graves of American 

clabk's second pboject. J.3i80j_G 
But to return to Kentucky. It was then but a hunter's camp, 
and the primitive laws of defense against the savage constituted 
its entire system of government. Neither governors nor courts 
attempted to exercise authority, and each little community felt the 
possession of sovereignty amid a solitude where there was none 
to dispute. During Clark's first visit he was placed in command 


of the irregular militia by a general consent. In the spring of 
1776 he came again, with the intention of taking up his perma- 
nent home. In a few months he invited the settlers to a meeting 
at Harrodstown (now Harrodsburgh), "where matters to their 
interest would be considered." It was Clark's intention to pro- 
pose at that meeting the creation of an independent government, 
but upon the day appointed he was delayed by an accident in 
crossing a stream, which prevented his arrival at Harrodstown 
until late in the afternoon. He then found the assembled settlers 
conducting an election to appoint two delegates to the Virginia 
Assembly. Clark acquiesced in the plan, and remained silent 
concerning his own ambitious projects. The election resulted in 
selecting Clark and Jones as delegates. Upon arriving at Will- 
iamsburg, the seat of government for Virginia, these delegates 
found that the Assembly had arisen, and Clark determined to re- 
main until its next sitting. After various meetings with Gov. 
Patrick Henry and his executive council, Clark received author- 
ity to recruit four companies for the defense of Kentucky. Two 
sets of instructions were delivered to him, the one general, and 
the other directing him to attack the British posts at Vincennes 
and Kaskaskia. Vincennes was at that time — 1778— as large as 
Williamsburg, and mustered 400 militia. The old French 
fort, then known as ■ Sackville, had been greatly strengthened, 
until it bore to the country, relatively, a position of impor- 
tance equal to that of Fortress Monroe at the beginning of the 
civil war. 


• Upon the river's side, and within forty feet of the water's 
edge, two lines of palisades, reaching twenty feet above the sur- 
face of the earth, constructed of large timbers fi-om the forest, 
planted firmly in the earth, were backed by a line of earthworks 
thrown up about eight feet high, behind which were mounted four 
six-pounders en harbetfe. Along the line of Vigo Street, at right 
angles with the river and crossing First Street, with the principal 
entrance or gateway opening upon the latter highway, protected by 
a ditch, were similar lines of defenses, protected by guns at each 
angle of the same caliber, mounted upon platforms of heavy tim- 
bers. At an elevation of twenty-five feet, at each side of the 


gateway, were swivels, trained to command the approach along 
the street. The entire walls were pierced, at convenient height, 
by a row of port-holes from which musketry could be fired. A 
similar j^alisade, defended by two guns of ten-pound caliber each, 
protected the flanks next to the church, and the rear of the works, 
south of Barnet Street, where were two towers or bastions pierced 
for musketry, was made exceptionally strong against an assault 
by a line of heavy timbers joined tightly together and covered 
with earth. Within the fortification were barracks for 1,000 men, 
a magazine and officers' quarters. 


On the evening of the 23d of June, 1778, Clark's command, 
consisting of four companies, numbering, rank and file, 308, par- 
aded upon Corn Island, at the head of the falls of the Ohio. 
These companies were commanded by Capts. Bowman, Helm, 
Harrod and Dillard. Clark now disclosed his daring designs 
against Post Vincennes and Kaskaskia, and that night a part of 
Capt. Dillard's company, under Lieut. Hutchings, recruited upon 
the Holston, deserted. The nest day, all being in readiness, the 
boats were drawn up a few miles to obtain headway in shooting 
the falls, and moored to the bank, waiting the command to begin 
the voyage. In the afternoon the sun entered a total eclipse, a 
phenomenon inspiring the unlettered and simple backwoods sol- 
dier with terror and awe. Clark says:' "I waited until the mo- 
ment of greatest totality, and then gave the command to cut 
loose." "While the youthful commander was inspired by visions 
of conquest, and led by the hope of immortality from founding a 
State, the sturdy pioneers behind him had fallen into his ranks, 
and now continued to follow his fortunes from far other mo- 
tives. Kaskaskia was founded shortly after the discovery of the 
Mississippi, probably as early as 1G88, and had grown to be a 
capital of civilization and the seat of French power in the north- 
ern valleys of the Mississippi, before the advent of British 
authority west of the Alleghanies. Fort Chartres, within eight- 
een miles of the village, was once the strongest fortress, next to 
Quebec, on the North American continent. Built of stone, thor- 
oughly provided with armament, at a complete cost of 9,000,000 


livi-es/fi'om^its casemates it had power to speak the destiny of the 
soil from the Blue Ridge to the Rocky Mountains, from the Ohio 
to the Lake of the Woods: and only in the despair born of igno- 
rance of strength was the royal signature appended to the treaty 
with England, after the disaster upon the Plains of Abraham, 
whereby this vast domain passed from Latin civilization. 

Chartres had been lapped by the ever shifting Father of Wa- 
ters; her huge stones and hollow engines of war tossed as toys in 
the sport of his waves, while the frail adobe church of the Im- 
maculate Conception, and the wooden Indian council-house, still 
gathered the good and the bad of the painted sons of the forest 
within the gates of this village in greater number than all of her 
distant neighbors. From around this favorite spot, instigated by 
English influences, often by public offers of bounties for scalps 
of American settlers, had gone out war parties, whose screams 
would soon be heard at night around the blazing cabin of the 
Kentucky settler. The di'eam of ambition, the glory of country, 
had fii-ed the heart of the commander, but it was the cry of the 
babe, the white cheeks of the wife, that summoned the guns into 
the ranks. 

Below the mouth of the Tennessee, the flotilla was drawn to 
the northern bank, and the march overland began. Two trap- 
pers, recently from Kaskaskia, were impressed as guides. One 
who professed himself familiar with the country, became con- 
fused and reported himself lost. Clark informed him that he 
suspected treachery, and that unless he found the road which he 
had professed to know of within two hours, he should suffer 
death. The frightened guide fell in a convulsion; the imperturb- 
able commander announced to the suffering man that his "time 
was going on." Presently he arose, and after "circling around 
a few moments found the path." 

It was near sunset of the 4th of July, 1778, while halted in 
a pecan gi'ove about three miles from the village, this little army 
heard the bell tolling the Angelus, announcing to it that a for- 
eign city, under a foreign flag, using a foreign language, garri- 
soned in unknown strength, defended by Great Britain, and suc- 
cored by a wilderness of savages, lay before it. Crossing the 
Kaskaskia in the darkness of the night, Clark sent one division of 


his command to surround the village, while with the other he 
rapidly ascended the slight eminence upon which stood the fort. 
Breaking in the gates, with shouts which were the preconcerted 
signals to the party sent to take possession of the village, Clark 
stood in the presence of the British commander. Gov. Roche- 
blave. "The garrison are my prisoners. Give instant orders to 
destroy no papers or stores, at the peril of your lives," was the 
first salute the English officer received from his midnight in- 
truder. The battalion occupying the town dispersed through 
the several streets, commanding the inhabitants to remain in 
their houses, and answering each qui vice "the long knives, the 
long knives!" At daylight Clark sent out a detachment to ar- 
rest the principal inhabitants, whom he caused to be ironed in 
the presence of their families, and without explanation to be 
brought to the fortifications. In the morning Father Pierre Gib- 
bault waited upon the conquerers to prefer a petition. When 
ushered into the presence of the Americans, who, unshaven, their 
clothing spattered with mud and torn with thorns in their march, 
looked the uncouth ruflians their proceedings had already caused 
the terrified villagers to believe them. He glanced from one to 
another inquiringly. At last he asked, "Who is the commander?" 
"I am," said the youngest-appearing of the group. " What do 
you wish?" The good priest, summoning all his English to his 
aid, said: "By the fortunes of war and through no fault of ours, 
we are your prisoners. Expecting the most rigorous treatment, 
I have come to ask one privilege for these poor people." "What 
is it?" sternly inquired the captor. "In all times of great ca- 
lamity we have been accustomed," answered the Father, "to par- 
take of the sacraments in the church. We request, before taking 
final leave of each other, to be allowed to assemble once more in 
our church." Clark remained silent a few moments, as if con- 
sidering the petition; and then said: "I am not ready to answer 
you yet. Eeturn at noon." The priest retired, and the general 
gave private orders to have the bell rung at noon as usual. At 
the appointed hour the priest, with a- number of the principal 
men of the town, appeared at the fort gate. Just then some awk- 
ward hand' began the ringing of the bell in the manner of an 
alarm. The Father begged to be permitted to return to die with 


his people. "What do you take us for?" exclaimed Clark, "sav- 
ages ? that we could put to death a whole village with its women 
and children? It is to save our wives and families we are here. 
The United States," he continued, "makes no war on any man's 
religion. All are free to worship God according to the dictates 
of their own consciences. Every one is free to go where he 
pleases. Those of you who desire to join the enemy shall have 
safe conduct out of the town ; those who desire to remain shall be 
protected by the whole force of the United States. No sooner 
had they heard this than joy sparkled in their eyes, and they fell 
into transports of joy that really surprised me," wrote Clark to 
George Mason, of Gunston Hall, Virginia. But wherever those 
sublime words of religious tolerance (then first uttered on the 
river whose waters forever after sing them) go around this planet, 
they still bring to the eye "a light never upon sea or land;" 
to the heart a transport of joy not all the revelations which have 
parted the clouds can match. 

That evening the sti-eets were decked with pavilions and fes- 
tooned with garlands of flowers, Gen. Clark was escorted to the 
market place, where, around numerous bonfii'es and illumina- 
tions, the priest, this new-found friend of the States, explained 
the colonies' cause against Great Britain, and there by that savage 
light these sons of St. Louis lifted their hands in the oath of al- 
legiance to the republic of Virginia, beyond the eastern mount- 
ains. All records are challenged to find among our varied 
population a race more thoroughly patriotic, law-abiding and 
faithful than these French inhabitants, won in this midnight 
conquest from beneath the ramparts of an English fort. 


Vincennes still engrossed the thoughts of Clark. He sent 
for Gibbault, and sought information from the priest as to the 
obstacles he miist overcome to reduce that post. The Father as- 
sui-ed him, that although secular matters did not pertain to his 
calling, yet if the General would commit the whole matter to him 
there need be no fui-ther uneasiness, for he might "give them 
such spiritual advice as would do the business." Accordingly 
upon the 1-ith of July, 1778, Gibbault with Dr. La Font as civil 


magistrate, Capt. Leonard Helm, representing the military and 
Moses Henry, interpreter and envoy to the Indians, the peaceful 
reduction of the post was undertaken. This commission was de- 
layed upon the route by the reported presence of a war party of 
Osages, led by Langlade, toward Detroit, and did not arrive at 
Vincennes until the 1st of August. 

Sackville was then garrisoned by the militia under St. Marie 
Kacine. Its magazine was abundantly supplied with munitions 
of war, and all its approaches protected by recently repaired 
defenses. Gov. Abbott had, the month before, thoroughly in- 
spected every part of its equijiment and pronounced it impreg- 
nable against any force likely to be employed against it. He 
had gone to Detroit to assure the military officer in command 
there that with a small detail of troops and such Indian allies as 
could be readily enlisted the rumored demonstrations from the 
Ohio border must prove futile. The armament, size and location 
of the fortress have been described elsewhere. Around it 
clustered nearly 400 houses, of uniform construction, from St. 
Jerome (now Perry) Street to Dubois and more densely fi-om St. 
Peter's (now Broadway) to Church, between St. Honore (Second) 
and St. Louis (First) Streets. The gate of the fort opened into 
St. Louis Street at the present intersection with Vigo ; the church 
stood near the northeast corner of the grounds of the present 
cathedral. On the 6th of August, all being ripe for the coup 
d'etat, Francis Bosseron, a trader residing at Vincennes, to whom 
the priest had imparted an account of what had occurred in the 
Illinois and the purpose of his visit to Vincennes, arose in the 
church at the close of the services, and in the presence of the de- 
tained audience, interrogated the holy father so skillfully con- 
cerning the power of the arms of Virginia and the justice of the 
colonies' cause against England, that all the assembly were at 
once inclined to make fi'iends with this new power. " Then," 
said Bosseron, "why do we delay? Let us show Clark we are 
his friends ; and if Virginia will receive us let us become her sub- 
jects." LaFont announced that he was authorized to accept 
their allegiance, and to pledge them the whole power of the con- 
federate colonies to protect them. Without a word more a roll 
of citizenship was displayed and each adult, attesting his name in 


this American doomsday-book, had apportioned to him and his 
posterity from that time forward the inestimable treasures of civil 
and religious liberty as members of the great republic. Crowd- 
ing around the old altar built by the pious hands of Mermet, 
where Vinsenn(} had knelt, where Senat had prayed, where St. 
Ange had partaken of the sacraments, the " ancient inhabitant" 
repeated after his pastor a vow of fidelity to republican institu- 
tions, which, even under the persecutions of the mad hours of 
political and religious intolerance which have since sometimes 
aiflicted the land, has never waned or broken. The assembly 
with great joy, after electing Helm to command, with di-ums and 
instruments of music marched into the fort and received from its 
willing commander the master keys. In a few hours the glitter- 
ing stars and blazing stripes climbed the bastions of Sackville and 
floated out in the summer air to the astonishment of the Indians, 
who were told that their old father, the French king, had come to 
life again.* 


The surprised Indians soon conveyed an account of the revo- 
lution at Vincennes to the authorities at Detroit. Langlade was 
dispatched to assemble the tribes in the northwest with instruc- 
tions to rendezvous the 1st of March at L' Arbre Crochet. Lieut. - 
Gov. Henry Hamilton began preparations for descending by 
boat from Detroit. In the first week of October, with a company 
of British soldiers under the immediate command of Maj. Hay, 
numbering eighty-four, and 100 Indian allies, he set out for the 
reoccupation of Vincennes, and the desti-uction of Clark at Kas- 
kaskia. Suddenly on the morning of the 6th of December, 
the river was darkened by the fleet of descending batteaux and 
canoes. Capt. Helm and Indian Agent Henry were the sole occu- 
pants of Sackville. "Let us prepare for defense," said Helm. 
"We can make our lives cost them something," replied his com- 
panion. Pressing from the landing up to the fort gate, which 
was swung open to reveal the intrepid soldier within, standing by 
a loaded gun match in hand, the British came to a halt across the 
line of the street. "I demand the surrender of the works,', 

*I have in my possession an account rendered liy Francis Bosaeron against Col. Clarlt for 
stores furnislied and money advanced to tlie garrison in the Huunner of 177S, one item of which 
translated is as follows: "August 8lh paid to Madame Goddare for making the llag, ten livres."— 


Hamilton said. Helm lifted the burning match and answered, 
"By heaven! no man entei's here until I know the terms." "You 
shall have the honors of war," said Hamilton. And, then, as the 
British army, at parade rest, saluted the lowering flag, the officer, 
with his command of one single man, in military precision 
out of the fortifications. 


Clark's position in the Illinois became now untenable. Par- 
ties were sent out by Hamilton to make him a prisoner by sur- 
prise, giving directions for his treatment highly creditable to the 
humanity and generosity of the enemy. The terms of enlistment 
of the troops from Virginia and Kentucky had expired, and their 
places were now to be filled by the new citizens gained from 
conquest. Clark was anxious to hear authentically from Vin- 
cennes. Francis Vigo, a Sardinian by birth, a trader at the town 
of St. Louis, a settlement established by St. Ange Belle Rive, 
after his evacuation of Vincennes, had already rendered inestim- 
able services to the American army at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, at 
the former of which places Vigo had a branch store or trading 
house. When Clark set out from Virginia his sole supply of 
money consisted of £1,200 in Virginia currency. It was kept at 
par only by the personal guarantee of Vigo in the Illinois, and 
Bosseron at Vincennes. 

About the holidays, at the request of Col. Clark, Vigo, with 
one servant, started to ride to Vincennes to obtain information of 
the situation there. At the Embarrass, nine miles west of the 
town, he was made prisoner and taken to the fort, where he was 
kept under strict guard, until upon the demand of the citizens, 
after about two weeks of incarceration, he was liberated upon 
parole " to do nothing inimical to Great Britain pn his way to 
St. Louis." He embarked in a pirogue, and passing down the 
Wabash and Ohio he ascended the Mississippi, passing within a 
few miles of Kaskaskia, to St. Louis, where, without stopping to 
exchange greetings, with any one, he re-embarked and proceeded 
down to Kaskaskia, and communicated to Clark the knowledge of 
the continued fidelity of the inhabitants to the American cause, 
the weakness of the garrison, and that Hamilton was expecting 
Langlade with his Indian forces early in April. 



This news determined Clark at once. He set about raising- 
troops among the villages in the Illinois; and soon the American 
colors waved above more recruiting stations than ever again seen 
in these once populous streets, until eighty-three years had 
brought on its new generations, with undiminished love of the 
Republic. All preparations had been made. A boat manned by 
twenty -five men, armed with four pieces of artillery, taken from 
the fortifications at Kaskaskia, with clothing and provisions, 
had been dispatched to proceed by water down the Mississippi 
and up the Ohio or Wabash to the mouth of White River, where 
it was to meet the land forces upon their march across the 
country. After a solemn absolution at the church and the bless- 
ing of these many banners by the priest, on the afternoon of the 
4th of February, 1779, this little army, numbering 172, crossed 
the Kaskaskia River, and began a march the most memorable for 
its herorism, for its hardships and sacrifices, the most dauntless 
in the courage of it, and the most imjDortant in the cause of inde- 
pendence and £i-eedom, of greater consequences to the destiny of 
the American people, of any that made glorious the period of the 
Revolution. The glory, the majesty of this nation was achieved 
in the West. Histories have all been written on the sea-board. 
There will come a time when the splendor of this conquest shall 
be fully made known to the world, and then Lexington, Bunker 
Hill, Monmouth and even great Yorktown will be seen of less 
consequence than the assault of Vincennes. 

The companies recruited in the Illinois, were commanded by 
Capts. McCarty and Francis Charleville. William Worthington, 
of the Light Horse, had succeeded Capt. Harrod, and Capt. 
Dillard remained in command of Fort Jefferson, at Kaskaskia. 
On the 13th the Little Wabash was reached, which although three 
miles from another stream of that name, was one with it, " the 
flowed water between them being at least three feet deep, and in 
many places four: Being near five miles to the opposite hills. 
# * * This would have been enough to have stoped 
any set of men that was not in the same temper that we was," 
Bays Clark in the letter already quoted from. Three days were 
consumed in crossing the Little Wabash, and in the evening of 


the 17th the low lands of the river Embarrass were reached, be- 
tween which and Vincennes lays a sheet of deep water nine miles 
in width. Passing down the Embarrass on its southwest side, 
the Wabash was reached at the point where the Vincennes and 
St. Francisville road passes nearest the river. The boat with 
provisions and artillery was delayed; game, which had served as 
his sole subsistence upon this march of 240 miles, could not be 
obtained from the watery plain. On the evening of the 23d 
Clark encamped upon the hills to the south of the elevation known 
as Banker Hill, than callel Warrior's Island, and from there 
despatched by the hands of GabrielHanat, whom he had captured 
at the crossing of the Wabash, the following proclamation: 


Gentlemen: Baing now within two miles of your villa<?e with my army, deter- 
mined to take your fort this nii^ht, and not beini^ willing lo surprise you, I take 
this method to request such of you as are true citizens, and willing to enjoy the 
liberty I bring you. to remain still in your houses. And those, if any there be, 
that are friends to the king, will instantly repair to tlie fort and fight like men. 
And if any such as do not go to the fort shall be discovered, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends to llbecty may 
depend on being well treated; an 1 I once more request them to keep out of the 
streets, for every one I tind in arms on my arrival I shall treat him as an enemy. 

G. R. Clark. 

Clark anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the 
town, and in a few minutes could discover by his glasses, some 
stir in every street; great numbers were seen running or riding 
out into the commons to view the invaders. A little before sun- 
set, Clark took up the line of march in full view of these curious 
crowds. The commander felt that he was plunging into certain 
destruction or success — " there was no midway tlioughtof." Across 
the undulating prairie, then filled with long lakes, alternating 
with ridges seven or eight feet higher than the sunken plain, usu- 
ally running in an oblique direction, he slowly and silently moved 
until he reached the elevation just west of the present Catholic 
Cemetery, behind which he halted. As the young Frenchmen in 
the command had decoyed and taken several hunters with their 
horses, while encamped upon Warrior's Island, soldiers were now 
mounted upon those horses, and rode back and forth upon this 
elevation " like officers giving their commands," while the various 
flags, to the number of "ten or twelve pair," presents to the young 


volunteers from the ladies of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Prairie de 
Eoeher, were displayed upon long poles at different points, as if 
to mark separate commands. At dark, Capt. Charleville crossed 
the low ground followed by Willow Street, east of Sixth, and 
moved to the heights, at Ninth and Vigo; Bowman, with McCarthy 
and Worthington, taking a position some 200 yards nearer the 
fort at Sixth and Church. This marching and coiinter-marching 
■was intended to impress the sentries at Sackville with the strength 
of the besiegers, but it entirely failed of its purpose. The confi- 
dent soldiery within Sackville never di-eamed of a fi-eak so mad, 
of a march so impossible, as an assault from the Mississippi at 
such a season, they did not see a single one of these impressive 
maneuvers, nor would the inhabitant, faithful to his vow of alle- 
giance, even hint to the garrison the danger the night would bring 
to it. At about 8 o'clock that night Clark detailed Lieut. Bagley, 
with fourteen selected men, to march directly under the fort and 
open fire upon its port holes. 


At the fii-st fire Charleville quickly moved down and took up 
a position among the houses at the rear of the fort, fi-om whence 
he opened fire on the barracks. Bowman brought the remainder 
of the command to the river bank at the foot of Busseron Street. 
Lieut. Bagley was quickly re-enforced, and the attack was opened 
upon the front, flank and rear of the fortress. The garrison be- 
lieved the firing to proceed from a party of drunken Indians, and 
did not reply. A British soldier was shot down at a port-hole. 
Capt. Helm, who was a prisoner, sitting with Hamilton, suddenly 
leaped to his feet and with an oath exclaimed: "That is Clark." 
Hamilton ordered the drums sounded, and the long roll of alarm 
emptied the barracks of the men. who, passing over the parade 
to reach the port-holes, became a fair mark for Charleville's 
French company, now largely recruited, in spite of Clark's objec- 
tions, by the young men of the village. The boat containing the 
precious stores of ammunition and food still lay somewhere in 
the lower rivers, and the besiegers, famishing for food, were al- 
most without ammunition. But fortunately it had been a short 
time before circulated that all the goods in the town were to be 
taken by Hamilton for the king's use. 


Col. LeGras and Maj. Bosseron had succeeded in burying the 
greater part of their stores of powder and ball. These were now 
produced by their patriotic owners and given to Clark. The In- 
dian chief Tobaccos mustered thirty of his warriors, came to 
Clark, and said: "Let these young men go to the front. Tiioy 
will climb in." Clark thanked him for his friendly disposition, 
and assured him that he was strong enough without assistance; 
that there were a great many Indian, enemies in and near the 
town, and in the darkness confusion was likely to occur; but he 
hoped that the chief would give him his company and counsel 
during the night, which was agreeable to the Indian. 

In the meantime the women were busy cooking a breakfast 
for the hungry Americans, which was the next morning distrib- 
uted in the "street behind the Church, the first food we had 
tasted," says Clark, "for two days." All night long the firing 
continued, the cannon of the fort shattering the houses, but 
almost useless against woodsmen covered by houses, palings, 
ditches, and the banks of the river. The embrasures of their 
cannon had to be frequently shut, for the trained riflemen among 
the besiegers learned from the flash their location, and made the 
working of these guns extremely hazardous. Two of the Amer- 
ican troops were wounded in this night attack, while the enemy 
suffered the loss of seven — three killed and four wounded. The 
besiegers sought to aggravate the garrison into opening these 
port-holes ; if successful, instantly fifty rifles would be leveled at 
the opening. Sometimes an irregular fire, as hot as possible, 
was kept up for a few minutes, and then only a continual scatter- 
ing fire at the ports as usual, and a great noise and laughter im- 
mediately commenced from all parts of the town, as if the firing 
was by parties regularly relieved. Bowman began the entrench- 
ment of his position by a line along Main Street, and prepared 
to blow up the magazine when the artillery should arrive from 
some works constructed on the river bank at Vigo. Capt. La 
Motte, with twenty hostile Indians, hovered about the town try- 
ing to make his way into the fort, to re-enforce Hamilton. Par- 
ties sought to surprise him. A few of his forces were taken, 
among them Maisonville. Two French lads of the village 
brought him down to the intersection of Main and First Streets, 


and tied him in the street, and taking their places behind him 
for a breastwork, opened fire upon the posts. Being discovered 
by an officer, they were ordered to untie their prisoner and take 
him to the guard, which they did. "Bat," says Clark, "they took 
part of his scalp on the way." A little before daylight the 
troops were withdrawn from their positions abaut the fort, except 
a few parties of observation, and these were instructed by Clark 
to make no alarm if La Motte and his party approached, as it 
was the design of Clark to get all the active forces, if possible, 
within the walls. And although the garrison was provisioned for 
a month, and this re-enforcement would count heavily against the 
weak besiegers, he confidently believed he could force a surren- 
der. In ten minutes La Motte and his followers entered the fort 
by ladders flung from the inside. As they mounted the walls, 
the concealed Americans who had witnessed the approach set up 
a shout, which so terrified the re-enforcers, that many of them 
fell to the ground, some inside and some out. Immediately, the 
whole line moved to the assault, and a continual blaze outlined 
the walls in flame, until the rising sun made every part of the 
fort a target, and the use of the cannons through the ports an 
impossibility. At 9 o'clock, while the starving men were being 
fed from the viands at the hands of the village ladies, Clark sent 
a flag with the following letter to Hamilton: 

Sir: — In order to save yourself from the impending storm that now threat- 
ens you, I order j'ou to immediately surrender j'ourself, with all your garrison, 
stores, etc., etc. For if I am obliged to storm, you may depend on such treat- 
ment as is justly due to a murderer. Beware of destroying stores of any kiiid, 
or letters that are in your possession, or hurting one house in town — for, by 
Heavens ! if you do, there shall be no mercy shown you. 

G R. Clark. 

The British commandant returned the following answer: 

Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton begs leave to acquaint Col. Clark that he and his gar- 
rison are not disposed to be awed into any action unworthy British subjects. 

The firing continued until toward evening, resulting in the 
wounding of three others within the fort. At 4 o'clock Hamilton 
sent a flag of truce to Clark with the following proposals : 

Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton proposes to Col. Clark a truce for three days, during 
which time he promises tliere shall be no defensive wnrks carried on in the gar- 
rison, on condition tliat Col. Clark shall observe on his part a like cessation of 
any defensive work; that is, he wishes to confer with Col. Clark as soon as can 
be, and promises that whatever may pass between them two, i.nd another person 


mutually agreed upon to be present, shall remain secret till matters be finished, 
as he wishes that whatever the result of the conference may be, it may tund to 
the honor and credit of each party. If Col. Clark makes a difficulty of coming 
into the fort, Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton will speak to him by the gate. 

February 24, 1779. Henry Hamilton. 

Within three days the delayed boat would certainly arrive, 
yet so confident was Clark of his mastery of the situation that he 
determined to press his present advantage to the utmost. He 
returned the following answer to Hamilton's note: 

Col. Clark's compliments to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton and begs leave to inform 
him that he will not agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering 
himself and garrison prisoners at discretion. If Mr. Hamilton is desirous of a 
conference with Col. Clark, he will meet him at the church with Capt. Helm. 

The conference occurred at the church. Gov. Hamilton and 
Maj. Hay, superintendent of Indian affairs upon the part of the 
British, and Col. Clark and Maj. Bowman, representing the 
American forces, with the prisoner, Capt. Helm, mutually selected 
as a witness. Hamilton produced articles of surrender, providing 
that the officers and men should be permitted to go to Pensacola 
on parole. Clark rejected the articles as a whole, and refused to 
propose any terms except to repeat the demand for an uncondi- 
tional surrender, already made. He said to Hamilton, "Your 
troops have behaved with spirit; they cannot suppose they will be 
worse treated in consequence of it. If you choose to comply with 
my demand, though hard, perhaps the sooner the better. It is in 
vain for you to make any proposition to me ; you must by thia 
time be sensible that the garrison will fall, and we must both 
view all blood spilt in the future by the garrison, as murder. 
My troops are already impatient and demand permission to tear 
down and storm the fort, and in such an event it %vill be out of 
the power of an American ofiicer to save a single man." Capt. 
Helm interJDOsed to soften the terms demanded. Clark said to 
him, " You are a British prisoner, and I doubt whether you can 
with propriety speak on the subject." "He is from this moment 
liberated and may use his pleasure," said Hamilton. "I cannot 
receive him on such terms. He must return to the garrison and 
await his fate," returned Clark. Clark then informed Hamilton 
that hostilities should not be resumed until five minutes after the 
drums gave the alarm. And thereupon the conference was 
declared at an end. A few steps outside of the church, Hamilton 


asked Clark's reasons for refusing to surrender except at discretion. 
Clark replied, "I desire an excuse for putting to death some 
Indian partisans now within the fort. The cries of the widows 
and the fatherless on the fi-ontiers now demand their blood at my 
hands. I will not be so timorous as to disobey the absolute com- 
mands of their authority, which I look upon as little less than 
divine. I would rather lose fifty men than not to empower myself 
to execute this piece of business with propriety. If you choose to 
risk the massacre of your garrison for the sake of these, it is your 
own pleasure. I may take it into my head to send for some of 
those widows to see justice executed." Maj. Hay quickly asked, 
"Pray, sir, who is it that you call Indian partisans?" "Sir," 
replied Clark, "I take Maj. Hay to- be one of the principal." 
Pale and trembling, Hay sank back abashed, while his commander 


From that moment Clark's stern purpose relaxed. Sympathy 
for the gallantry of Hamilton softened the hard fate in store for 
the doomed fort. In the course of the afternoon of the 24th the 
following articles of capitulation were signed: 

I. Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton engages to deliver up to Col. Clark Fort Sackville 
as it is at present, with' all the stores, etc. 

II. The garrison are to deliver themselves as prisoners of war, and march 
out with their arms and 'accoutrements, etc. 

III. The garrison are to be delivered up at 10 o'clock to-morrow. 

IV. Three days time to he allowed the garrison to settle their accounts 
with the inhabitants and traders of this place. 

V. The officers and garrison to be allowed their necessary baggage, etc. 

Signed at Post St. Vincent, 34th of February, 1779. Agreed for the follow- 
ing reasons: The remoteness from succor; the state and quantity of provisions, 
etc.; unanimity of officers and men in its expediency; the honorable terms 
allowed; and, lastly, the confidence in a generous enemy. 

Henry Hamilton, 
Lieutenant- Governor and tiuperintendent. 
Thus fell the strong fortress of Sackville; and on the 25th of 
February, 1770, with all of its dependencies, with all it repre- 
sented in territorial command, since carved into five free and 
independent States, with over 10,000,000 of people, passed to the 
possessions of the United States. Seventy-nine prisoners, twelve 
pieces of artillery and stores of the value of £50,000 fell to the 
captors. The American loss was one killed and three wounded. 
The British had four killed and nine severely wounded. 




S.^CKviLLE— Capture of the English Fleet— Disposal of the 
Distinguished Prisoners— Promotion of Clark and Bowman — 
Defeat of the Delawares— The Establishment of a Court— 
LaBalm's Expedition and Fate— Attack of the Peorias— The 
Pursuit and Defeat— Beautiful Pen-Picture of Vincennes. 

rr^HE ceremonies by which the post of Vinceunes was again 
-L transferred to a foreign power occm-red at 10 o'clock on the 
25th of February, 1779. At that hour two companies, under 
Capts. Bowman and McCarthy, paraded along St. Louis Street on 
the left of the fort gate. The British ensign was slowly hoisted 
upon the staff above Sackville, while the American drums rolled 
a salute to its honor and to the courage of those who had 
defended it. When the drums csased Hamilton ordered the flag 
lowered, and at the head of his command, just outside of the 
fort, stepped up to Clark and presented his sword." Col. Clark, 
at the head of Capts. Williams' and Worthington's companies, 
passed into the gate, followed by the color bearer, Nicholas 
Cardinal. As the Americal flag arose above this stronghold, all 
the fort guns were discharged in salute, followed by thirteen shots 
— one for each State — at intervals of a minute. Just at the last 
fire a battery magazine, containing twenty-six six-pound cartridges 
exploded, seriously wounding Bowman, Worthington and four 


Clark had received intelligence that a fleet- from Detroit, with 
provisions and re-enforcements, was houi'ly due, and Capts. Helm 
and Henry and Maj. Legare were empowered to take fifty of the 
militia and proceed up the river to intercept the flotilla. A proc- 
lamation was prepared, duly rendered into the French language, 
and posted, calling for fifty volunteers from among the inhabitants 
for this expedition. In less than two hours after its appearance 
more than twice that number appeared, pressing to be employed 


upon that service. On the afternoon of the 26th, with three boats, 
each armed with a swivel taken from the fort, with Bo\viQan in 
command, the expedition started. At the foot of the island, near 
Bellgrade, on the evening of the 28th, Bowman tied his boats 
under the overhanging willows, and sent out a party in light ca- 
noes to explore the river above and give notice of the descent of 
the enemy. At Point Coupee, about sunrise the next morning, 
the descending fleet, consisting of seven batteaux (a long, flat- 
bottomed craft), was discovered. Frederick Mehl, one of the 
Virginia troops, who le'd the reconnoitering party, pulled rapidly 
back to Bowman and gave information of the strength of the ap- 
proaching fleet. On the evening of the 2d of March the unsus- 
pecting Canadians came into the narrow channel, between the 
island and main shore, where the American boats lay in ambush. 
A cry to " round to and come ashore" was the first intimation the 
party from Detroit received that an enemy lay in these waters of 
the king. The hail was quickly followed by a shot across the 
path of the descending fleet, and a demand for a surrender. 
Bowman sent out boats with Maj. Legare, who ordered those in 
charge to take out a line and make fast to the shore. When this 
was done, Adimar, a captain of the commissary, who was in com- 
mand, formally turned over the fleet, with thirty-eight private 
soldiers as prisoners, and all its stores of provisions and bale- 
goods, estimated to be of the value of $25,000. Among those on 
board was Mr. De Jean, the grand judge of Detroit, who, with a 
Mr. Andre, also of the party, was interested in the goods taken. 
On the 5th, with songs and shouts, calling the entire village, men 
and women, to the shore, this naval expedition, with its valuable 
prizes in tow, entered the long stretch above the town. Every- 
body became wild with excitement and zeal. The women ran 
more than a mile up the river, to be first to meet and convey the 
heroes into the town. Men waded and swam out into the river 
to be the first to hear the details, while a volley of queries from 
the shore was answered by good-natured, boasting replies. This 
display of prowess, and its rich fruits, kindled a flame. The 
love of distant adventure, the chivalrous courage of the French- 
man, which, in after years, led a great host to the shadow of the 
pyramids, was aroused, until it conceived the recovery of Quebec. 


Through the humble streets of this little village in the forest 
went the demand to be led against Detroit, in that same sublime 
confidence which, upon a Sunday morning nearly one hundred 
years afterward, filled all Paris with the cry: "A Berlin dans 
huit jours.''''* 


On the 7th Capt. Williams and Lieut. Rogers with a detail of 
twenty-five men, having in charge the following distinguished 
prisoners, were sent by water to the Ohio Falls, Lieut. -Gov. Henry 
Hamilton, Maj. John Hay, Capt. LaMotte, Lieut. Shiflin, Monsieur 
De Jean, the grand judge of Detroit; Pierre Andre, his partner; 
Dr. McEboth, Francis Maisonville and Mr. Bell Fenilb, together 
with eighteen privates. Lieut. Rogers had orders to conduct 
these prisoners to Williamsburgh, where, on the 18th of June, 
1779, by order of the governor of Virginia, Hamilton, Hay, La- 
Motte and De Jean were " put into irons, confined in the dungeon 
of the public jail, debarred the use of pen, ink and paper and 
excluded all converse except with their keeper," and were so kept 
until the 29th of the following September, when they were ordered 
to Hanover Court House, where they were released on a parole 
to remain within certain limits. The order dispatching these 
prisoners was issued from "Fort Patrick Henry," the new name 
Clark had conferred upon Sackville in honor of the great orator 
of the Revolution. 

Clark's promotion and subsequent acts. 
On the 27 th of February, two days after the surrender, the 
batteau, which had preceded Clark from Kaskaskia, arrived, bear- 
ing William Myers, an express from Gov. Henry, who had been 
picked up on the Ohio. He carried dispatches assuring Clark of 
re-enforcements, and promoting, by commissions, Clark and Bow- 
man, the first to be a general and the other to be a major. The 
Indians now began to come into the town in large delegations to 
obtain some explanation of this surprising revolution. The 
Puans and Miamis waited upon Clark, and speaking, as they 
claimed, for all their brothers, assured him of their fidelity to the 

*"To Berlin in eight days"— the sliout of the Parisian populace in 1870, upon the arrival of 
thn news of the discourtesy oflered Louis Napoleon by the Emperor of Germany at Ems — iVaih- 


American cause and asked to be included in his protection. The 
privates taken on the boats with De Jean were now drawn up in 
line, as if preparatory to sending them to Virginia ; Clark then 
addressed them to the effect that he had learned that many of 
them were torn from their fathers and mothers and forced on this 
expedition; others, ignorant of the true cause in contest, had en- 
gaged from a principal that actuates a great number of men, 
that of being fond of enterprise, that the United States are very 
strong, and instead of confining them in jail dxiring the war, 
they should be privileged to return to Detroit in the boats in 
which they had come, and which they were to accept as a present. 
On the 20th of March Clark appointed Lieut. Richard 
Brashears to command the garrison, which consisted of Lieuts. 
Bagley and Chapline; Capt. Leonard Helm, commandant of the 
town; Moses Henry, Indian agent; Patrick Kennedy, quarter- 
master, and forty picked men, and upon that same day set sail on 
board his galley, now made complete, attended by five armed 
boats and seventy men, for Fort Clark, at Kaskaskia, where he 
arrived to the great joy of Capt. George, who had succeeded 


At the junction of the two forks of White River, there was 
settled a fragment of the Delaware nation of Indians, having 
their hunting grounds on the Ohio and Mississippi. Professing 
great friendship for the Americans upon their first arrival, they 
had entered into articles of peace with every manifestation of 
sincerity. About the 1st of May a party of five traders proceeding 
to the falls from Vincennes, were ambushed, killed and plundered 
by a party of these Delawares. Clark determined to make this 
conduct an example to all the other Indians by whom he was sur- 
rounded. Accordingly he sent orders to Vincennes to make war 
on the Delawares. A night attack upon the Indian village proved 
a complete surprise, many were killed, and others brought to 
the town and put to death, the woman and children only being 
spared. The effect of this prompt and plenary retaliation was in- 
stantly apparent everywhere, in the demeanor of the savages. 


On the 18th of May Col. John Todd, who had been created 


lieutenant for the county of Illinois, arrived at Vincennes and 
organized a court consisting of Col. Le Gras, Louis Edeline, 
Pierre Gamelin, Pierre Quersez and Le Grand, who became its 
clerk. This court seemed to conceiYe its functions were sover- 
eign, and included the right to execute grants of the soil. 
Even in those days so tempting were the public lands that frauds 
were openly committed. This court granted to its own members 
over 12,000 acres of the common domain, the member to be ben- 
efited by the grant absenting himself from the sessions of the 
court upon the day it was entered, that the act might appear to 
be that of his fellows, in which he had taken no part. 

LA balm's unfortunate EXPEDITION. 

In August, 1780, Louis La Balm, who had served with St. 
Ange at St. Louis, crossed the Mississippi with a small band of 
adventurers and began to recruit at Cahokia a company for the 
reduction of the British post at Detroit. In a few days fifty brave 
spirits had enlisted under his banner, when he proceeded to Vin- 
cennes to obtain further recruits. On the 22d La Balm embarked 
upon the Wabash for the town of the Miamis (Fort Wayne), 
where he arrived on the 3d of September, and at once began to 
pillage the stores of the English traders stationed there. After 
securing what booty the town offered he encamped at the mouth 
of the river Aboite, where, on the night of the 3d of September, 
a party of savages led by one of the British merchants, who had 
been plundered, crawled stealthily through the long grass, almost 
to the encampment. Eembault, who had joined La Balm at Vin- 
cennes, discovered the approach of the foe, and gave a shout of 
alarm to his sleeping companions, and the next instant fell dead, 
cleaved with a tomahawk. The assault was so successful that the 
commander and forty-one of his followers were killed outright, 
while twelve were taken prisoners, and reserved for the more hor- 
rible fate of torture. 


On the 4th of April, 1785, a band of Peorias, numbering 
sixty warriors, crossed the Wabash below Fort Patrick Henry, 
and proceeded to the River Duchee, where they encamped. Just 


before daylight the next morning the cabin inhabited by a settler 
named Latroumelle, with his wife and two children, was attacked 
from the heavy woods surrounding the clearing in which stood 
the dwelling, and the roof fired. In a few moments the doors 
were broken in, Latroumelle killed and scalped, and the woman 
and children made prisoners. The Indian party then proceeded 
toward the Wabash, passing, without discovering it, a camp of 
two hunters, who immediately set out upon their ponies to give 
the alarm at Vincennes. By 9 o'clock the whole populace as- 
sembled in answer to the alarm given by the chui-ch bell. About 
eighty men hastily mounted, and under the leadership of Capt. 
John Small, proceeded down the west bank of the Wabash until 
they struck the trail of the retreating Indians, below the mouth 
of the Embarrass. Following the trail northwest to Blue Spring, 
near the south bank of the Embarrass, they came upon the sav- 
ages encamped about sunset. Small so disposed of his forces as 
to completely surround the party on three sides, with the river 
obstructing retreat upon the other. At a signal the whites opened 
fire upon the camp from every available tree, killing eleven, and 
wounding four so severely that they were left behind by their re- 
treating fi'iends, who plunged into the Embarrass and swam out 
of harm. After tomahawking the wounded Indians Small caused 
their bodies to be thrown into the stream. The woman, with her 
two children taken from the cabin, was found bound to a tree, 
still unharmed. Small's party suffered a loss of two killed, An- 
toine Lafont and Ettrinne Patvin, and three wounded. 


The sea-board States poui-ed their overflow, a restless, battling 
swarm of home-hunters, through the notches of the Alleghanies 
out upon the vast savannahs northwest of the Ohio. As the 
curtain rose, back of the dissolving line of untamed savages, the 
advancing Saxon and Celt, who in his American home, was un- 
accustomed to habitations within hail one with another, beheld 
with awe the mystery of Latin civilization upon the Wabash. 
Vincennes, a puzzle, a mystery, a curious thing, a marvel, " a 
page torn from some book of enchantment." A bit of Europe, a 
fi-agment from the gardens of Versailles, suddenly di-opped in 


his path, could scarce have awakened more of his astouishment. 
Long lines of gleaming white houses thatched with yellow straw, 
each with its arcade festooned with trailing vines and half hidden 
in season under the bloom of peach and pear, radiated like the 
spokes from the center of a wheel from a vast square, from which 
arose the frowning walls of a citadel, overlooking a belfried 
church; and a necropolis, entombing a century's dead, stood 
against his horizon, so unlike all his experience in the woods, so 
like a dream, a story of a vision, it seemed the work of magic. 
Its streets thronged with brightly dressed, dark eyed woman, who 
familiarly chatted in the soft accents of a strange tongue with 
beaux who might have donned their dress in sunny France, so 
elegant it seemed; its stores crowded with island sweetmeats, 
silks and ribbons, flowers, laces, and fine cloths from the famous 
factories and looms of the world; upon the water floated vessels 
modeled upon the Seine, and the Loire, all presented a panorama 
of never ceasing wonder. Did he mingle with these strange 
people, their balls, festivals, holidays, saints' days; their fasts, 
penances and mortifications were inscrutable. In the church of 
Christ, the altar blazing with lights, before which robed priests 
chanted Latin prayers, and intoned the music of the uncompre- 
hended mass, bewildered while it enchanted his senses. Under 
such influnces, held as in the grip of a vice by race and religious 
prejudice, hard, dominant, alert, grasping and discourteous, as 
if thrown by a troubled sea of population upon its outer shore, 
as it slowly stilled from the great storm of revolution, fell the 
first adventurers of the English speaking race upon the ancient 
French habitcm. And what of the Gaul and his beautiful civil- 
ization? His race has withered away with its red companion, 
but the soft, elegant passion-subduing civilization, the tenderness 
of his creed, the sublimity of his devotions, the fortitude of his 
charity, his faithfulness and his joy, are all woven thick in the 
web and warp of "the cloth of gold," whereon American majesty 
impresses the world. 



Geology of the County— The Section of Strata— The Meroji Sand- 
stone—The Coals— Local Details— General Obseevations— 
Fossils- Limestone and Sandstone— Economic Considerations 
—Analysis of Coals. 

THE county of Knox is bounded north by Sullivan and 
Greene, east by Daviess, south by Pike and Gibson, and 
west by Illinois, and comprises about 540 square miles. White 
and Wabash Rivers, with their small tributaries, cb'ain the entire 
county. Springs of good water abound, and eligible mill-sites 
are not infrequent. The bottoms along the rivers are from one 
to three miles wide, and are of surprising fertility, while back 
still farther are benches or terraces of gravel and fluviatile drift, 
former flood-planes of the river. A connected section of the 
county is as follows: 

Soil and drift varying. 

Red and white soft ferriferous sandstone— the 

Merom and Fort Knox stone 30 to 80 ft. 

Shale and clod 2 to 8 ft. 

Bituminous linaestone 3 ft. 

Black coaly slate 1 to 4 ft. 

Coal, rash 2 in. to 3 ft. 

Fire clay 3 ft. 

Flaggy sandstone with seams of limestone 5 to 23 ft. 

Argillaceous or bituminous limestone 4 to 6 ft. 

Black slate and cannel coal 1 to 3 ft. 

Caking coal N. (?) 2 in. to lift. 

Fire clay 2^ f t. 

Gray argillaceous flaggy sandstone, sometimes 

changing to limestone 80 to 80 ft. 

Yellow quarry sandstone 4 to 23 ft. 

Coal M. fat and caking 2 to 4i f t. 

Fire clay 1 to 4J ft. 

Gray sandy shales, or hardened soapstone, some- 
times changing to limestone 21 to 35 ft. 

Black slate, soft and soapy Sin. 

Coal L, caking, white ash 4 in. to 4i ft. 

Fire clay 4i f t. 

•Adapted to this volume from the report of the State Geologist. 


Brown sandstone and silicioua sbale 10 to 17^ ft. 

Hard bitutniaous limestone, full of fossils 3 to 5 ft. 

Calcareous and pyritous " clod" 3 in. to 2 ft. 

Black sheety slate, with fossils 5 in. to li ft. 

Coal K, caking or laminated 3 to 6J ft. 

Fire clay, shales, iron-stones, etc 32 to 40 ft. 

Shale, slate and cannel coal (?) 1 to 3 ft. 

Coal I, part block 1 J to 3 ft. 

Fire clay and sandstone 4 to — ft. 


The above gives in descending order a careful estimate of the 
strata met with in Knox County. The group belongs to 
the upper part of the coal measures and dips from east to west at 
an average of twenty-two feet to the mile ; and from the fact that 
the depth becomes greater in the valley of the Wabash, and the 
relative distance of the strata farther from each other, owing to 
the thickening of the intervening strata, the coal seams there may 
be looked for far under the surface. The most noticeable rock is 
the "Merom sandstone." It consists of coarse red aiid white 
sandstones, disintegrating upon exposure to a coarse sand, owing 
to the iron which is oxidized and rendered soluble in water charged 
with carbonic acid gas. The stone may be seen at Fort Knox, 
Wolf's Hill, and numerous other places forming the high bluffs 
along the Wabash. The stratification is so uniform and the com- 
position so similar that it is reasonable to conclude that the rock ' 
occupied all the intervening area, but has been worn away by 
water, save the bluffs. This will also account for the large quan- 
tity of sand in the southern part of {he county and vicinity 
where it has been washed, and for the logs, etc., found deep under 
ground at Vincennes and elsewhere, imbedded in muck deposited 
in chasms formed by ancient erosive agencies. Owing to its lith- 
ological character and position, it is thought further examination 
will give to this rock a more recent origin. In the western part 
of the county the rash coals of the above section are found near 
the surface, but they occur higher going eastward, and finally dis- 
appear in a line extending from near Freelandsville via Cox's Hill 
and High Point to the head of Wilson's Creek. These coals are 
not of workable thickness, and the slate over them usually contains 
so much bituminous matter that it will support combustion. The 


limestones superimposing these coals (the upper two of the above 
section) are compact, hard and clinky, but on the west line of the 
county they became soft laminated beds or calcareous shales con- 
taining fine PleKTotomaria, Macrocheihis, Bellerophon, Moulfor- 
tianus, Athyris, Myalina, etc. The yellow sandstone, the roof of 
Coal M, is soft but weathers hard, and furnishes excellent ham- 
mered masonry. Coal M has an average thickness of about three 
feet. It is fat, caking, contains considerable sulphur, but is 
excellent for grate use, and underlies the county west of a line 
drawn from Edwardsport to Freelandsville. Between Coals L and 
M there sometimes occurs among the sandy shales and soapstones 
a massive argillaceous sandstone. It is too soft for foundations. 
Coal L averages over three feet in thickness. It is semi-caking, 
burns to a white ash, is usually free from sulphur, and compares 
well with the same coal at Washington, Daviess County. It 
underlies the entire county save a small tract around Edwards- 
port. The limestone forming the roof of Coal K is compact, 
massive, often pure enough for lime and durable enough for 
building purposes, but in places it suddenly becomes calcareous 
shale. It is full of Producfa, Spirifera, AUorisma, Athyris, 
Hemipronitis, Chonetes, Bellerophon, Rhynchonella, Orihoceras, 
Lophophyllum, and others. The black sheety slate under it con- 
tains scales, spines and dermal slates of the shark Petrodus, also 
Orthocerata, Discina and Lingula. It also contains potstones of 
iron ore. Coal K is the lowest outcrop of coal in the county 
which appears at the surface. It is fi-om three to six and one- 
half feet thick, and future investigation may give it a thickness, 
as in places in Daviess County, of seven to ten feet. It no doubt 
underlies much of Knox County and will be found thick and oth- 
erwise valuable. It is usually a strong, fat, caking coal, occa- 
sionally sulphurous. Coal I below K has not been well exam- 
ined, but though comparatively thin doubtless contains much good 
coal, block and cannel. 


Just north of Griswold the upper rash coal of the above section 
was reached forty-three feet below the surface. At Emison the 
valuable coals are 200 to 250 feet below the surface. South of 


Emieon and north of Marie Creek 1| feet of coal and black slate 
appears at the surface. One mile south of Vincennes a shaft of 
54 feet revealed 1 foot of coal and 40 feet of soft sand-stone. 


Outcrop — shaft and bore: 


Slope 30 

Red sandstone — Merom rock 23 

Silicious ironstones in shale 3 

Black sheety slate 5 

Gray argil, shale 2 

Dark bituminous shale 4 

Top of shaft four feet above high water : 

Feet. Inches. 

Dark limestone 5 

Soft sandstone 7 

Dark shale 4 

Soft dark limestone 2 

Fireclay 6 

Flaggy limestone or silicious shale 11 

Silicious soapstone 6 

Dark slate 5 

Gray limestone 2 

Calcareous shale 1 6 

Coal— rash 11 

Fireclay 3 6 

Sand rock, compact 7 

Gray soapstone 8 

Sandstone 3 

Dark soft limestone... 1 6 

Sandstone 5 

Soft gray limestone ... 8 

Dark gray shale 10 

Soapstone 6 

Coal parting 1 

Soapstone '. 1 6 

Hard limestone 3 

Sandstone 8 

The coals there given are the upper rash varieties of the for- 
mer table. The valuable Coals M, L and K are from 250 to 500 
feet lower down. It should be remembered that all the country 
around Vincennes was once covered with the " Merom sandstone " 
50 to 70 feet thick. The limestone which superimposes the rash 
coals outcrops at several places in the southern part of the county, 
being usually 2 to 3 feet thick. Though argillaceous it furnishes 


a Btrong dark-colored lime. Thin outcrops of the rash coals are 
also found in the southern part. The coal is bright, lustrous, 
pure, semi-caking, turns to a white ash and is used by residents 
and by blacksmiths. The following section was taken in the 
southeastern part of Harrison Township: 


Laminated sandstone 3 ft. 

Soapstone 5 ft. 

Bituminous parting 1 in. to 4 in. 

Soapstone, fern bed, with Alethopteris Serlii, Sphen- 

ophyllum Schlotheimi, Pecopteris arborescens, P. 

(SpT),Neuropteria hirsuta, Cordaites borassifoUa 2 in. to 5 in. 

Coal N? 1 ft. 6 in. to 3i ft. 

Fire clay 4 ft. 

The section at the old Williams shaft is as follows : 


Red clay soil— slope 20 to 30 

Fire clay — coal ? 2 

Shaly sandstone 8 

Compact sandstone 3 

Shaly sandstone 12 

Shal3' soft sandstone , 10 

Massive quarry sandstone .,,, 15 

Heavy bedded sandstone 10 

Top of bore: 


Sandstone 2 

Shale 5 

Blue sandstone .■ 21 

Black slate J 

CoalM? 4 

Fire clay 4 

Sandstone 5 

Gray shale and soapstone 21 

Black slate 25 

It is probable that had this shaft been sunk a short distance 
farther one or more workable seams of excellent coal would have 
been found. Beds of massive sandstone outcrop with precipitous 
or projecting walls near this shaft. Coal M may be found about 
fifty feet below the base of Lucky Point. Coal M has been 
worked by stripping near Wheatland, and varies in thickness 
from one to two and a half feet. The Ni black section is as 
follows : 



Drift 17 

Red sandstone 7 

While sandstone 6 

Dark soapstone 16 

CoalM 2i 

Fireclay 3 

Dark coarse rock 20 

White sandstone 10 

Blue hard rock 8 

Dark hard rock 4 

White fine rock, argillaceous sandstone 4 

Had this shaft been sunk a few feet deeper Coal L would 
have been reached. At the old "Weaver bank north of Wheatland 
Coal M is 3 feet 4 inches thick and is a fat caking coal full of 
gas and bitumen. The section is: 


Quarry sandstone — soft part 15 ft. 

Gray shale— pyritous 2 ft. to 4 ft. 

Coal M 6 in. to 3i ft. 

Fire clay 3i f t. 

Soapstone, with iron stone nodules 16 ft. to 25 ft. 

Slate 4 in. 

Coal L 4ift. 

Fire clay 3 ft. 

Coal K is found about forty feet below the surface. Coal M 
from 45 to 78 feet and Coal L from 70 to 108 feet. On Dona- 
tion 131 the section was: 

Feet. Inches. 

.Drift 20 

Hard sandstone 41 

Fine grained sandstone 16 o 

Gray slate 2 

Black slate 4 

CoalM 4 6 

At the Kelty & Swick bank the section is : 


Slope '. 20 

Shelly sandstone 6 

Laminated sandstone. 15 

Quarry sandstone 14 

Laminated sandstone 4 

Silicious shale with iron nodules 9 

Coal 3 to 3f 

Limestone and soil 30 

Coal 4 


At Bicknell a coal seam 2 feet thick was found 82 feet below 
the surface. A section at Edwardsport is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Clay 13 

Shelly sandstone 18 

Argillaceous sandstone 1 6 

Soapstone 8 

Coal L: 

Feet. Inches. 

Fatcoal 1 8 


Cubiccoal 6 

Parting 1 

Laminated coal 3 

Parting 1 

Coal 10 

5 3 

Fire clay 3 feet. 

Coal L of this section is bright and glossy and burns to a 
white ash. Three shafts a mile or more northwest of Edwards- 
port found coal L varied from 3 feet 2 inches, to 5 feet 8 inches. 
Near this Coal K was 6 feet deep. On Section 12, Town 4, 
Range 8, the following is the section: 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil and loess ' 13 

Argillaceous sandstone 8 

Soapstone 8 

Coal L 3 6 

Fireclay 3 

Sandstone, laminated 17 

Bituminous limestone 3 

Black sheety slate 6 in. to 1 6 

Coal K: 

Feet. Inches. 

Laminated coal 1 6 

Parting, pyrite and smut 0^ 

Compact coal, part block 1 4 

Smut parting '. Oi 

Blacksmith — fat coal 1 6 

4 5 

Fire clay (in bore) 4 

White sandstone and shale 30 

Soapstone becoming darker 37^ 

The following fossils occur in the limestone and calcareous 
shale overlying Coal K: Productus costatus, P. punciatus, P. 


semireticiilatus, P. longispinus, Spirifer cameratus, S. lineatus, 
S. Kentuckensis, Allorisma {spJ) Hemipronitus crassus, H. 
crenistria, Choneies mesoloba, C. spinuilifera, C. {sp.?) 
Bellerophon carhonarius, Rhynchonella Osagensis, Orthoceras 
Rushensis, Lophophylliun proliferum, and crinoid stems and 
spines. Coal M outcrops northwest of Edwardsport, and is 
found in wells, and has an average thickness of 3 feet. The 
combined thickness of all coals in the vicinity of Edwardsport 
amounts to nearly 12 feet. A short distance northwest of Sand- 
born the following is the section: 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil and sand 14 

Yellow clay 7 

Soft sandstone 10 

Compact sandstone 5 

Soapstone (cal. slate?) 4 6 

Black sheety slate 6 4 

Coal K— part block 3 

Fireclay 3 

On Section 3 northeast of Sandborn the following strata were 
struck : 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil, sand and muck 42 

Sandstone 12 

Rash coal 3 2 

Soapstone 5 

CoalK(?) 1 6 

Hard sandstone 6 

Clay and iron balls 16 

Black slate 9 4 

Slaty cannel 3 

Coal L (?) part block 3 

Fireclay 1 

On Section 34 northwest of Sandborn, in Greene County, the 
bore was as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Clay and sand ' 16 

Sandstone 10 

Soapstone 5 

Slate 10 

CoalL 8 

Fireclay 1 6 

White sandstone 26 4 

Soapstone 7 

Sandy shale .' 3 6 

Black slate 3 

Coal K 6 


Feet. Inches. 

Clay partin.a; 9 

Coal K 3 9 

Fireclay ; 3 4 

Potter's clay 5 6 

Sandstone 5 

Hard limestone ; 3 6 

Limestone 21 6 

Coall 10 

Fireclay 3 

Potter's clay 6 

Argillaceous sandstone 6 6 

Blue limestone 2 

SoapsLone 4 

Blue limestone 5 

Sandstone ; 13 

Bituminous soapstoue 25 

This section may be taken as a type for the region in and 
around Sandborn, though faults will be found and the thickness 
of the seams may vary greatly. A well dug in Freelandsville, 
passed through the Merom sandstone; it was 51 feet thick, and 
12 feet below the surface. 

On Section 8, Township 4, Range 8, the following is the sec- 

Feet. Inches. 

Clay soil 5 

Laminated Merom sandstone 5 

Thick bedded Merora sandstone 10 

Soft, friable, white sandstone 15 

Argil, limestone — conglomeratic 3 

Clay parting 1 to 4 

Dark limestone, containing crinoid stems, corals, Athy- 
Tis subtilita, Productus punctatus, P. semiretic- 
idatus, P. longispinus, Chonetes mesoloba, Spirifer 
lineatus, Orthis carbonaria and Rhynchonella 

Osagensis 4 

Place of rash coal 

Fire clay— potters' clay 1 6 


The limetone of this section often outcrops and leaves 
detached blocks scattered over the surface, and when burned, pro- 
duces the strong dark-coloi-ed lime. Deposits of Merom sand- 
stone may be seen near Bruceville. At this town the section is : 

Feet. Inches. 

Soil andfluviatile drift 20 

Soft red Merom rock 20 

Silicious shale. ...••• 2 


Feet. Inches. 

Hard ferruginous, argillaceous, conglomerate lime- 
stone 2 

Upper rash coal, black slate 2 

Fireclay 1 

Soapstone and silicious shale 20 

Coarse sandstone 8 

Bituminous soapstone 4 

Limestone, layers and clay partings 43 

Coal N lias been worked on Lots 12 and 143, and varies from 
one to three feet thick. Over the surface coals are two or three 

feet of bituminous slate, some of which will burn. The following 
is the section on Lot 183: 

Feet. Inchei. 

Slope 30 

Red and white Merom rnck 18 

Silicious shale and iron nodules 3 

Flaggy sandstone 4 

Silicious shale and shaly sandstone 25 

Conglomeratic sandstone 3 4 

Pyritous soapstone 8 

Lower rash coal: 

Feet. Inches. 

Slaty coal 8 

Cannel slate 2 2 

Coal caking 2 

Fire clay 3 feet. 


Knox County has large tracts of alluvial bottom-lands. Crops 
of all descriptions grow well on them, while the higher and 
more barren soils produce j&ne grasses and fruits. Trees reach 
an enormous size. On the old Ochiltree farm was the " great 
pear tree," which was 12 feet in circumference at the base, 120 
feet high, had a lateral spread of 60 feet from the trunk, and 
bore an average crop of 50 bushels. Gravel, suitable for the 
grading of roads, is found in several places. The whole eastern 
side of the county furnishes coals M, L and K, in an aggregate 
thickness of over ten feet, underlying probably half of the county. 
The Merom sandstone is generally too soft for building purposes, 
but other deposits of sandstone furnish durable material. The 
limestone is generally argillaceous and pyritous, but when other- 
wise, as is occasionally the case, furnishes good, though dark- 


colored lime. Clays for brick, tile, terra-cotta and pottery-ware 
abound. An analysis of the coals of the county shows the pres- 
ence of from 38 to 59 per cent of fixed carbon, with an average, 
from twenty-one critical examinations, of over 50 per cent. The 
lower part of the Weaver coal showed the largest percentage of 
fixed carbon and the smallest percentage of gas — 33 per cent. 
The percentage of gas varied from 33 to 38.5 per cent. The 
quantity of ash varied from 2.5 to 25 per cent, but averaged 5.6 
per cent. 



Settlement of Knox County— Names or Many of the Earliest Res- 
idents, Together with an Account of their Lives in the For- 
ests OF Indiana— The Early Mills, Distilleries, Stores, etc. 
—Indian Relics and Remains of the Mound-Builders— Adven- 
tures AND Anecdotes— Ancient Titles, or Land Grants— Claims 
TO Land in the Northwest Territory— Grants to Settlers at 

VINCENNES TOWNSHIP was one of the two townships laid 
off by the court in 1790. It then comprised all embraced in 
the township now a'nd much more. Portions of the land at first 
were unfit for cultivation, particularly the lower part along the river. 
Large sums of money have been spent in reclaiming the lands. 
By an act of the General Assembly the 5,400 acres of land, the 
old "Vincennes commons," were sold, and the greater portion of 
the money spent in draining the big marsh. The last report on 
agriculture shows an acreage in cultivation of over 10,000 acres. 
Large portions of the land above and below the town were em- 
braced in the old French claims, in the upper and lower surveys 
and Cathilinette Prairie. 


One of the first settlers at the beginning of the present cen- 
tury was Samuel McKee, who was a surgeon in the United States 
Army. He came from Kentucky to Vincennes about 1800. He 


was statioued at Fort Knox. His death occurred May 6, 1809. 
John Badollet was born in Geneva, Switzerland, and was a friend 
of Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury under Jefferson. 
He was register of the land office a number of years, and, as a 
commissioner with Nathaniel Ewing, passed on the donation and 
militia claims of the county. He bought the present Badollet 
farm of Col. Vigo. He was one of the most prominent characters 
in the early history of the county. Col. Francis Vigo, whose 
name should be reverenced more than his fame is, came to Vin- 
cennes at the time of its capture by Col. Clark ; after living in 
Vincennes for a time, moved out to the farm now owned by A. B. 
McKee, where he resided till his death. Quite a number of 
heirlooms of Col. Vigo are now owned by Mr. McKee. Col. 
Vigo was born in Mendovia, Sardinia, 1747. He enlisted in a 
Spanish regiment as a private soldier. The part of the regiment 
to which he belonged was sent to New Orleans. After leaving 
the army he was known as a Spanish trader among the Indians on 
the Arkansas, its tributaries and the Mississippi at St. Louis, then 
a Spanish post. On tlie capture of Kaskaskia by Col. Clark, he 
hastened to that place to offer the Americans assistance. The 
army was in great destitution and without credit. Vigo's pri- 
vate means were given in their aid; he, further, undertook a 
journey to Vincennes, then in the hands of the British. This 
had shortly before been captured by Gov. Hamilton, the Brit- 
ish commander. When near Vincennes he was captured by some 
Indians and taken as a prisoner to Gov. Hamilton. Knowing he 
was a Spanish subject, although with some misgivings, he was 
released on parole, through the influence of Father Gibbault. He 
was not long in informing Col. Clark of the weakness of the gar- 
rison. Col. Clark soon availed himself of the opportunity that 
resulted so gloriously to the American Army. Gen. St. Clair, 
governor of the Northwest Territory, paid this compliment to 
Col. Vigo in his report to the Secretary of War, September 19, 
1790: "Mr. Vigo, a gentleman of Vincennes, the United States 
are much indebted to, and he is, in truth, the most disinterested 
person I have almost ever seen." He at one time owned large 
estates in the county, but disdaining to contend over technicalities 
he lost the greater part before his death. His girl-wife had the 


most implicit confidence in him, as did the Indians. On being^ 
asked by an old citizen, now living, whence his great influence 
over the Indians, his answer was "Because I never deceive an 
Indian." It is an historic fact that any promise made by him to 
them, or by them to him, was faithfully carried out. He was 
one of the trustees of St. Francis Xavier from 1818 to 1821; 
he, however, did not die in the faith of that church. His death 
occurred in 1838. Nathaniel Ewing was one of the commission- 
ers of the land oifice ; he was a resident of the county before the 
year 1800. He became quite wealthy, and was the owner of some 
large tracts of land, and was a large stockholder in the Vincennes 
Bank. He resided on his farm, near Mr. A. B. McKee's, for 
many years, where he died. His body was buried at Vincennes. 
Patrick Simpson was another early settler in the same vicinity. 
He became the ovmer at a very early day of the corner of Dona- 
tion of 115 and 300 acres of No. 4 In 1815 he made a donation 
of 100 acres of land to Indiana Church. John Johnson, great- 
grandfather of the present generation of Johnsons, settled in the 
same neighborhood. He was a highly educated man and a prom- 
inent citizen. It was with Mrs. Johnson that Judge Isaac Black- 
ford made his home in later years. A. B. McKee, one of the 
oldest men in the county, resides on the farm and in the house 
formerly owned by Col. Vigo. It was on this farm that bricks 
for the Harrison mansion were made in 1804. Jeremiah Dono- 
van resides on the donation di-awn by Antoine Drouet, called 
Richardville. On this lived Chi-istopher Wyant, an early sheriff 
of the county. In the family are many old relics of Gen. Harri- 
son, Gov. Hamilton and Richardville. Maj. B. V. Becker, who 
lived for many years about two and one-half miles east of Vin- 
cennes, was a man of great force of character. He was sheriff 
continiiously for many years ; commanded a company at Tippeca- 
noe; was commissioned major, October 6, 1812, of the first battal- 
ion of the First Regiment of Militia of Indiana Territory. He 
also commanded Company B of United States Rangers in the 
Black Hawk war. He was a man of pi'odigious physical 
strength, and a man of very strong likes and dislikes. The fol- 
lowing reports of a battalion drill held at Vincennes, October 
13, 1813, are found among his papers, in the handwi'iting of the 


officers: Capt. Eodarmer's company, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 en- 
sign, i sergeants, 4 corporals, 30 privates, 44 rifles, 44 pouches and 
2 muskets ; Lieut. Courad Crum's company, no captain, 1 lieuten- 
ant, 1 ensign, 2 sergeants, 35 privates, 17 rifles, 2 fuses, 1 bayo- 
net, 1 cartridge box, 18 powder horns and 15 pouches; Lieut. 
Pierre Brouyette's company, no captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 en- 
sign, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 34 muskets, 34 privates, 42 "totalle;" 
Capt. John Scott's company, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 4 
sergeants, 4 corporals, 82 privates; Capt. James Junkins' com- 
pany showed 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 4 cor- 
porals and 41 privates; Capt. Ambrose Malett's company had 50 
men, and Captain Gen. W. Johnson had 83. In his report was 
given the number of officers, privates, bombardiers, fifers, drum- 
mers, pairs of pistols, steel rods, and in addition were 48 pounds 
of powder and 8,500 balls. 


This township was organized early in the history of the coun- 
ty. It was named in honor of John Widner, its fii'st settler. It 
occupies the central portion of the northern part of the county, 
and is bounded on the north by Sullivan County, on the east by 
Vigo Township, on the south by Vigo and Washington, and on the 
west by Busseron, Marsh and Marie Creeks, being the dividing 
line between it and the last named. The township embraces a few 
sections over thirty-six square miles. The land is largely under 
cultivation ; the population to a great extent is German. Large 
quantities of grain and other produce are raised in this township 
and shipped to other markets. The latest reports show about 
15,000 acres in cultivation, or about three-fifths of the entire area 
of the township. The improvements are not as fine as in some 
townships, yet it is the remark that a person, in traveling through 
the township, will pass over less mortgaged land than any in the 


The first settler in this township was John Widner, who set- 
tled about two and a half miles northwest of Freelandsville. 
He came fi-om Virginia to Knox County in 1798, and in 1804 
moved to the land above described. He followed the simple and 


unostentatious life of a pioneer farmer. Fort Widner was built 
at this place in 1812 for protection against the Indians. Andrew 
Wilkins, a brother-in-law of Widner, settled at the same time on 
No. 2. William Taylor settled on No. 3, near Wilkins and Wid- 
ner. This family are now all gone. Charles Carrico also came 
in 1804, and settled on a part of No. 2. He afterward moved to 
Sullivan. Michael Starner, from Pennsylvania, settled Surveys 30 
and 4. He also came in 1804. He was the father of John and 
Jacob Starner. Ludwig Ernest was another who came in 1804. 
He was a ranger in 1812. Charles Polk moved from Virginia to 
Kentucky in 1780, where, in 1782, his wife and children were 
captured by the Indians and afterward carried to Detroit. They 
were rescued by friends and returned to the settlement. It was 
during this captivity that Charles Polk, Jr., was born. He moved 
to Knox County in 1806, and settled in Widner Township. Will- 
iam Polk, uncle of James Polk, settled on No. 238, about two 
miles from Widner's, in 1808. No. 236, adjacent to Polk's, was 
owned by a non-resident, and was first settled by Holliugsworth. 
Alex Chambers, who came from Ohio, settled Location 112 in 
1808. He was the father of a large and respectable family that 
bore a part of the hardships of a pioneer life. William Pearce 
settled 31, near Starner; he was from Kentucky. John Lemon 
also was on 238, where he settled in 1808, and where he remained 
until his death. Isaac McCoy settled on a part of Survey No. 2, 
where he settled in 1808. He was the pioneer Baptist preacher 
not only of Knox County, but it might also be said of Indiana. 
He was a man of sterling worth and the idol of his friends. He 
remained until 1818. He was for a time a missionary to the In- 
dian nation. Others might be mentioned. Many squatters lived 
in the neighborhood, who, fi-om indifference for a home, never 
fixed any permanent habitation. 


Each section of community built its fort in 1812. Those in 
Widner were the Widners, Chambers, Polks, Lemons and Taylors. 
These were for safety against the Indians during the second war 
with Great Britain. None of these ever sustained an attack by 
the Indians, yet a few horses were supposed to have been stolen 


from Polk's fort one night. Widner was the largest of these. It 
enclosed about three-fourths of an acre of space. It was what is 
called a stockade fort. These are made by setting timbers in the 
ground, closely set and so high as to preclude the possibility of 
being scaled. The corners were made with bastions to enable 
those within to rake the sides as well as to fire in front. Daniel 
Hollingsworth and a man named Honeycutt were hunting near the 
forks of Marie Creek in 1812. The two became separated. Hon- 
eycutt saw two Indians going in the direction .of his companion. 
Through timidity he failed to fire upon them yet he had a good 
opportunity. Soon he heard a shot, and Hollingsworth fell dead. 
The Indians scalped him and left the body. 


This township occupies the northwestern corner of the county. 
It was laid out about 1810, and named in honor of Fran9ois Bos- 
seron, one of the justices in 1790. On the north it is bounded by 
Sullivan County, on the east by Widner Township, fi'om which it 
is separated by Marsh Creek, on the south by Washington, from 
this it is separated by Marie Creek, on the west lies the Wabash. 
The soil is very fertile, a great portion of which being sandy loam. 
Portions, however, are "barrens," from the great accumulations 
of sand, the whole being alluvial formation. The township con- 
tains about 35,000 acres of land, of which only about two-fifths is 
in cultivation. The Evansville & Terre Haute Bailroad and the 
Wabash River afford ample facilities for shipping the produce of 
the township, which consists mainly of wheat and corn. 


Thomas McGowen came from Pennsylvania to Knox County 
about 1798. He was a gunsmith and worked for Col. Small, and 
also for Thomas Jones, the trader, for a time. He came along the 
old trace. The family came to the old post on pack-horses, and the 
goods were sent down the Ohio in pirogues to the mouth of the 
Wabash, thence bo Vincennes by keel-boat. McGowen moved to 
the east fork of White River below Mount Pleasant. Here, May 
12, 1812, he was murdered by Indians. At a later date William 
McGowen, the son, now over eighty years of age, moved to Bus- 


seron, where he now resides. Samuel McClure was fi-om Ken- 
tucky; came about 1806 and settled near the south end of Shaker 
Prairie; he then took up Government land. On this was built a 
fort during the Indian war. John Ochiltree settled near where 
McClui'e afterward settled in ISOi. He was a man remarkable 
for charity, refusing to sell corn beyond a certain price, and turn- 
ing none away for want of money. Abraham Case, a prominent 
man, settled in the timber land near Ochiltree's. Hogg's Hill 
marks the place of settlement of a man by the name of Hogg. A 
man named Greenfield settled a short distance fi-om Shaker Prairie. 
James Light, an early settler, was supposed to have been di'owned. 
James Watson lived southeast of the prairie; he was a black- 
smith. George Harper, who was the father of a large family, 
lived east of Watson. Lockridge lived in the vicinity of Harper ; 
he was a hatter. It is remembered by an old resident that George 
Balthus wore one of his old hats for ten years. 


As above stated, McGowen, at the time of his death, was liv- 
ing near the east fork of White River. The Indians were known 
to be dangerous, and most of the houses were guarded. Two par- 
ties were guarding the neighborhood — one party being at Haw- 
kin's Ferry and one at Maysville on that particular night. It was 
the last night the house was to be left unguarded. McGowen re- 
lied on some seven dogs which he had for protection. In the 
house besides McGowen's family were two of the Kinmans and a 
boy named McGuire. The family were asleep. The first signal 
of danger was the quick shot of a rifle which killed McGowen. 
The Indians had climbed up on something and fired through an 
opening in the wall. By the aid of the flickering light of the fire 
the Indians had been able to select their victim. The family awoke 
to a sense of the danger of an Indian massacre. Efforts were 
made to break down the door. For some unaccountable reason 
the dogs had kept quiet till now; soon a contest arose between 
them and the Indians, and by firing in the direction of the noise 
the Indians were di'iven away. This occurred on the night of 
May 12, 1812. The deed was supposed to have been committed 
by Popin-Dick, an Indian who had been insulted by McGowen. 



Numerous relics of the Indians and Mound-Builders are found 
in this township, particularly near Gray's Pond. Dr. Pugh, of 
Oaktown, has some fine specimens found there in an old burying- 
ground. Among them are three open dishes like a wash basin, 
very perfect, three bottle-shaped vessels with necks, two whet- 
stones, one image, one pestle, several arrow heads, stone hatchets, 
a large number of human bones. One large skeleton was found 
in a sitting posture, which bore evidence of rank. Some of the 
earthenware bore marks of rude engraving. 


In about 1805 an organization in New York sent out two 
elders, who went through Oliio and Kentucky, and, making sev- 
eral converts, formed a colony of families and settled in the 
northwest part of Busseron Township, where they were soon fol- 
lowed by the two female elders necessary to make the organiza- 
tion complete. The main body of the land was entered by William 
Davis, Adam Galagher and Nathan Pegg, as trustees for the 
Shakers, in July, 1813. At first they retained separate families, 
and were not united as is their custom. In 1811 they moved 
back to Ohio, where they remained till quiet from the effects of 
the war of 1812 had been restored in Indiana, when they returned, 
and were prosperous for some time. They once numbered about 
400, and owned 1,300 acres of land. They were successful in 
stock raising and horticulture, and had a fruit orchard of about 
forty acres. On Busseron Creek they built a saw-mill and a 
grist-mill, both propelled by water-power. They manufactured 
various kinds of lumber, a great deal of walnut and cedar, and 
also made cedar cooper-ware. They had carding and fulling ma- 
chines, and made all their own clothing, as well as boots and 
shoes, for which they tanned the leather. They had a cocoonery, 
and manufactui-ed silk to some extent. Cattle and sheep were 
raised extensively and successfully. Their town. West Union, 
consisted of several buildings, used for various industries, for 
residences and for worship. The biiilding used for worship is still 
standing. It is a frame structure, about 48x50 feet, two stories, 
and also has an attic, which is floored, and was apparently used 


for some special purpose. The ground floor is all in one room, 
used for worship, or dancing, as that is their mode of worship. 
Entirely around the room extends a seat of walnut plank. The 
second story was used by the elders — two males and two females. 
This story is reached by two flights of stairs, and is divided into 
nine rooms. The lower story had no heating accommodations; 
the second story was warmed by four "fire-places." The whole 
building, as well as all their other buildings for residences, etc., 
was finished with walnut, and is an example of remarkably skilled 
mechanism. The foundation is of hewed sandstone, three feet 
high. The most remarkable of the other buildings was the brick 
residence, which has been torn down, and from the material Mr. 
J. H. E. Sprinkle has built a residence. It was 40x50 feet. In 
the first story was a hall, which extended through the building 
from east to west, and contained two flights of stairs by which 
the second story was reached, and six rooms for sleeping apart- 
ments. The first story was arranged so that by folding partitions 
one-half of the hall and two of the largest rooms could be thrown 
into one room, used for evening prayer-meetings. On the fii-st 
floor were accommodations for twenty-four persons to sleep. The 
second floor was divided into compartments similar to the first 
and furnished sleeping room for twenty-eight persons. Above 
the second story were two rooms, which accommodated eight per- 
sons, making in all a residence for sixty persons. The kitchen 
was in a separate building. The idea that this building contained 
dungeons as places of punishment is erroneous, as their only 
mode of punishment is by " putting out of unions," or excluding 
from full privileges, till full confession should be effected. The 
other buildings were mainly of hewed logs. 

The Shakers held their property in common. Industry and 
economy were their particular characteristics. Their spiritual, 
moral and temporal affairs were presided over by male and female 
elders, the males being under the care of Isaker Bates and Alexan- 
der McKean, and the females under the care of Rebecca Brazleton 
and Fannie Price. They were a peaceable and law-abiding people, 
and were very punctual, which is shown by their rule which com- 
pelled those tardy at evening prayer-meetings to enter through 
the deacons' rooms, which was considered a punishment for tar- 



This historic tree, the " giant of its race," stood on the Ochil- 
tree farm, Lot 201, now owned by the Wise heirs. This was 
planted about three-quarters of a century ago. Several years 
ago it was "blasted and riven by lightning." This tree was vis- 
ited by the Rev. H. W. Beecher some years ago, and a full descrip- 
tion of it given then. It was twelve feet in circumference at the 
base, 120 feet high, and had a lateral spread of 120 feet, and bore 
an average crop of fifty bushels. Another pear tree of huge di- 
mensions, planted by the Shakers, still stands on the farm of 
Col. Sprinkles. This tree is still vigorous, and is supposed to be 
the oldest of its kind in the State. 


This is by far the largest township in the county and was laid 
out in 1801, and was named in honor of Gen. Harrison. This 
township was embraced in what was called Clarksville Township. 
It occupies the southeastern part of this county, being bounded 
on the north by Palmyra and Steen, on the east and south by 
White River, and on the west by Johnson. There are several large 
ponds or sloughs in this township: Montour's, named from a Pian- 
keshaw chief, on the northeast; Long Pond, on the east; Half Moon 
and Hitt's Ponds, on the south. Though not the richest land it 
is neary all suited for cultivation. 


Leonard R. Snyder came to the township in 1804 from Penn- 
sylvania. He settled on a donation owned by Charles Thorn. 
The name was originally Riefschneider (hoop cutter), but the 
family spell the name Snyder, and represent the first by the in- 
itial "R." Snyder sometimes worked at the blacksmith's trade; 
he also built a horse-mill about 1817-18, which he ran a long 
time. This was one of the first in the township. John Snyder, 
the father of Leonard, was quite old when he came to the county. 
The sons of Leonard Snyder were John, who lived on the old farm 
of his father; Samuel, who was cooper, carpenter and miller; 
David, James, Martin, Solomon and Andrew. 

Dr. John Stork was also from Pennsylvania ; a part of the 


goods were taken by keel-boat, or flat-boat to Shawneetown, thence 
to Vincennes, and the family came by team from Louisville, to the 
same place by way of the old " trace." Stork was a kind of 
doctor who doctored mainly by salves and boneset tea. John 
Hoffman was also from Pennsylvania; he settled between 1792 and 
1800 on Donation 246, in the western part of the township. Lewis 
Eeel was from North Carolina about 1802. He settled on a 
donation. He was killed at Tippecanoe. James Johnson was 
another pioneer. He ran a water-mill on Mill Creek for a time; 
Elias Beadle lived on the donation where Dr. Harrison now lives ; 
he is said to have been a Turk. From his long prominent fi-ont 
teeth he was nicknamed " charger tooth." Phillip Near, 
Jacob and Solomon Teverbaugh were in the township previous to 
1800. Solomon Teverbaugh was a man of prodigious strength, a 
great hunter and prominent member of the Methodist Church. 
He killed some elk, bear,^and numerous deer, turkey and other 
game. Adam Like came from Lincoln County, N. C, in 1817, and 
settled in Harrison Township, three and one-half miles southwest 
of Monroe City. Since that time he with liis sons David, John, 
Elias, Jacob and Moses, have borne an honorable part of the bur- 
dens of pioneer life. Others who have been identified alike with 
the affairs of the township were Fred Myers, Elias Myers, Henry 
Summit, Henry Courtney, Martin Goldman and George Shaner. 
John McCoy came fi-om Virginia between 1790 and 1800. He 
settled Donation 11. He was a farmer and hunter. He was killed 
at Tippecanoe. Eobert McCoy was also a Virginian ; moved all 
the way in a wagon. He served during the Revolutionary war. 
He owned Donation 12. . Joseph Williams, William Williams, 
William Collins, John Collins and Anthony Junkins, were Virgin- 
ians and old settlers. James Junkins, son of the last named, was 
at the battle of Tippecanoe, as was also William Williams. Sam- 
uel Adams settled on Donation 13, a short distance fi-om the line 
of Palmyra. John Helderman came from North Carolina at the 
time the Like family came. He was the father of Adam Helder- 
man, of Monroe City. He bought his lands of William Simpson. 
He built a horse-mill on his farm. John Harbin was another 
owner of a horse-mill, in the western part of the township. John 
Brock, Isaac and Thomas White were former residents of the 


township; the former was at the battle of New Orleans. Isaac 
White was killed at Tippecanoe, and Thomas was wounded. Prom- 
inent among those living in the township is John Downey, who 
came fi-om North Carolina, and soon afterward settled on Dona- 
tion 14; he came by wagon and camped on the way. George Gold 
man, father of Martin Goldman, before mentioned, was from North 
Carolina. He is said to have died at the age of one hundred and 

David Vankirk came from Maryland to Knox County in 1795, 
and soon settled in Harrison Township. He was the father of a 
large family of cliildren. He claimed to have been present when 
Indians attacked Pierre Anderson's house, and to have killed two 
of them with an ax ; also to have been present at the interview be- 
tween Gen. Harrison and Tecumseh, which came so near ending 
in tragedy; was engaged during the Indian war in many encounters 
with Indians. He frequently took flat-boats to New Orleans and 
walked home. He was a great hunter and killed from seventy- 
five to 120 deer in one winter. He claimed to have killed his last 
bear near West Salem Church, in Johnson Township. He lived to be 
nearly one hundred years old. James D. Williams (Gov. Williams), 
was a resident of Harrison Township for nearly half a century. 
With few school advantages, he rose from the humlilest walks of 
life to the gubernatorial chair of the State, passing from the leg- 
islative halls of the State to Congress, and then to the governor- 
ship. His death occurred in 1880 while in the gubernatorial 
chair. The county commissioners appropriated $500 for suitable 
memorials in honor of his memory. 

Ewing and Badolet, land commissioners, distinctly speak of 
a grist and saw-mill on Mill Creek in their report to Congress in 
1790. They are among the fii-st in the county. Besides the 
horse-mills of Leonard Snyder and John Harlin, Patterson built 
a water-mill on Wilson Creek; later one was built on the same 
stream by Isaac Thorn. In 1836 Gov. James D. Williams and a 
man named Coon built a water-mill on Pond Creek. This was 
known as Williams' Mill, and was considered a good mill at the 
time. It was in operation a great many years. 



This township was organized between 1812 and 1823, with 
some slight changes made since. It is bounded on the north by 
Vincennes, on the east by Harrison, on the south by White EiVter 
and Decker and on the west by Vincennes Townsliip. The town- 
ship is divided from north to south by the Evansville & Terre 
Haute Eailroad; the eastern or central portion is dj-ained by 
the river Du Chien or Deshee. This formerly discharged its 
waters into ponds and swamps west of the railroad, and the water 
finally found its way into the Wabash near the boundary line 
between Decker and Vincennes Townships. Eecently a large 
ditch was dug on the boundary line between Decker and a portion 
of Johnson Township, thus discharging the water into White 
Eiver at Deckertown. The western portion of the township' with 
the exception of the Chimney Pier Hills, is comjDaratively low 
and marshy. The eastern and middle portions are more elevated 
and quite sandy. The parallel sand ridges bear unmistakable 
evidence of fluviatile formation. 


Frederick Mehl, or Mail, came to the county while it was in 
possession of the French and Indians. As the French and 
Indians fraternized he learned the French language as a matter 
of protection. He was from Philadelphia and obtained Donation 
52, to which Isaac Mehl obtained a deed in 1797. Frederick 
Mehl was the father of Charles, Isaac, Solomon and Frederick, 
all of whom have been identified with the development of the 
township. They have all been closely confined to agricultural 
pursuits. George Catt, grandfather of J. P. Catt, came from 
North Carolina to Virginia ; thence to Knox County and settled 
on an old French claim, lying immediately east of Purcell Station. 
He came all the way from Virginia in a wagon, bringing his 
family with him. George Catt, son of the former, was born 
about 1800, and settled on a portion of the land owned by his 
father. He was a ranger in time of the Indian war, but was not 
at the battle of Tippecanoe. He was a farmer and miller. 
Moses Catt, brother of George Catt, was never the owner of land, 
was somewhat given to bibulous habits. He lived in the "bar- 


rens " in the western part of the township. "Boss" Catt went 
to New Orleans and was lost sight of by his friends. Isaac Catt, 
brother of J. P. Catt, lived west of the railroad. He owned a 
small tract of land, but depended mainly on his gun for a living. 
He killed great numbers of deer and turkey. Other of the Catt 
brothers were Solomon and Hiram, the former died in Harrison 
Township ; the latter is still living near the old farm of the grand- 

Thomas Johnson settled in the township about 1800. 
He lived on the farm now owned by Noah Purcell. Later he 
moved to the south side of the township, where he died ; his son, 
Thomas Johnson, still lives there. Jonathan Purcell, the 
grandfather of the Purcell family of this township, came to the 
county from Virginia and settled near Bruceville. His son, John 
Purcell, bought the farm now owned by Noah Purcell over 
seventy years ago. He obtained it of Thomas Johnson, before 
mentioned. He lived on the farm till his death, when the farm 
came under control of Noah Purcell, who still resides there. 
Andrew Purcell lived on the farm on which Purcell Station and 
postoffice is located and after whom the station was named. 
Others of the Purcell family have lived in the township. Isaac 
Minor, who lived a short distance north oE Noah Purcell, settled 
there over half a century ago. Anthony Cary settled on Gary's 
Prairie and gave name to the prairie. He owned a French cart 
and lived the simple indifferent life of a pioneer. Shepard built 
a cabin on the edge of Chimney Pier Hills, and in this kind of 
hermitage he and his wife remained for many years. John Pea 
lived about two miles east of the railroad. He was a man of 
sterling character, a Presbyterian. A beech tree in the vicinity 
still bears the names of John and Henry Pea. Phillip Board and 
Frank Mahoney were from Kentucky. They settled on small 
tracts of land near the Chimney Pier Hills, and lived mainly by 
hunting. Other settlers were J. Thorn, Joe Decker, Asa Decker, 
Jacob Pea, John Dubois, Samuel N. Wilson, James S. Mays, 
William Flower, Henry Barkman, John Coon and Isaac Coon. 
John Beadle, who is still living, is a kind of connecting link 
between the past and present. Daniel Frederick, who has always 
lived within a short distance of the place of his birth, is, accord- 
ing to his own story, ninety-six years old in October. 



The first mill in Johnson Township was built by George Catt 
on his farm. It was a horse-mill, and by it he was able to make 
an indifferent flour or meal from ten or fifteen bushels of grain 
per day. This was built about 1820 and was run for thirteen or 
twenty years. The flour was bolted by hand. It was no uncom- 
mon thing for persons to come to mill and have to wait two or 
three days for their grist, during which time they would either 
camp out, or would be taken care of by friends. The next mill 
was built on the Deshee (Du Chien) by Jacob Pea. This was a 
water-mill, and was used both as a grist and saw-mill. At a later 
date it was changed to a steam-mill. Vast quantities of lumber 
were sawed at this mill and hauled to Vincennes. Other owners 
of mills on Deshee (Du Chien) have been Isaac Coon, Becker and 
John Drennon, who also had a still-house. 

During the winter of 1832-33, Capt. B. V. Beckes camped 
with his soldiers on the river Deshee (Du Chien) while awaiting 
orders. He built huts for his men and stalls for his horses. 
Previous to the late war the swamps west of the railroad were a 
resort for horse thieves till broken up by the "Eegulators." Large 
wooden shoes, not unlike snow shoes, were fitted to the horses' 
feet that they might pass over bogs and quagmires to higher 
ground beyond, and thus to avoid pui-suit. The assessor's report 
for 1884 shows 5,023 acres of wheat, 5,753 acres of corn, 903 
acres of oats, 1,147 acres of timothy, and 912 acres of clover. 
This indicates that there is less than half of the township under 


This township is bounded on the nortli by a part of Busseron 
and by Widner Townships, on the east by Vigo, on the south by 
Steen, Palmyra and Vincennes, on the west by the Wabash River 
and Busseron Township. It was named in honor of "the father of 
his country." It was reduced to its present limits in 1847. The 
laud is drained by Marie Creek (named in honor of a French 
family who lived in the county) and small tributaries into the 
Wabash. The places of market are Bruceville and Vincennes. 
The Danville & Vincennes Railroad passes through the township, 
which furnishes an outlet for its produce. The character of the 


soil makes it well suited for farming and stock raising. The 
township contains about 28,000 acres, and all, with the exception 
of a small portion, is laid off in donations. The assessor's books 
for 1884 show 6,051 acres of wlieat, 4,259 of corn, 650 of oats, 
1,494 of timothy, 2,683 of clover, and 3,436 of pastiire lands, the 
largest area of any in the county. 


"On old tradition's scroll of fame no nobler life appears 
Than that which plays its simple part among oar pioneers; 
Knights-erraot of the new crusades, shrine builders for the years, 
Graad men of destiny, toil-crowned, are these our pioneers." 

Thomas Baird moved from Pennsylvania to Kentucky, and 
from Kentucky he moved to Indiana in 1801, and settled near 
Vincennes; in 1806 he moved on his farm near Bruceville, where 
he remained till his death. Joseph Baird, who is still living near 
Bruceville, is a son of the above. He was born in the county in 
1808, and now has a silver medal given by the old settlers' re- 
union as the oldest native born of the county. From 1863 to 1872 
he was engaged in merchandising in Bruceville. The remainder 
of his time has been spent on the farm. Bazil Parker came from 
Kentucky in 1818, and settled in the "Barrens;" later he lived 
near Bruceville. James Threlkeld (Tuccahoe) lived near Baird, 
where lie remained till his death. Samuel Johnson came from 
Kentucky in 1826, and John Young from the Carolinas ; they both 
lived on donations. Thomas Emison came from Kentucky about 
1802 or 1803, and settled on Marie Creek. On that stream he 
built the first grist-mill and saw-mill in the community, at a much 
later date steam was added. Marks of the old mill are still vis- 
ible, yet three-quarters of a century have rolled by since its first 
erection. James Kyle settled farther south in the township. It 
is probable he was from Ohio. He came while Indiana was yet 
a Territory. Samuel Thompson was from Kentucky. He bought 
the donation on which he lived from Gen. Harrison in 1804; for 
the 400 acres he was to pay $1,000. The land was to be paid for 
in brick ; the deed was made and the land transferred to Thomp- 
son before a single brick was made, such was Harrison's confi- 
dence in Thompson. The bricks were made by Thompson on the 
farm where Mr. A. B. McKee now lives, and were used in build- 


ing the Harrison residence in Vincennes. John McKee came 
from Kentucky and settled near Bmison's mill about 1807 or 
1808. He was a farmer, a potter and associate judge for a time. 
John, Peter and David HoUingsworth were from South Carolina ; 
they settled near McKee on Congress land. They had small still- 
houses. Samuel HoUingsworth owned negroes, and on Indiana 
becoming a State he left his land and went South with his slaves. 
Nicholas Harper and Washington Sarter lived near the Hollings- 
worths; the former was from Kentucky, the latter from South 
Carolina. He was also owner of a small still. Each came about 
1810. Richard Posey settled a very short distance from Bruce- 
ville about 1805. He was a Methodist preacher and school 
teacher. He was the grandfather of Hon. F. B. Posey, of Peters- 
burg. John Bolthus lived near lower part of the township. He 
came from Kentucky about 1807 or 1808. Daniel McClure came 
with the Thompsons from Kentucky not far from 1800. He was 
for a time justice of the peace and associate judge. A fort was 
built on his farm in 1812. Charles McClure was a member of the 
"Light Horse Company" in the war of 1812. Robert Elliott, from 
South Carolina, settled in Knox about 1802. He was a Baptist 
preacher and owner of a still-house — not an imcommon thing in 
those days. 

A man named Chancellor bought a part of the land owned 
by Posey about 1806. He remained there till his death. Sam- 
uel Dunn settled near Bruceville about 1817, James McCord set- 
tled on the donation, where William Piety now lives. David 
McCord was another early settler. James Denny was from Ken- 
tucky. He lived near Posey; was a wagon-maker by trade. 
William D. Piety settled in Knox in 1815. He moved from 
Kentucky in a wagon. Shortly after settling in the township he 
had the misfortune to have his horses stolen. These he failed to 
recover. He was compelled to struggle against poverty and the 
unconquered forest. He was a man of sterling character. Maj. 
William Bruce came to Washington Township aboiit 1804. He 
erected the house in which James Bruce now lives in 1811. He 
was the father of twenty-five children, all of whom lived beyond 
infancy except one. 



In the war troubles of 1812 forts were erected in every neigh- 
borhood. One of these was erected near Emison's mill, and 
owing to the fact that nearly all the men were away in the war, 
and the garrison consisted mainly of women, it was nicknamed 
" Fort Petticoat." The women of those days were not easily ter- 
rified by the sight or sound of fire-arms. During a holiday fes- 
tivity on New Year's eve, in 1830, some parties went to the house 
of Peter Hollingsworth and began clamoring for admission, and 
becoming demonstrative were fired upon, and one of the party 
was killed. 


This township occupies the point between the Wabash and 
White Rivers. It is bounded on the north by the river Du Chien 
and by Johnson Township. It embraces between forty and fifty 
square miles of land. It contains many swamps, bayous and 
ponds. Two of the largest ponds are Cypress and Claypole, sit- 
uated near the White River, into which they empty their surplus 
waters. Cypress lies mostly on Sections 11 and 14, and is named 
from the growth around it. The latter lies in Section 6, and was 
named from one of the old settlers, who formerly owned the land 
around it. These ponds are a great resort for fishing parties. 
•Less than half of the land of the township is under cultivation, 
owing to the marshes and swamps. In 1884, according to the 
assessor's report, there were 4,330 acres of wheat, 4,665 acres of 
corn, and about 2,000 acres in clover and meadow in the township. 
The lands that are sufficiently dry are extremely fertile, and yield 
rich harvests of wheat and corn. These articles find a ready 
market on either the Wabash or White Rivers, or other conven- 
ient points. 


The Decker family was one of the most prominent of the early 
settlers, and it was from this family that the township was named. 
Whether the name was given for Luke, one of the first territo- 
rial grand jurymen, or for John Decker, one of the first sheriffs, 
or for the family, is questionable. Luke Decker, the first of the 
family to come to this county, came from Virginia previous to 
the year 1783, while this was a part of the territorial limits of 


Virginia. He brought with him his slaves, and among them was 
Dinah, a slave woman, who was the mother of Bob and Anthony. 
These were held as slaves by Luke Decker, son of Luke Decker, 
after the passage of the ordinance of 1787 and after Indiana be- 
came a State. In 1817 Bob and Anthony sued Luke Decker in 
the Orange County Court for their freedom, and after a period of 
five years in different courts they at last gained their freedom. 
John Decker, before mentioned, lived near White River, below 
Deckertown. He owned a body of land on which he lived. 
Isaac Decker, son-in-law of Kirkendall, was a relative of John 
and Luke Decker. He sometimes ran flat-boats to New Orleans, 
and, as was the custom of the time, he would have to walk home. 
Henry Crow was born in Gibson County in 1812, but has lived 
almost in sight of the township all the time. He has lived in 
Section 18 for the last forty years. John came to the town- 
ship fi-om Virginia, not far from J.800, wliere he remained until 
his death. Jacob Anthis was another old settler who opened a 
a farm on White River. Robert Worth, or Warth, settled about 
three miles below Deckertown, on the edge of the hills, where 
he opened a small farm. He lived by cultivating his small tract 
of land and by hunting. He left two sons, who remained on or 
near the same spot till their deaths. Jacob Jacobus came from 
New England and settled on a donation. He opened up a good 
farm, and was a man of worth. He was the father of Robert 
Jacobus, township trustee of Decker Township. David Jennings 
was another pioneer settler on White River. He also was from 
New England. Thomas Dick was another early settler. He was 
the owner of Donations 6 and 7. It was for him that the town 
of Dicksburg was named. David Crack, who settled about one 
mile and a half fi-om Henry Crow's residence, was from Virginia. 
He left two sons and three daughters, who remained in the neigh- 
borhood until death. Other pioneers were Conrad Crum, John 
Ramsey, Aquilla Ramsey, Marshal Browning, Jeremiah McNeeley 
and Thomas Washbvirn. 


The first mill ever built in the township was built by one of 
the Deckers; it was a water-mill. Afterward Thomas Dick built 


a small horse-mill and still-house on his farm, which supplied the 
old settlers with food and drink for a time. In 1824 B. V. Decker 
was allowed the right to run a ferry across White Eiver. The 
following were the rates charged: six-horse team and wagon, 
$1; four-horse, 75 cents; two-horse, 50 cents; one-horse, 37-| 
cents ; man and horse, 12i cents ; footman, 6j cents ; neat cattle, 4 
cents per head ; hogs, 2 cents each. 


This township occupies the middle of the eastern part of the 
county. It is bounded on the north by Washington and Vigo, 
east by Daviess County, south by Harrison, and west by Pal- 
myra and Harrison. The name Palmyra doubtless took its 
origin from Asiatic Palmyi-a, where the churches flourished at 
an early period. Steen was separated from Palmyra, March 5, 
1857, on a petition to the commissioners presented by Andrew 
Berry and others. It was named in honor of Eichard Steen, who 
may be said to have been its pioneer settler. The township con- 
sists of a fraction over 21,000 acres of land, wholly of donations. 
' There is little, if any, land that can not be rendered fit for culti- 
vation, a little over half of which is now in a high state of culti- 
vation. In 1884 the assessor's report shows 4,330 acres in wheat, 
4,665 in corn, 819 in timothy and 1,058 in clover. The old source 
of market was by long wagon routes, or by flat-boat down White 
Eiver, thence to New Orleans. The Ohio & Mississippi Eailroad 
now furnishes transportation for the produce of the township, 
which consists mainly of wheat, corn and live-stock. 


Eichard Steen came from South Carolina in a wagon in 1806, 
and settled where Wheatland now stands. The place was then 
as nature had finished it. With Mr. Steen came Mr. Maxident, 
his father-in-law, who died at the advanced age of one hundred 
and three. Eichard Steen and son, James, were in the Indian 
war, neither of whom were injured. James lived on the farm 
now owned by Marion Dunn. John Steen lived near Wheatland ; 
was a farmer and stock-dealer, and became quite wealthy. Will- 
iam Steen, another son of Eichard, went to Oregon. James 


Steen, sou of John, kept a house of entertainment where Dunn 
now lives, and boarding a man sick of cholera was himself stricken 
by the dread disease, and died soon after. Mr. Robinson, son- 
in-law of Richard Steen, settled near where his son, Richard Rob- 
inson, now lives. James Jordan, who was prominent as a pio- 
neer, settled, at a much later date, in the vicinity of Robinson. 
N. Burriss and James Burriss, who were from Kentucky, settled 
near Wheatland between 1816 and 1820. Simon Nicholson, 
from Pennsylvania, settled on the old State road, a short distance 
from town. James Young, D. W. Ballow, the Jackson family and 
Andrew Whitenack, all settled near the same neighborhood. The 
latter was for a time a justice of the peace. Merrill, another 
pioneer, lived east of the State road. He kept an "inn" for the 
public. He lived to be quite old. Andrew Berry lived east of 
Steeu's, at what was known as Berryville. Here was the post- 
office, and Berry was postmaster till Wheatland was laid out and 
the office moved to that place. Sim Harbin lived east of Wheat- 
land; the railroad passes through the farm. Here he built a 
little horse-mill and a small still-house; Jesse Harbin also lived 
near. A. Westfall was another old settler. 


The principal food of the pioneer was wild meats, such as 
deer, turkey, bear and smaller game, or hogs that were raised in 
the woods and were considered common property. Bread stuff 
was, to a great extent, hominy. What little meal or flour was 
made was cracked on hand-mills, horse-mills or little water-mills, 
or beaten in a mortar. The process was about as follows: A 
block of wood or stump was hollowed out by cutting or burning, 
and a small mallet or hammer was used for a pestle. The corn 
was first soaked in lye to remove the bran. It was then placed 
in the mortar, and the work began. Stimulated hj good diges- 
tion, strong muscles and sometimes hunger, the work was done. 
The indifferent meal or flour was bolted by hand ; at first by 
punching holes in a deer skin with the tines of a fork or other 
sharp instrument, and this was used as a kind of sieve. A box 
was sometimes made, and the bottom covered with some suitable 
cloth, and the meal or floui- put in this and shaken over another 


box, which would receive the finer particles as they fell through 
the cloth. Some went to Maysville to mill, some to Harbin's 
horse-mi] 1, some to Donaldson and others elsewhere. 


This township was set o£P by the commissioners February 2, 
1837, on the petition of Samuel Chambers and others. It was 
named in honor of Col. Francois Vigo. It embraces sixty -three 
square miles of area, or about 40,000 acres. The greater part of 
this township was formerly a part of Widner Township. The 
township is composed largely of rich farming land, particularly 
along White River and Black Creek bottoms. Some mining is 
done in different parts of the township, but farming and stock 
raising is the principal industry. 


The first settlers in the northern part of the township lived 
mainly in the vicinity of Black Creek. One of the first in that 
section was Thomas Anderson, the father of Presley Anderson. 
He settled there in about 1820. He moved there in a two-horse 
wagon and settled on a land warrant of 160 acres of land. 
Anderson was a soldier at Tippecanoe. Samuel Scamp was from 
the East; he settled on Black Creek in 1819. He was a farmer, 
but occasionally took a flat-boat to New Orleans. John Johnson 
settled about one and a half miles southwest of Sandborn after the 
war of 1812, in which he was a soldier. Robinson Anderson was 
from Kentucky; he settled east of the railroad about two miles 
from Sandborn. Phillip Slaughter and Fred Slaughter were 
from Kentucky, but came at a later date. The last named built 
a water-mill on Black Creek about 1835. Mrs. Smith (granny) 
lived as a squatter on the river at Owl Prairie. She had a son, 
Jacob, who dressed as an Indian and did little but hunt. 
"Granny " Smith was supposed to possess the mysterious power 
of witchcraft, and woe unto the one that should come within her 
enchanted circle, the silver bullet being the only remedy, which 
was once tried by Phillip Slaughter. John McMurray and John 
McCombs also settled near Black Creek. Others were George 
Williamson, brother-in-law of Blan Ballard, the great Indian 


fighter. James Anderson, the great-grandfather of Presley- 
Anderson and a Eevolntionary soldier, and Moses Slinkard, who 
was a son-in-law of Scamp. Slinkard lived between Black Creek 
and White Eiver, where he built a horse-mill between 1820 and 
1830. William Keith settled on Section 36 about 1820. Hopkins 
lived near the present site of Edwardsport. Other settlers in the 
same vicinity were Comstock, Goodman, Azbell and Hulen. 
Near the southern part of the township were Bicknell and Buntin 
and later were the Medleys. 

Deer, turkeys and smaller game were abundant. Wolves were 
so numerous as to make it difficult to raise sheep or hogs without 
great care. Wolves seem to be particular enemies to sheep and 
young pigs. Few bears were seen. Moses Williamson once killed 
a young bear in his potatoe patch with a hoe. Pelts Hooser once 
tracked two bears to a large hollow elm tree about three miles 
east of Edwardsport, smoked them out and killed them. 


A portion of Knox County was known as Palmyra Township 
as early as 1801 ; however, it was not reduced to its present limits 
until 1851. It consists of fifty-two donations and one or two 
surveys and some fractional donations, embracing over 20,000 
acres of laud. Nearly all of the lands of the toM'uship are arable, 
the only exception being a small amount at the head of the 
Deshee and that along Pond Creek and about Montour's Pond.* 
The acreage in cultivation is the largest of any in the county in 
proportion to its size. In 1884 Palmyra had 3,001 acres in 
wheat and 4,571 acres in corn, with about 2,500 acres in timothy 
and clover. It is strictly a central township, being bounded o^ 
the north by Washington, on the east by Steen, on the south by 
Harrison and on the west by Vincennes Townships. In form it 
is almost square. It is divided into two almost equal divisions 
by the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. The township contains 
neither store, 2Jostoffice nor grist-mill, yet is one of the wealthiest 
in the county. 

'Named for a Piankeshaw Indiaa chief. 


One of the first settlers in the southern part of the township 
was William Williams. He came from Virginia and settled in 
the township about 1800. He was with Gen. Harrison at Tippe- 
canoe and received a slight wound. He owned a small farm and, 
like many pioneers, he made shoes for his own family. The sons 
of William Williams were Thomas, Joseph, Eben and Jesse; the 
former was born in 1805 and is still living. He has resided 
nearly all his life on the northwest qtiarter of Donation 30. The 
sons all settled in the same vicinity. Joseph, brother of William, 
also lived in the same neighborhood. John McCoy, who lived 
. about one mile south of Thomas Williams, was killed at Tippe- 
canoe, but his family remained in the same neighborhood for 
many years. William Welton settled the farm and cleared a part 
of the land in Donation 30, previous to 1800. John Welton, Sr., 
settled that portion of 31 where John Welton now resides. 
There were two other brothers, Ebenezer and William. George 
McClure settled on Donation 29, where he built a horse-mill and 
also a small still-house. Isaac Purcell came to the county from 
Virginia about 1790. Louisville was then unknown. He settled 
on Location 28. Noah Purcell also settled the adjoining donation ; 
William, elsewhere mentioned, settled near Bruceville, and 
Andrew settled where PurcelFs Station now is, on the Evansville 
& Terre Haute Railroad. In Donation 28 Purcell formerly had 
a small water-mill and still-house, also for a time a tanyard. 
George W. Purcell was murdered on December 26, 1862, by four 
men on the farm where Daniel Fox now lives. Samuel Emison 
was one of the pioneer settlers of Palmyra ; he lived in the vicin- 
ity of Purcell; he was a farmer and was surveyor for a time. 
David and John McCord were also among the early settlers of 
Palmyra. John Hogue opened a farm a little east of the Purcell 
neighborhood. David McClure lived near Emison's. Samuel 
Langdon bought the lands in Donations 68 and 58 in 1807. 

Truman Marks, now eighty-five years of age, has lived in the 
county sixty-four years. H3 was born in New York; from there 
he went to Baltimore, thence to North Carolina, thence to what 
is now West Virginia. He made a "pirogue," and in this, with 
his wife and a small store of goods, he floated or rowed down the 
Big Sandy and the Ohio to Shawneetown. He then worked his 


way to Vincennes on a keel-boat. He bought 400 acres of land 
of Mcintosh for $1.25 per acre. Marks claims to have walked 
from Terre Haute to Vincennes in a single clay. Daniel Wamp- 
ler, who lived about two miles from Marks, was a pioneer settler, 
a farmer and blacksmith, being the first in the township. L. C. 
Langdon is still using a fire shovel which is said to have been 
made by Wampler in 1816. John Parker, Jacob Kuble and 
Daniel Snyder all lived near Wampler. Martin Rose was one of 
the first settlers, he owned Donation 52, where H. R. Wise now 
lives. Rose and a son were in the Indian war. William Herrell, 
Samuel O. Johnson, Joseph and Abraham Stoffey, and Joseph 
Hogue were also old settlers. Hogue, son-in-law of Parker 
above mentioned, was a great bear hunter. Game consisting of 
tui-keys and deer, was very abundant. Occasionally a bear was 
killed. It was on wild meats that the pioneer depended largely 
for food. 


David Welton built an ox tread-mill on his farm in the south- 
ern part of the township. Robert McClure built a horse-mill, as 
did Noah Purcell a small water-mill. Col. Jordan also owned a 
water-mill at the head waters of the Deshee. Grists that were 
not ground at these mills were ground by hand-mills, beaten in a 
mortar or taken elsewhere. The only tanyard remembered was 
the one owned by Isaac Purcell. During the Indian troubles of 
1812-14 every neighborhood had its forts or block-houses, suffi- 
cient for the accommodation of the settlers. The most convenient 
and commanding place was usually chosen. There were two 
such defenses in Palmyra, one at Isaac Purcell's, the other at 
Martin Rose's, usually known as Rose's fort. These were built 
in 1812, but neither was ever attacked. 


The works seen in Knox County, consist of mounds of habita- 
tion, sepulchral and temple mounds, and number over 200, with 
probably as many more not yet explored. Mounds of habitation are 
found in the north and southwest parts of Vincennes, along the 
summit of the high river bluff south of Edwardsport, on the 
wagon road between the latter town and Sandborn, and on the 

♦From the report of the State Geologist. 


top and sides of the Dicksburg hills. A group of fifty-two 
mounds on the Vaulting farm six miles southeast from Purcell, 
showed more attention to regularity than is elsewhere^seen, being 
arranged somewhat in regular lines fi-om north to south, and 
from east to west. Sepulchral mounds are rare. The only one 
certainly identified was situated centrally in the last mentioned 
group. Explored by Samuel Jordan, it was found to contain 
human skeletons, and round-bottomed pottery. Plumb-bobs, stone 
shuttles, spinerets and numerous fi-agments of pottery have been 
found on S. Catt's land (Survey 22) adjoining. Other tumuli 
of this character will reward the future explorer. This region 
was well to the center of the Mound Builders Nation. Eemote 
from the dangers incident to a more exposed situation and encir- 
cled by a bulwark of loving hearts — forts, walled exclosures, 
and citadels were unnecessary, and not erected as at exposed points 
on their frontier. Perhaps the seat of a royal priesthood, their 
efforts essayed to build a series of temples which constituted at 
once capital and holy city — the Heliopolis of the West. Three 
sacred mounds thrown upon, or against the sides of the second 
terrace or bluff east and southeast of Vincennes are the result; 
and in size, symmetry and grandeur of aspect, rival if not excel 
any prehistoric remains in the United States. All three are trun- 
cated cones or pyramidal, and without doubt erected desig- 
nedly for sacred purposes ; the flat area on the summit was reserved 
for an oratory and altar, as in the Teocalli of Mexico. The Pyramid 
Mound (on the Miller farm, common Lot 83, Division B. ), one mile 
south of Vincennes, is placed on a slightly elevated terrace sur- 
rounded by a cluster of small mounds. It is oblong, with 
extreme diameter from east to west, at the base of 300 feet, 150 
feet wide, and is 47 feet high. The level area on the summit, 
15x50 feet, is crowded with intrusive burials of a later race. The 
Sugar Loaf Mound, on Mr. Fay's laud, just east of the city line, is 
built against and upon the side of the bluff, but stands out in 
bold relief with sharply inclined sides. Diameter from east to 
west, 216 feet; from north to south, 180 feet, and towering aloft 
140 feet above Vincennes Plain, it commands by 27 feet the high 
plateau to the east. Area on top 16x25 feet. The following 
section was developed by sinking a shaft centrally from the top: 


Feet. Inches. 

Loess sand 10 

Ashes, charcoal and bones 10 

Loess sand 17 

Ashes, charcoal and bones 10 

Loess sand 9 

Ashes, charcoal and bones 2 

Red altar clays, burned 3 

42 8 

This shaft closely approached or actually reached the former 
8ui-face of the hill. It settles decisively the artificial origin of the 
mound, and indicates a temple three stories high. The Terraced 
Mound, on Burnett's land, one mile east northeast of Vincennes 
court house, has an east and west diameter of 366 feet; from 
north to south, 282 feet, and rises to an elevation of 67 feet 
above the plain, with a level area on top, 10x50 feet. A winding 
roadway firom the east furnished the votaries of the sun easy 
access to the summit. 

The Dicksburg hills, towering like a pyramid 150 feet above 
the surrounding plains, required no additional elevation to secure 
ample outlook to greet the sunrise, the coming of their deity. 
The tops of these hills are molded into shape and covered with 
sacred and other mounds. Implements of wrought stone so 
often found elsewhere, are rare. Those seen in private collections 
exhibited symmetrical forms and a perfection of finish, which could 
scarcely be equaled by our mechanics if deprived of steel imple- 
ments, the emery wheel and diamond dust. They consisted of hoes, 
spades, awls, knives, saws, and spear and arrow points of flint and 
quartz ; axes, chisels, hammers and pestles of drift granite ; pipes, 
beads and ornamental gorgets of greenstone, jasper and cornelian; 
and plumb-bobs (pendants), made from the specular ores of Mis- 
souri ; all the last are harder than steel, and indicate a maturity of 
skill that is never possessed by a " ferocious brute," but is the 
result of stable society and a considerable degree of civilization. 


All titles to real estate have their origin in the right acquired 
by the fii-st discover3^ The title to land in the State of Indiana 
comes, first, by discoveries and colonization under grants, author- 

*Prepared for this work by Charles G. McCord. 


izations and. charters from England and France, and treaties and 
concessions thereafter; second, by the Eevolution in 1776, and 
confirmations through and by the definitive treaty at Paris with 
Great Britain, September 3, 1783, whereby the Crown of Great 
Britain recognized the independence of the United States ; third, 
by cession from the State of Virginia. 

At the time of tlie confederation of the thirteen original States 
into what is now known as the United States, seven of the States 
held large possessions of unimproved lands or territories, and six 
of them did not hold any. The six States not holding any west- 
ern lands insisted that fhey should be ceded by those holding 
them to the United States as public property, and this was finally 
agreed to. The State of Virginia, by act of her Legislature or 
General Assembly, January 2, 1781, submitted a proposition for the 
cession of her western lands which the Congress of the Confeder- 
ation, by act of September 13, 1783, agreed to receive and accept, 
and the State, by law of October 20, 1783, authorized her dele- 
gates in the Congress to consummate the transfer by deed. Vir- 
ginia at this time embraced within her limits the present States 
of Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota east of the Mississijjpi River. 
Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Mon- 
roe, as the representatives of Virginia, executed the deed March 
1, 1784, and thereby conveyed to the United States "all right, 
title and claim, as well of soil as jurisdiction, which the said com- 
monwealth hath to the territory or tract of country within the 
limits of the Virginian charter, situate, lying and being to the 
northwest of the river Ohio." The French and British had, 
prior to this time, been in possession of this territory, and grants 
or concessions of lands, farms, town lots, etc., had been made to 
the French and British citizens and others by the military com- 
mandants representing their respective Governments prior to the 
year 1783. 

During the British government of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory, numbers of persons organized themselves into companies 
for colonization and trading, holding lands, etc. They were or- 
ganized under different names, such as the Ohio, the Wabash, 
the Illinois, the Mississippi and Vandalia Companies. The Illi- 


nois and Wabash Companies claimed 1,000,000 acres on these 
rivers on titles derived solely from Indian purchases made in 
1773 to 1775. Such purchases were especially forbidden by the 
King of England in his proclamation of 17(33, and very few of 
the claims were ever confirmed. All these concessions or grants 
were made upon loose pieces of paper and deposited with the 
public notary (who then filled a position similar to recorder of 
the present day). The papers were not actually recorded, but 
simply filed in the office of the notary, and soon became lost or 
destroyed. In one instance, about 1775, the notary ran off and 
carried all the papers with him. In 1779 John Todd took 
charge of the government of the Northwest Territory, under au- 
thority of the State of Virginia. After making numerous grants 
of land as commandant at Post St. Vincent, he appointed ■ Mr. 
Legras his deputy and successor, who also made grants, and he 
in turn conferred his authority upon a court of civil and criminal 
jurisdiction at Vincennes. The grants made by this court before 
1783 amounted to 26,000 acres, and by 1787 to 48,000 acres, in 
parcels of 400 acres to heads of families, besides many town lots. 
This court, on the 3d of July, 1790, in reply to an inquiry by 
Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the Territory, as to their author- 
ity for making these grants, said: "Mr. Legras, who was the 
commandant assumed that he had, in quality of commandant, au- 
thority to give lands according to the ancient usages of other 
commanders, and he verbally informed the court of Post Vin- 
cennes that, when they should judge it proper to give lands or 
lots to those who should come into the country to settle, or other- 
wise, they might do it, and that he gave the permission so to do." 
The Virginia deed of cession expressly provided: "That the 
French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kas- 
kaskias, St. Vincent and the neighboring villages, who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their possess- 
ions and titles confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoy- 
ment of their rights and liberties." For the purpose of adjust- 
ing all these claims, as well as making additional grants to those 
who had done military duty and rendered other services to the 
United States, "An act for granting lands to the inhabitants and 
settlers at Vincennes and the Illinois country, in the territory 


northwest of tbe Ohio, and for confirming them in their possess- 
ions," was passed by Cotigi-ess, March 3, 1791. 

By this act it was provided, fii'st, that 400 acres of land 
should be given to the head of each family residing at Vin- 
cennes or in the Illinois country in the year 1783 ; second, that 
a tract of land containing 5,400 acres near Vincennes, which had 
been under fence and used as a pasture for thirty years, should 
be given to the inhabitants of Vincennes to be used by them as a 
common until otherwise disposed of by laws ; third, that the gov- 
ernor of the Territory be authorized to donate a tract of land of 
100 acres to each man who on the 1st of August, 1790, was en- 
rolled in the militia at Vincennes, had done militia duty and not 
received a donation ; fourth, that the governor, upon application, 
should confirm to heads of families the lands which they may 
have possessed, and which may have been alloted to them accord- 
ing to the usages of the Government under which they had respect- 
ively settled ; fifth, that where lands had been actually improved 
and cultivated at Vincennes or in the Illinois country, under a 
supposed grant of the same by any commandant or court claim- 
ing authority to make such grant, the governor might confirm 
such claim not exceeding 400 acres to each person. By an act of 
Congress, passed March 2(3, 1804, land offices were established 
at Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Detroit and other places. By this act 
it was also provided that the register and receivers of each land 
office were appointed commissioners to examine and. confirm 
claims to real estate. By act of Congress, passed March 3, 1807, 
all the decisions made by the governors and commissioners under 
the above acts were confirmed. Other acts of similar character 
and for the same purpose were passed from time to time until as 
late as 1856. 

Real estate, unless it lies within the limits of a city or town, 
is usually described by what is commonly called the congressional 
section system, adopted by Congress May 20, 1785, upon the 
recommendation of a committee of which Thomas Jefferson was 
chairman. By the congressional system a piece of land one mile 
square, containing 640 acres, called a section,' is laid off, and then 
divided equally into sixteen smaller squares, containing forty 
acres each. The section itself is then numbered according to the 


"town" and "range" it is in. A congressional " town" is six 
miles square, and contains six sections. The number of the 
town depends upon the distance from the " base line," and the 
number of the "range" depends upon the distance fi'om the 
" meridian line." In other words, " Section 15, Town 5 north. 
Range 8 west," would be the (340 acres lying five to\vns north of 
the " base line," and eight ranges west of the second meridian 
line. Again, as a town and range are each six miles in length, 
this land would lie thirty miles north of the "base line" and 
forty-eight miles west of the meridian line. A " base line" is a 
definitely located line from which all distances north and south 
are counted. A meridian line is a definitely located line from 
which all distances east or west are counted. The second prin- 
cipal meridian line coincides with 86 degrees, 28 minutes of lon- 
gitude west fi-om Greenwich, starts from the confluence of the 
Little Blue Eiver with the Ohio, runs north to the northern 
boundary of Indiana, and governs the surveys in Indiana and 
a portion of those in Illinois. Base lines are not numbered. 
The one in this State and Illinois runs due east from the Missis- 
sippi Eiver, and crosses the Ohio River near Jeffersonville. It 
passes through the southern part of Knox County, and governs 
the number of the " town" of each section in Indiana. 

The lands held in possession by claimants, under the acts 
of Congress referred to above, were of so many different sizes 
and shapes that as to them no one system of description could be 
used. To provide for the fii-st class of claims, under the act of 
March 3, 1791, a large, square tract of land, consisting of 64,000 
acres, divided into 160 lots containing 400 each, and called dona- 
tion lots, was first laid out, and these proving insufficient, eighty- 
six more, or 34,400 acres, were laid off. They are called "dona- 
tions" because they were donated. The tract of land consisting 
of 5,400 acres, given by the same act to the inhabitants of Vin- 
cennes for a " common," has since been divided into square lots 
of three different sizes, containing respectively five, ten and 
twenty acres each, and called Divisions "A," "B" and "C." 
They are called "commons lots," because they were originally used 
for a " common." The 100-acre tracts, authorized by this act to 
be donated to persons for militia service, were laid off south of 


AVliite River, in that portion of Knox County now embraced 
within the limits of Gibson County, and, like the others, took 
their name fi-om their character, and are called militia donations, 
and are laid off in the shape of a parallelogram. In laying off 
the donations and militia donations other private claims were in- 
terfered with and disregarded. But the claimants were allowed 
the privilege of -'locating" their claims in other places, and these 
were therefore called " locations." They are irregular in shape, 
and contain from a small quantity to 400 acres each. The last 
two classes of claims mentioned in the act of March. 3, 1791, 
were ordered to be surveyed for the claimants, and are therefore 
called " surveys." These are of ii-regular shape, and their 
boundary lines run at almost all angles of the compass. There 
are several different classes, called Upper Prairie surveys. Lower 
Prairie surveys, Cathlinette Prairie surveys and surveys in dif- 
ferent towns and ranges. The "prairie surveys" take their name 
from the prairie they are situated in. The Upper and Lower 
Prairie surveys are narrow strips of land fronting on the Wabash 
River, usually two arpents in width and forty in depth. An arpent 
is 15 per cent less than an acre. The donations, locations and 
surveys are always described by metes and bounds where a quan- 
tity less than the whole is conveyed. The commons lots are 
described as Lot No. — , in Division "A," "B" or " C," of the 
Vincennes commons lands. The first survey of Knox County 
was made in 1807, by Daniel Sullivan and Robert Buntin. Less 
than one-third of the lands in the county are section lands. 
When the congressional survey was made, wherever the section 
lines conflicted with the above classes of descriptions the old de- 
scriptions prevailed. But the small pieces of land between the 
old tracts, that were not included within the limits of the old 
tracts, became and were described as fractional sections of such a 
town and range as they were in. The section lands have all been 
disposed of by more recent acts of Congress, which are so gener- 
ally understood that they do not possess any historical interest 
or demand any special notice. 


The principal claims to land in the vicinity of Vincennes were 


grants by the Indians ; grants by the French and British Govern- 
ments; grants from the courts; grants of 400-acre donations, as 
heads of families on or before 1783, and given by Congress 
August 29, 1788, and March 5, 1791; and donations of 100 acres 
for militia service, performed by those enrolled August 1, 1790. 
The following tracts of 400 acres each were allowed by John 
BadoUet and Nathaniel Ewing, land commissioners in 1806, and 
confirmed by Congress in 1807. The name at the left of the num- 
ber indicates the original owners, and the one to the right the 
present (1806) claimants: 

Joseph Andrez, 28, Noah Purcell; Louis Adair, 37, Patrick 
Simpson; Alexis Astrus, called Guignolet, 118, Zachariah Mills; 
Michel Bordeleau, 20, George McClure; Francois Barrois, Jr., 7, 
Ephraim Jordan; Jean Baptiste Boneau 169, 225 to Jacob, Joseph 
and Dorothy Pancake, and 175 to Simon Vanorsdal; Jean Bap- 
tiste Barrois, 166, Anthony Junkin's heirs; Louis Brouillette, 1, 
Patrick Simpson, 300, and John Small, 100; Amable Bolon, 116, 
Patrick Simpson; Michel Brouillette, Sr., 14, L. N. Fortin; Pierre 
Bequet, 194, L. N. Fortin, 133i, Henry Vanderburg, 133, and 
133J not registered; J. B. Binet, 5, James Jensen; Andre Be- 
quet, dit St. Dizier, 216, Toussaint Dubois; Jacques Bequet's heirs, 
245, George Wallace, Jr. ; Gabriel Bolon, 227, William Clark's 
heirs; Franqois Barry, 171, Thomas Coulter; Buteau (widow), 
209, William Mcintosh; Louis Bolon, 184, Henry Vanderburg; 
Pierre Boneau, 182, Henry Vanderburg; Charles Boneau, 89, 
Richard Pollard; Louis Bergeron, 34, Jonathan Purcell; J. B. 
Busseroh, heir, 215, same; Gabriel Bolon, Sr., 214, Eob Buntin; 
Dominique Bergand, 174, William Wells; Francois Barrois, Sr., 
and Laurent Barzadon, 29 and 213, Nathaniel Ewing ; Bazenette 
(widow). Vital Boucher, Charles Bergand, Boyer (widow), An- 
toine Bordeleau, Louis Boyer, Jr., Nicholas Baillarjou, Francis 
Brouillette, 146, 132, 152, 108, 102, 134, 50, 147, 237, 145, 77, 
143, 44, 74, 224, 92, 71, 95, 56, 159, 90, 139 and 45, Francois 
Vigo, Louis Lemay, Joseph Labelle, J. B. Lacine Eacine dit Ste. 
Mari(?, and Joseph Reuse, 104, 198, 155, and 117, not registered; 
J. B. Mayse, 43, Laurent Barzadon; J. B. Miliet, 23, Mathias 
Rose; Meaux, 161, John Westfall; Frangois Mallet, Pierre Perret, 
Alexander Valle and Francois Vigo, 53, 111, 129, 136 and 112, 


Isaac Westfall; Pierre Mallet, G. Page and FraiKjois Eacine, 141, 
57 and 153, Patrick Simpson; Germain Magnant, 207, L. N. For- 
tin; Nicholas Magot, 84, John Armstrong; Kene Mette, 241, Lau- 
rent Barzadou; Antoine Mario, 81, Eichard Pollard; J. B. Man- 
gen, 12, Jonathan Purcell; Andre Montplaiser, 124, Samuel Baird; 
Joseph Maisonville, Antoiue Moreau, 211, 199, Abraham Bunker; 
Joseph Mallet, 18, Hugh Knox; Frederick Mehl, 91, Frederick 
Mehl; Louis Mallet, 172, Moses Decker and Isaac Harness; 
Michel Neau, 27, his heirs, 300, and William Morrison, 100 
acres; J. B. Ouillette, 105, Eobert Buntin; Joseph Payette, 229, 
Thomas Jones; Etienue Philibert's heirs, 224, Jeremiah Clay- 
pool; Nicholas Perrot's widow, 8G, William Mcintosh and Perrot's 
heirs; Pierre Perron. Sr., 45, Mcintosh and Vigo; Francois 
Pluchon's heirs, Etienne Paneton, 235, 206, Henry Vanderburg; 
G. Payette, 176, William Wells; Louis Pluchon, 221, J. E. Jones 
and Samuel Means; Andre Peltier's widow, 144, James O'Hara. 
Joseph Perodo, 63, Manuel Liza; Louis Eenaultdit Delaurier, 
31, William Welton; J. B. Eacine dit Ste. Marie, 189, Noah 
Spear and Daniel Black; Eichard (widow), 177, John and Jacob 
Anthis; Andre Eoy, Jr., Joseph Tongar, 222, 60, W. H. Harrison; 
Andrd Eoy, Sr., Antoine Eeneau, Pierre Eimbault, Franq-ois Ton- 
ton and Valcourt's widow, 35, 195, 191, 218 and 234, William 
Mcintosh; Jacques Eiendo, 217, Eobert Buntin; Louis Eavelet, 
25, A. F. Snapp and James Scott; Francjois Ste. Mari^, 26, A. F. 
Snapp; Louis Sequin dit Guignolet, 183, Mcintosh, Vanderburg 
and Gen. W. Johnston; Etinne Ste. Marie, 72, Abraham Stipp; 
J. B. Ste. Aubin, 52, Peytor Short; Stone (widow), 47, William 
Wells; Pacine, Pierre and Andre, 120, Pierre Ste. Marie; Olivier 
Santier, 197, Noah Spears ; Jacob Teverbaugh, 246, Jacob Tever- 
baugh; Jenau Tonlon, 164, T. Dubois; Francois Trudel, 122, 
James Eeed, J. B. Tongar, Jonathan Purcell; Francois Urno, 
165, Samuel Means and John Lewis' heirs; J. B. Vaudry, Jr., 49 
Daniel McClure; Louis Edeline, 15, Isaac Westfall; Jacques 
Etienne, 13, Joseph Vanmetre; B. Fouche, 196, T. Dubois; John 
Garcis, 242, Laurent Barzadon, 200 acres, William Bullit, 200 
acres; Louis Gagnier, 167, Hemy Barkman, 200, Louis Eeel, 
100, and John Thickston, 100 acres ; Jena Guignolet, 168, Eob- 
•ert Baird; Toussaint Goder, 125, William Morrison's heirs; Een^ 


Gocler, 78, William Snider; Pierre Gamelin, 138, Peyton Short; 
Louis Goder, 21, Jesse and Abijah Hunt; Paul Gamelin, 51, W. 
Harrison; Pierre Guion, 175. H. Vanderburg; Pierre Gilbert, 
123, Simon Gonzalis, 100, Francois Vigo, 300 acres; Francois 
Goder, Charles Guielle, Amable Guarguipie, Pierre Gremarre's 
widow, Antoine Gamelin and Charles Guilbaut, 48, 128, 131, 110, 
98 and 97, Fran9ois Vigo; Toussaint Hunot's heirs, 233, L. N. 
Fortin; Joseph Hamelin, 88, Richard Pollard; Joseph Hasselin, 
187, Arham Brinker; J. B. Harpin, Moses Henry, 137, 160, 
Francois Vigo; Joseph Hunot, Sr., US. Patrick Simpson, 227, 
Jeremiah Mayes, 173 acres; William Hamilton, 16, not entered; 
J. B. Jozalle, 33, Jonathan Purcell; Edward Jonston, 87, John 
Mill's heirs; M. A. Joseph, 121, Isaac Westfall; Charles Lacoste, 
dit Languedoc, 30, William Welton; Francois Lognon, 6, Daniel 
Smith; Jena Legarde's widow, 24, William McClure, 380, Jere- 
miah Claypool, 20 acres; Pierre Leforest, 03, Henry Hurst; 
Rend Legand, 203, John Ochiltree; Antoine Lefevi-e, 68, Isaac 
Westfall; Franqois Lafleur, 180, A. F. Suapp; Lacoste, Amable - 
L'Ardoise, Joseph Lamoureux, 75, 114 and 38, Patrick Simpson; 
Jacques Lamethe, dit Cochen, Francjois Languedoc, 69, 80, T. 
Dubois ; Nicholas Lapointe, Genevive Labuxiere, 204, 17, William 
Mcintosh; Jacques Lacroix, B. D. Languedoc, 22, 223, H. Van- 
derbm-g; Rend Langlois, Louis Laderoute, 7(i, 135, Samuel Baird; 
Pierre Lef evre, 236, John Edgar ; Louis Lamar, Dennis Lebarge, 
2, 239, John Small ; Joseph Larsh, 243, George Wallace & Co. ; 
Antoine Lansford, 159, heirs of same; Phillip Legras, Joseph 
Leverou, dit Metteyd, Joseph Latrimouille, Joseph Legnon, J. B. 
Lafountain, 94, 158, 99, 113 and 70, Frangois Vigo; Louis Le- 
may, Joseph Labelle, 104, 98, not entered ; Louis Metteye, Fran- 
cois Menie, Antoine Mallet, Francois Peltier, Amable Perron, 
Etienne Phillibert, dit Oreleans, Pierre Perron, Pierre Querre, 
Pierre Richard, Pierre Reuger, Joseph Reaux, Frani;ois Rous- 
saint, Louis Roussault, Joseph Sabelle, Francois Turpin, J. B. 
Vaudry and Antoine Vauchy, 73, 55 and 83, to Frannois Vigo; 
Frangois Busseron, 131, Dabois and Marchal in trust; Pierre 
Barron's heirs, 225, Samuel McConnel; J. B. Breton, dit St. Mar- 
tin, 173, Jeremiah Daudson; Pierre Codor's widow, 42, William 
Welton; Frangois Coder, 211, Jonathan Marney; J. B. Chapoton, 


230, John D. Hay; Jerome Crely, 212, Antoine Marchal; Ursule 
Clermont, 238, A. F. Snapp. 

J. B. Cardinal, 157, Po}' ton Short and heirs of donee; Jacqiies 
Cardinal, 9, W. H. Harrison ; Pierre Conoyer, 40, Samuel McKee ; 
Moses Carter, 226, Henry Vanderburg; Pierre Cartier, 67, Simon 
Gonzalis ; J. B. Carron and Jonathan Conger, 178 and 162, Will- 
iam Wells; Joseph Chartier, Joseph Chabot, Antoine Caty, 
Nicholas Chapard, Frangois Campagnotte, Jacob Charbonneau, 
J. B. Chartier and Jean Charpantier, 15 1-, 96, 103, 106, 59, 58, 
127 and 46, Frangois Vigo; Nicholas Cardinal's widow, 101, Man- 
uel Liza; M. C. Chapard, 190, L. N. Fortin, 266| and 1331, not 
entered ; Gabriel Custo, not drawn, William Bullitt; J. B. D' Amour, 
181, Samuel Thompson; Bonaventeur Derozier, 3, John McClui-e ; 
Honore Danis, 4, John McClure, 100 and Patrick Simpson, 300 
acres ; Antoine Dugal, 79, Thomas Jones; Pierre Darguilles, 179, 
same; E. F. Delaurier, 220, same; J. B. Duchesne, 11, John 
McCoy; Amable Dumay's widow, 8, Isaac Westfall, 300 acres, 
and Ephraim Jordan 100 acres; J. B. Delaurier, 19, Isaac West- 
fall; Toussaint Denoyou's widow, 113, Patrick Simpson; Nicholas 
Ditard, 10, W. H. Harrison; Charles Dudevoir, dit Lachisue, 
41, Toussaint Dubois, Joseph Dube, 54, George Fidler; Antoine 
Drouet, dit Eichardville, 156, Antoine Drouet, Amable Delisle, 
232, Thomas Jones; Ambrose Dumais, 119, James Heed; J. L. 
Denoyou, 219, Henry Vanderburg ; Louis Deregnet, 186, Zacha.r- 
iah Mills; Dizier (widow), 193, Samuel Baird; De Hetre (widow), 
210, Eobert Buntin; T. V. Dalton, 130, J. E. Jones; Joseph 
Dagne, 192, William Mcintosh; J. B. Dutremble, dit Lafleur, 
163, T. Dubois ; Louis Denoyou's widow, Charles Delisle, Jacques 
Danis, J. B. Dubois, Joseph Ducharme, Frangois Derousse, 
Pierre Dagneau, G. Dapron's widow and Antoine Danis, 149, 142, 
133, 109, 100, 85, 107, 140 and 126, Frangois Vigo; Charles 
Dielle, 62, not entered; J. B. Villerage, 66, William Mcintosh 
and Samuel Baird; Francois Vachette, 36, Jonathan- Purcell; 
Frangois Valiquette, 240, same; Charles Villeneuve, 170, Joseph 
Vanmetre, J. B. UUaret, 238, Henry Vanderburg. In 1807 the 
following persons were each allowed 400 acres by the same law as 
the above: Charles Boucher, Hypolite Bolon, Becquet (widow), 
Joseph Brossard, Jacques Couteaux, Louis Crepeau, Francis 


Cantelmy, Lizette Clermont, Marianne W. Cardinal, Michael 
Clerinont,Ambroise Dageuat, Pierre Grimar, Pierre Goder, Francis 
Morin alias De Valcour, Pierre Perron, Andrew Pettier, Jean 
C. Thiriot's widow, Nancy Levins and Joseph Hamelin. 

The following, in addition to those found in the military 
chapter enrolled as militia in August, 1790, were also allowed 
100 acres of land by the law granting that amount of land to 
each militiaman; John Culbert, Hugh Dempsey, Mathew Dobbins, 
Francois Forzy, Eene Gorder, Ephraim Jordan, Samuel Moore, 
Eobert Mays, Francis Pacquin, Aham Pea, John Savage, John 
Small, Alexander Sampson and James Watt. Congress also con- 
firmed 362 claims through the commissioner. These claims varied 
in size from 4 acres to 408 and had been previously confirmed by 
different governors, "in virtue of French and British grants 
and of the court and commandant deeds." Nearly all the old 
families held land under these claims. There were also con- 
firmed 222 claims which had been previously confirmed by 
the different governors in virtue of the militia rights. There 
were also 32 claims confirmed by Congress through the com- 
missioners in virtue of French and British grants and of court 
and commandant deeds. Many claims were also granted by 
right of improvement. It is worthy of note that nearly every 
body of land, whether by grant or what not, lay on some stream 
of water, as "Bosseron," "Du Chien," Marie Creek, Mill Creek 
or other body. 


" United States, December 23, 1790. 
''Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Eepresentatives : 

" It appearing by the report of the Secretary of the Govern- 
ment northwest of the Ohio that there are certain cases respect- 
ing grants of land, within that territory, which require the 
interference of the Legislature of the United States, I have 
directed a copy of said report, and the papers therein referred to, 
to be laid before you, together with a copy of the report of the 
Secretary of State upon the same subject. 

"G. Washington. 

•American State Papers ; Public Lands. 


"ViNCENNES, County of Knox, [ 
July 31, 1790. ( 
'^ Sir: The absence of the Governor having made it my duty 
to carry into effect, as far as possible, the resolution of Congress 
of the 29th of August, 1788, respecting the inhabitants of Post 
Vincennes, I beg leave to report not only my proceedings under 
that resolution, but some circumstances which, in my opinion, 
ought at this time to be communicated, as very materially con- 
cerning the interests of the United States as well as individual 
settlers. The claims and pretensions of the people have very 
, generally been exhibited ; but, notwithstanding they were early 
advertised upon this business, by proclamation of Gov. St. Clair, 
given at Kaskaskias in March last, and have since been repeat- 
edly called upon by me, yet I have no doubt there are a few 
instances of inattention and neglect. For all the possessions 
which appear to have been made by French or British conces- 
sions, I have issued warrants of survey, as by the last page of 
Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, of the land records for the county of 
Knox, copies of all which accompany this report. I have also 
directed that the four hundred acre lots to be given to every head 
of a family, should be laid off for the persons named, and allot- 
ted, excepting those that might fall to the absentees mentioned, 
until the pleasure of Government is known. I beg leave, sir, to 
observe that there are a few instances where the ancient inhab- 
itants (by removing fx-om Yincennes to the Illinois country, or 
from that country to this place) cannot be included under the 
description of persons entitled to donation lands, and they hum- 
bly solicit that Congress would be graciously pleased to consider 
their situation, and permit them to participate in the general 
bounty. I think it necessary here to remark, sir, that, although 
the lands and lots which have been ordered to be surveyed, 
appear, from very good oral testimony, to b^ong to those persons 
under whose names they are respectively entered, either by orig- 
inal grants to them made, purchase or inheritance, yet there is 
scarcely one case in twenty where the title is complete, owing to 
the desultory manner in which public business has been trans- 
acted, and some other unfortunate causes. 

"The original concessions by the French and British comman- 


dants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, which it 
has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who has sel- 
dom kept any book of record, but committed the most important 
land concerns to loose sheets, w;hich, in process of time, have 
come into the possession of persons that have fraudulently 
destroyed them, or, unacquainted with their consequence, inno- 
cently lost or trifled them away ; for, by the French usage, they 
are considered as family inheritance, and often descend to women 
and chilcb-en. In one instance, and during the government of 
Mr. St. Ange here, a royal notary ran off with all the public 
papers in his possession, as by a certificate produced to me; and 
I am very sorry further to observe that, in the office of Mr. Le 
Grand, which continued from the year 1777 to 1788, and where 
should have been the vouchers for important land transactions, 
the records have been so falsified, and there is such gross fraud 
and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and information which 
I might otherwise have acquired from his papers. 

"In addition, sir, to the ancient possessions of the jjeople of 
Vincennes, under French and British concessions here, is about 
one huncb-ed and fifty acres of land, constituting a part of the 
village, and extending a mile up the Wabash Eiver, in front of 
their improved claims, which was granted by Mr. St. Ange to 
some of the Piankeshaw Indians, allotted into small divisions for 
their wigwams, and by them occupied and improved until the 
year 1786, when the last of them moved off. selling, individually, 
as they took themselves away, their s^yeral parts and propor- 
tions. The inhabitants now hold this land, parceled out amongst 
them in small lots, some of which are highly improved, and have 
been built upon before and since 1783. But, imagining, that a 
confii-mation of any Indian purchase whatever might virtually 
involve some future questions of magnitude in this territory. I 
have postponed all q^fler upon the subject until the pleasure of 
Congress can be known; in the meantime giving to the claimants 
my private opinion that they would be permitted to retain them, 
either by free gift or for some small consideration. 

"A court of civil and criminal jurisdiction, established at this 
place by J. Todd, Esq., under the authority of Virginia, in June, 
1779, and who eked out their existence to the summer of 1787, 


have, during that long period, continued to make large grants of 
lands, even by their own acknowledgments, and without more 
authority for so doing than is set forth. Many of the conces- 
sions which have been exhibited to me, in their name, they deny 
to have had any knowledge of ; and, indeed, there are. some rea- 
sons to conclude they may have been forged in the office of Mr. 
Le Grand, before mentioned, who was a servant of the court, and 
in whose handwriting the deeds have all been made out. 

" I cannot find, fi'om any information I have been able to 
acquire, that Mr. Todd ever delegated any power of granting 
land in this country, or, in fact, that he was endowed with it 
himself. On the contrary, I find by the acts of Virginia of 
1779, that the lands northwest of the River Ohio were expressly 
excepted from location, and that it was declared no person should 
be allowed pre-emption, or any benefit whatever, from settling 
this side the said river; and the Governor was desired to issue 
his proclamation requiring all persons to remove themselves, and, 
in case of disobedience, to make use of an armed force. This is 
not to extend to French and other old inhabitants actually settled 
on, or before that time, in the villages of Post Vincennes and 
upon the Mississippi. It appears, however, by a proclamation of 
Mr. Todd's, given at Kaskaskias, the 15th day of June, 1779, 
that a kind of authority was meant to be implied somewhere in 
tlie country, to grant lands, not only upon the river bottoms and 
prairies under the French restrictions, but in large quantities, 
and with more latitude at a distance therefrom ; and twenty-six 
thousand acres have been granted away fi-om that time to 1783, 
inclusive; aCnd to the year 1787 (when Gen. Harmar checked the 
abuse) twenty-two thousand more, though generally in parcels of 
four hundred acres, though some are much smaller, and do not 
exceed the size of house lots. The court has also granted to 
individuals, in some instances, tracts of ma«y leagues square; 
but a sense of the impropriety of such measures has prevented 
the bringing forward those claims. Notwithstanding that some 
of the four hundred acres and small lots, on or before 1783, yet 
the authority whence they were derived has been such, that I 
could not consider them as "rightful claims." They are, how- 
ever, sir, in a few instances, under considerable cultivation and 


improvement, and some of the plantations, and many of the small 
lots, which have been granted by the court since that time, are 
now cultivated in tillage, and have been possessed by the present 
claimants, at much expense; but by far the greatest number of 
them were obtained at the cost of office fees only, and remain to 
this hour in a state of nature, or with no other alteration than 
has been necessary to convert them into sugar camps. 

"Upon the subject of those lands, sir, a petition has been pre- 
sented to me by, and in behalf of, eighty Americans, setting 
forth that they were induced to come into this country by the 
court of Post Vincennes, with every assurance of their author- 
ity to make grants. That, in good faith of this, they have 
formed their establishments at considerable expense, and must be 
involved in ruin, unless the generosity of Congress shall permit 
their holding them. The French inhabitants have also petitioned 
me upon the subject of coui't grants; some of which are now 
under cultivation, at no small expense and labor. I beg leave, 
sir, to lay the situation of those people before Government, most 
respectfully representing that the welfare and prosperity of a 
number of industrious and good citizens in this Territoiy must 
depend very much upon their order. A petition has also been 
presented by the inhabitants of Vincennes, praying a confirma- 
tion of their commons, comprehending about two thousand four 
hundred acres of good, and three thousand acres of sunken 
lands. They have been, it appears, thirty years under a fence, 
which is intended to confine their cattle within its boundaries, 
and keep them out of their wheat fields; for, contrary to the 
usage of farmers generally, the cattle are enclosed, and the culti- 
vated lands are left at large, except those parts which immedi- 
ately approach the commons. But this fence, and quiet posses- 
sion under the French and British Governments, they seem to 
imagine entitles them to a good prescriptive right. It has been 
the usage of the commandants to make all their grants in writ- 
ing; and, as this has not been produced, or any evidence of it, I 
think it my duty to refer the matter to Congress, as I am not 
authorized to decide upon it. One other petition, sir, I am con- 
strained to introduce. It has been signed by one hundred and 
thirty-one Canadian, French and American inhabitants, all 


enrolled in the militia, setting forth that many of them were 
heads of families soon after the year 1783. That, from their 
situation, they are liable to, and willing to perform, an extraordi- 
nary proportion of military duty, and soliciting that Congress 
would be pleased to make them a donation of lands; In justice 
to the petitioners, I think it incumbent on me to observe, that 
the commanding officer of the regular troops here has been 
obliged, in some instances, to demand their services for convoys of 
provisions up the Wabash Kiver; and, from the weakness of the 
garrison, and the present difficulties of communication with other 
posts and the Ohio, that he may have frequent occasion for their 
aid, which I have no doubt will be yielded at all times with the 
greatest cheerfulness. 

"Before I close this letter, sir, I must take the liberty of rep- 
resenting to Congress, by desire of the citizens of this country, 
and as a matter which I humbly conceive they should be informed 
of, that there are, not only jit this place, but in the several villages 
upon the Mississippi, considerable claims for supplies furnished 
the troops of Virginia, before and since 1783, which no person 
yet has been authorized to attend to, and which is very injurious 
to the interest and feelings of men who seem to have been exposed 
to a variety of distresses and impositions by characters pretend- 
ing to have acted under the orders of that government. The 
people of Vincennes have requested me to make known their 
sentiments of fidelity and attachment to the sovereignty of the 
United States, and the satisfaction they feel in being received 
into their protection, which I beg leave to communicate in their 
own words, by the copy of an address presented me on the 23d 
instant. If, in this long letter of report and representation, I 
may appear to have tediously dwelt upon the claims and preten- 
sions of the people of this country, I request, sir, that it may be 
attributed to that desire which I feel at all times, faithfully to ex- 
ecute the attentions necessary to individual interests, and the 
great duty I owe to government. With every sentiment of respect 
to your excellency and Congress, I have the honor to be, sir, your 
most obedient humble servant. 

WiNTHROP Sargent. 

" The President of the United States. 



" Town at Post Vincennes, July 31, 1790. 
" Sir: From the best information I have been able to acquire, 
confirmed by the testimony of the gentlemen of the courts of 
quarter sessions of the peace and common pleas, as well as judge 
of probate, given me in the presence of yourself, Maj. Hamtramck, 
and Maj. Vigo, I believe the following to be an accurate list of 
the heads of families settled at Post Vincennes, on and before the 
year 1783. and residents here at this time; consequently they are 
entitled to the donation lands promised them by Congress ; and 
you will please to consider this as your sufficient warrant for sur- 
veying and allotting them agreeably to the commission given you 
for that purpose. Patents will issue as soon as your returns are 

made into my office. 

"To Samuel Baird, Esq. 
Louis Alare. 
Joseph Andrez. 
Francois Brouillet. 
Frangois Baroye, Jr. 
John Baptiste Binette. 
Charles Bonneau. 
Vital Boucher. 

Marie, mdow of Louis Boyer. 
Amable Boulon. 
Charles Bugand. 
Michael Bordeleau. 
Nicholas Baillarjon. 
Michael Brouillet. 
Frangois Bosseron. 
Francois Baroye, Sr. 
Antoine Bordeleau, Sr. 
Louis Brouillet. 
Louis Boyer, Jr. 
John Baptiste Cardinal. 
Frangois Coder. 
Pierre Carnieyer. 
Joseph Chabot. 
Antoine Caty. 
Frangois Compagnot. 

WiNTHROP Sargent. 

Jacques Cardinal. 
Joseph Chartier. 
Nicholaus Charpaid. 
John Charpeutier. 
Louis Coder. 
Jacob Charbonneau. 
Pierre Chartier, Sr. 
Moses Carter. 
Antoine Drouettee. 
John Baptiste Dubois. 
John Baptiste Ducheme. 
Charles Dielle. 
Charles Delisle. 
Pierre Daigneau. 
Antoine Darrys. 
Louis De Claureier. 
John Baptiste De Elaureier. 
Honorez Darrys. 
Charles Dudevoir. 
Amable Delisle. 
Jacque Denye. 
Joseph Ducharme. 
Bonnaventure Derogier. 
Nicholaus Ditard. 



Frangois Desause. 
Louis Edeline. 
Joseph Flamelin. 
John Baptiste Joyale. 
Paul Gameliii. 
Charles Guielle. 
Toussaiut Goder. 
Antoine Gamelin. 
Pierre Gamelin. 
Amable Gaurguipis. 
Alexis Asttuse Gallionois. 
Pierre Gilbert. 
John Baptiste Harpin. 
Joseph Huuot, Sr. 
Etienne Jacques. 
Edward Johnston. 
Jacques Latrimouille. 
Frangois Lognon. 
Joseph LogUon. 
Jacque Lacroix. 
Pierre Laforest. 
Antony Luneford. 
Charles Languedoc. 
Jacque Lamotte. 
Andrez Languedoc. 
Renez Langlois. 
Joseph Levrond. 
Louis Laderoute. 
Frangois Languedoc. 
Louis Lamare. 
John Baptiste Maugen. 
Pierre Malette. 
Antoine Malette. 
Andrez Monplesir. 
Louis Meteyer. 
Frangois Minie. 

John Baptiste Milliet. 

Nicholas Mayot. 

Frangois Mallet. 

Joseph Mitchel. 

Antoine Marier. 

Frederick Mahl. 

Joseph Malette. 

John Baptiste Mois. 

Michael Neau. 

John Baptiste Ouilette. 

Joseph Perodeau. 

Guillaume Payes. 

Pierre Perret. 

Amable Perron. 

Pierre Quenez, Sr. 

John Baptiste St. Marie Racine. 

Pierre Regnez. 

Frangois Racine. 

Pierre et Andrez Racine. 

Louis Ravalet. 

Louis Roupiault. 

Joseph Raux. 

Joseph St. Marie. 

Joseph Sabolle. 

John Baptiste St. Aubin. 

Etienne St. Marie. 

Frangois Turpin. 

Frangois Trudel. 

Joseph Tougas. 

Frangois Vachette. 

John Baptiste Vaudrye. 

John Baptiste Vaudrye, Jr. 

Francis Vigo. 

Alexander Vallez. 

Antoine Vaudrye. 

John Baptiste Vilray. 

Angelic, widow of Etienne Phillibert. 
Mary Louis, widow of Nicholas Perrot. 


Felicit(?, widow of Francois Peltier. 

Louisa, widow of Andre? Peltier. 

Angelic, widow of Francis Basinet. 

Marie, widow of Nicolaus Cardinal. 

Susanna, widow of Pierre Coder. 

Marian, widow of Louis Denorgon. 

Marie, widow of Joressaints Denorgon. 

Veronique, widow of Gilliome Daperon. 

Franooise, widow of Ambroise Dagenet. 

Genevieve, widow of Pierre Gumare. 

Ann, widow of Moses Henry. 

Catarine, widow of Jolin Baptiste Lafontaine. 

Maudeline, widow of St. Jean Legarde. 

Veronic, widow of Gabriel Legrand. 

Marie Louise, widow of John Phillip Marie Legrats. 

Louisa, widow of Antoine Lefevre. 

Catarine, widow of Amable Lardoise. 

Maudeline, widow of Joseph Stone. 

Genevieve, wife of Joseph Labuissiere, the husband deserted. 

Kenez Godere dit Pannah. 

Agate, widow of Amable Dumay. 

" You are also to survey, lay off and bound the several tracts 
and parcels of land hereafter specified, for, and at the expense of, 
the proper claimants, and return plats thereof, as soon as may be, 
into the office of the secretary of the Territory. And you wiU 
please to observe that the measurements of all ancient rights 
must be by the French acre or arpent, which has heretofore been 
the standard of land measure in this as well as the Illinois 
country. WiNTHBOP Saegent. 

" Samuel Baird, Esquire. 

"For Frederic Berger, a lot in Post Viucennes, of twenty-five 
toises, one side to the church lands, another to Andrez Mont- 
plesir and two others to streets. John St. Aubin, a piece of land 
two acres in front and the usual depth, one side to Nicholas Chas- 
seau and another side to Dayneaux; a lot of one hundred and 
fifty feet, one side to Levron and the three others to streets; 
another lot, fifty-one feet by thirty, one side to Eegis, another to 


the common and two sides to streets ; another, seventy-two feet 
by one hundred and fifty, one side to Brisard, another to unlo- 
cated lands and two sides to streets. The widow Denorgon, a 
piece of land three acres in front and usual depth, one side to 
Barr and the other to Lappamboise. Michael Neau, a lot one 
hundi-ed and fifty feet, one side to Peter Coder and another to 
Louis Mallet. Charles Bonneau, a lot one hundred and seventy- 
four by one hundred and fourteen feet, one side to Bene Coder, 
one to Charles Bonneau, one to Landeroule and Lafleur and one 
to Main Street. Francis Mallet, a piece of land two acres in 
front and usual depth, by the meadow of the Big Marsh ; a lot 
one hundred and; fifty by one hundred and twenty feet, situated 
above the fort. Nicholas Chapart, a lot two hundred and four 
by one hundred and eighty feet, one side to a street running to 
the water, another side to a street running to lands not granted. 
Louis Edeline, a piece of land two acres in front and customary 
depth, one side to Dainaux, another to Sanschagrin, and by the 
Big Marsh meadow; one lot of twenty-five toises, one side to 
Chabot and three sides to streets ; a piece of land four acres in 
front by the. usual depth, one side to J. L. Denorgon and other 
side church land. John Baptiste Ducheme, a lot one hundred and 
twenty feet, facing three streets. Michael Bordeleau, a piece of 
land two acres front by the usual depth, one side to Proux and 
the other to Buelle; a lot one hundred and fifty by one hundred 
and thirty-eight feet, facing four streets ; another lot in the town, 
on which stood a barn ; the quantity and boundaries are not ex- 
pressed in the original concession, and it must be so laid off as 
not to interfere with the streets of the village or lot of any other 
person. Laurent Bazadonne, a lot thirty-eight feet wide, from a 
street to a lane, one side to Louis Boyer. John Binet, a lot one 
hundred and fifty by one hundred and thirty-two feet, one side 
to Arpin, another to Charles Lachin and two sides to streets. 
Antony Caty, a piece of land two acres front by the usual depth, 
one side to Louis Edeline and the other to Joseph Leveron, near 
the Big Marsh. 

"Alexander Valle, a lot one hundred and fifty feet, one side to 
Frangois Barois, another to Michael Neall and two sides to streets ; 
two acres by the usual depth, one side to Toussaint Noyon and 


the other by St. Louis. Joseph Tongas, a lot one hundred and 
fifty feet, one side to Sansosy and another to Anoyon ; two arpents 
in front by usual de2:)th, by the marsh of Cathilinette, one side 
to Tougas and the other to Louis Bergeron; three acres in front 
by usual depth, in Cathilinette, one side to Frangois Barois and 
another to Joseph Raux. James Cardinal, a piece of land three 
acres in front and usual depth, on the other side the hog swamp 
and joining the lands of Lachine; a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Languedoc and another to Carron. Peter Mallet, a lot 
twenty-five toises, one side to Lewis Mallet and the other three 
sides to streets. John Toulon, a lot one hundred and fifty feet 
square, one side to Bakus, another to Jacques Lamotte. Nicho- 
laus Ballaidi'on, two acres in front and the usual depth, in the 
prairie of the Grand Marsh, one side to Peter Godere, the other 
to Vaudrye. Nicholaus Ballaidron, a lot three hundred feet by 
one hundred and fifty, one side to church, another to Moreau; a 
lot one hundred and fifty feet, one side to St. Jean and to two 
streets, other boundary not mentioned. John Decker, a lot one 
hundred and fifty by one hundred and fourteen feet, in the com- 
mon. Frangois Languedoc, a lot eighteen toises by twenty-five, 
one side to a street and one side to Kedyente; a piece of land 
two acres in front by forty in depth, one side to Plifford and 
another to vacant lands. John Baptiste Millet, a lot in the village, 
one side to Peter Pecon and another to Francis Dagneau. Ste- 
phen St. Marie, a lot of twenty-five toises, one side to Cardinal, 
another to Raperault, and facing two streets. James Walls, a lot 
fifty by twenty-five toises, one side to Andres and three sides to 
the streets. Nicholaus Myot, a lot twenty-sis toises, one side to 
Peter Coder and the other to streets. Alexis Ouilette, a lot 
twenty-five toises by twelve and a half, one side to Bolon and 
another to Derozier. Vital Boucher, a lot twenty-eight toises, 
one side to Cardinal and another to Dubois. The widow of Jo- 
seph Leveson, a piece of land two acres in front by the usual 
depth, one side to Sanschagrin and another by Chaboute, near 
the big swamp; also a lot twenty-five toises, one side by Sanscha- 
grin and others by streets, both supposed to belong to A. Langue- 
doc. Andrew Languedoc, a piece of land nine acres in front by 
the usual depth, to begin at the common fence toward the Little 


River. John Baptists Fricliette, a lot of twenty-five toises, one 
side to Hamilton and another to Vigo. Charles Lacoste, a piece 
of land two acres front by the usual depth, one side to Lacoste 
and another to Riendo ; a lot twenty-eight toises square, and house 
thereon. The widow and children of Nicholas Cardinal, a lot 
twenty-six toises square, one side to Widow TranbuUe and another 
to Peter Queret; a lot in the village, twenty-five toises, one side 
to Bonneau and another to the domain; a tract of land two acres 
by forty, one side to Berthuit and the other to Godere. Peter 
Queret, a lot in the village, one side to his father and another to 
M. Vigo. The widow of Antoine Lefevre, a lot of eighteen 
toises, five feet by twenty-four toises, five feet, one side to Bon- 
neau and another to Vaudrye; a tract of two acres in front and 
the usual depth, in the Little Prairie, one side to Racine and the 
other to Crepeaux. Joseph Perredeau, a lot twenty-five toises, 
one side to Trudel and another to Bonneau. Joseph Perredeau, 
the yxjunger, a lot of twenty-five toises, one side to Johnston and 
three sides to streets. Andrez Monplesir, two acres in fi-ont and 
usual depth, near the Cathilinette, one side to Lamotte, fronting 
on the river; a lot twenty-five toises by three streets, and a barn 
thereon, granted by St. Marie; also a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Bergen, and fronting two streets, formerly belonging to 
Brouillette. The children of Andrew Pelliere, two acres in front 
by the ordinary depth, by lands of Diri; a lot twenty-five toises', 
one side to Astringus and another to J. B. Richard. The widow 
of Charles Lefevre, two acres in front by the usual depth, in the 
prairie of Cathilinette, bounding on lands of Dubras, called the 
Italian ; a lot in the village, bounded by M. Vigo and three streets. 
James Latrimouille, two acres in front by the usual depth, at the 
Nut Point, one side to Vaudiye and the other to Coder; a lot of 
twenty-five by twenty-four toises, one side to Dagnet and another 
to Drouet. 

" Charles Dudevoir, a lot twenty-two feet by ten toises, one side 
to Small and another to Connoyer ; two lots fifty by twenty-five 
toises, to Binet and three streets; two acres in front, at the Nut 
Point, bounded by the ancient common fence and Baptiste 
Dacheane; two acres in front by forty in depth, at the Big 
Swamp Prairie, one side to Mallet and another to Bordeleau. 


For the church, four arpents front upon the Wabash, by the 
usual depth; a lot where the church stands, about twenty toises, 
for the church or Mr. Antoine Gamelin. Louis Leneveu, a lot of 
twenty-five toises, one side to Read and another to Luntsford. 
Honore Danis, a lot of twenty-five toises, on which is his house; 
two acres of land in front by the usual depth, near the little river, 
one side to St. Aubin and the other to Bourger. Francis Vachet, 
a lot of twelve toises square, one side to Cardinal and another to 
Dubois; Vachet also claims, by purchase from the Indians, land 
in addition sufficient to make the lot twenty -one by twenty-five 
toises, but I cannot warrant the survey of the latter part. Francis 
Baril, a lot of thirty toises, one side to churchyard and another 
to John Larue. The heirs of Moses Henry, a lot seventy feet by 
twenty-five toises, one side to Bordeleau and to three streets. 
Bene Langlois, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Monplaisir 
and two others to Charles Languedoc; two acres in fi-ont by the 
ordinary depth at the Cathilinette, one side to Barois and another 
to Bordeleau. Francis Vigo, the house where he now resides and 
two lots: one twenty-five toises square, bounding to Queret, and 
the other thirty toises by twenty -five, one side to Latippe ; also, 
four lots adjoining each other and twenty-five toises square each, 
on one of the lots is a house belonging formerly to SabouUe; 
also, two acres in fi-ont by the ordinary depth, from the Elm 
Eoad, one side to Connoyer and the other to Michael Brouillette ; 
a continuation to the river is also mentioned in the claim, but 
this is an Indian purchase and not now to be surveyed ; also, a lot 
twenty-five toises, one side to Villeneuve and the three others to 
streets; also, a lot twelve toises in fi-ont, from St. Louis' to St. 
Honore' s street, one side to Widow Legras; also, two tracts of 
two acres each in front by forty deep, north side of the Wabash 
and opposite the village, one side by a road leading to the prairies 
and the other side by the lands of Paquin ; two lots twenty-five 
by fifty toises and a barn thereon, one side to J. B. Vaudrye, the 
younger, and Francois Barois and three sides to streets. The 
Widow Astargus, a lot one hundred and fifty feet, one side to 
Laforet and another to Boisverd and two sides to streets. Philip 
Chats, a lot seventy-five by one hundred and fifty feet, one side 
to Renez Langlois, another to the Widow Peltier and facing two 


streets ; anotlier lot one liuudred and fifty feet, one side to Charles 
Berjon, anotlier to Francis Bosseron- and to two streets. Peter 
Kerre, Sr., a lot one hundred and seventy-four by one hundred 
and fifty feet, one side to Gaynolet, another to Harpin and two 
sides to streets. Eobert Johnson, two house lots in town, on 
which his house now stands. Late widow of Joseph Brassard, a 
lot of twelve toises fronting St. Louis Street, one side to Barza- 
don and another to Connoyer. John Baptiste Eichard, a lot in 
the village, one side to Boisverd and another to Lafuellarde. 
Stephen St. Marie, a lot twenty -five toises, one side to Cardinal 
and another to Eapuault. John Baptiste Binet, two acres in 
fi-ont on the river Wabash, and to Dagneau and St. Pierre, near 
Cathilinette. John Dovritt, a lot twenty-five toises by twenty- 
three, one side to Dalorier and three sides to streets; also, two 
acres in front by usual depth, in the Nut Prairie, one side to 
Dennis and another to Connoyer. James Lamothe, two acres in 
front by the ordinary depth, one side to Joachin the other Mont- 
plesir. The heirs of Joseph Lafuillarde, a lot twenty by twenty- 
five toises, one side to Sucrot and the other to Richards; two 
acres in front by the usual depth, at the Cathilinette, one side to 
Godere, another to Barada. Francis Bosseron, a lot twenty-five 
toises, one side ta Philip Chattes, another to Haslin. Francis 
Lognion, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Francis Brouillette 
and another to Corneau. Peter Laforest, a lot of twenty-four by 
twenty toises, one side to Nicholas and the other to Caty. Louis 
Seguin, a lot eleven toises by twenty-five, one side to the Widow 
Gumau and another to Mrs. Hunot. Anthony Marie, a lot 
twenty-five toises, or nearly that, bounded by four streets; also, 
a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Marie. Allen Eamsay, a lot 
twenty-five toises, one side to Cuntz and another to Bogle. 
Ursule Cointe, a lot thirty-six by twenty-five toises, one side to 
Keepler and another to church lands. 

"Charles Bergand, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Philip 
Chat, another to vacant ground and two sides to streets; two 
acres in front, one side to Vallez and another to Languedoc, near 
the Big Swamp. Some of this land is sold to Page and the 
boundaries are not well expressed. Care must be taken not to 
exceed the ancient possession. Francis Campagnote, a lot of 

118 nisroRF of knox county. 

twenty-five toises, one side by Meteiller, another by Brirard and 
by two streets. The widow of Peter Grimare, a house and lot, 
the boundaries not expressed, but to be surveyed agreeable to 
possession, not interfering with the streets. Louis Coder, a lot 
of land twenty-five toises, one side to Danis and three others by 
streets; two acres in front the usual deptb, in the Prairie des 
Cathilinette, one side to Laforest. Joseph St. Marie, a lot one 
side to Joseph Andrews, another to St. Louis Street and one side 
to the Wabash; also a lot of twenty-five toises, one side to Joseph 
Charretiere, another to John Baptiste Harpin. Louis Aller, a 
lot twenty-five toises, one side to Villeray and three sides to 
streets. Amable Bolon, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to 
Antoine Kicharville and another to Dubois. Joseph Hunot, a 
lot eighteen toiaes by twenty-five, one side to Peter Peret and 
another to Laderoute. F. P. A. and John Baptiste Racine, heirs 
of J. B. Racine, a lot of thirty toises, from St. Honore Street to 
the nest ensuing street, one side by Crely; two acres in front by 
the usual depth, in the Little River Prairie, one side to Brouil- 
lette and the other to Madame Chapeau. Francis Boyer, a lot of 
twenty-five toises, one side to Lafraniere and the other to Richard 
Francis Turpin ; a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Dagneau and 
the three others to streets. James McNutty, a lot in the village, 
one side to Mr. Boyer, another by Charbonneau. Joseph 
Chartier, a lot in the village, one side to Small and another to 
Joseph St. Marie ; two acres in front by forty deep, at Nut Point, 
one side to Charbonneau and another to Vaudi-ye. Michael 
Brouillet, a lot eighteen toises in fi-ont, one side to Connoyer and 
fronting St. Louis and St. Honore Streets; also a lot twenty-five 
toises, one side to Charpentier and two others by streets; also a 
tract two acres in front, in Nut Prairie, one side to St. Marie and 
another to Codere. Louis Mallet, a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Peter Mallet and three others by streets ; two acres in 
front by the usual depth, in the Big Swamp Prairie, one side to 
Nicholas and the other to Cbampagnotte. Antoine Bordelau, a 
lot twenty-five toises, one side to Dagneau. Antoine Marie, a lot 
twenty-five toises, one side by his own lot; three acres in front 
by forty deep, in the Big Swamp Prairie, one side to Page and 
the ' other to Hunot. John Baptiste Yaudrye, a lot twenty-six 


toises and two feet by seyeuteen and a half toises, one side to 
Gibbault, another to Madame Chapeau and another to Pierre Game- 
lin; also a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Mr. Cartier and to 
three streets; also two acres by the usual depth, in the Big 
Swamp Prairie, one side to Lafranieu and the other by Baillargon; 
also two acres by the usual depth, in the prairie on the Little 
River, one side to Charretiere and the other to Latrimouille. 
Francis Miny, a lot twelve and a half toises by twenty-five, one 
side to Dubois and another to McNutty. John Baptiste Ouillette, 
three acres in fi-ont by the usual depth, on the mill creek at the 
Yellow Banks, where is a saw and a grist-mill. Thomas Dalton, 
a lot in St. Louis Street, thirty-one and a half feet front and 
extending to the river, one side to Joseph Andr^. The widow of 
Lewis Bowyer, a lot thirteen toises by twenty-five, one side to 
McNutty and to Charbonneau. Part of this lot supposed to be 
claimed by McNutty. Jacob Pea, a lot of twenty -five toises, one 
side to Wyant and another to Sullivan. Peter Bonneau, a lot 
twenty-five toises, one side to Antoine Lefevre and another to 
Peter Gamelin; also one acre in front by forty deep, on the Elm 
Road, one side to Honore Darris and the other to John Baptiste 
St. Aubin. Francis Dumais, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to 
Bonneau and another to Lognon. 

"Peter Connoyer, a lot where he now lives, one side to Michael 
Brouillette and three sides by streets; also another lot nearly 
opposite, one side by the late Widow Brassard, another to Lachine 
and in front by St. Louis Street ; also a lot sixteen toises in front, 
one side to Michael Brouillette and another to a cross street that 
leads to the river and St. Honore Street; also a lot fronting out 
on St. Louis Street and to the banks of the river, one side to Mr. 
Vigo and another to Widow Legrand; also a lot twenty-four 
toises, one side to Delisle, another to Madame Cardinal and two 
sides to the streets ; also a tract two acres in front by the usual 
depth, east of the village by the Elm Road, one side to Peter 
Querez and the other to Mr. Vigo; a small lot and house thereon, 
upon the bank of the river, formerly belonging to Peltier. 
Antoine Vaudrye, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Barois. 
Ursule Clermont, two acres in front by forty deep, in the Big 
Swamp Prairie, one side to Peter Coder and another to Lachine. 


Peter Perret, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Hunot, another 
to Denoyon and two streets. Louis St. Aubin, a lot about twenty, 
five toises square, one side to Toujas, in rear to churcb lands, and 
by two streets. Luke Decker, a lot twenty-five toises by fifty, 
one side to Sullivan and three sides to streets; a tract of two 
acres in front by forty in depth, on the river Du Chi, and one 
side to Martin. This tract is said to have been by a French con- 
cession, but none has yet been produced. His house is built 
thereon. Gennevieve Villeneuve, a lot of twenty-five toises, one 
side to Ranger, another to Mr. Bosseron and by two streets; two 
acres in front by forty deep, in the prairie of the big marsh, one 
side to Charles Villeneuve and another to Charles Bonneau. 
Charles Villeneuve, a lot nineteen toises by twenty -nine, one side 
to Mr. Vigo and on three sides by streets; also a lot to Madame 
Cardinal, Delisle's lots, and Pierre Bonneau and fronting two 
streets ; also two acres in front by the usual depth, in the Big 
Swamp Prairie, one side to Jean Lazarde and Chapart and the 
other Hapelin. John Francis Hamtramck, a lot thirty-three by 
thirty-four feet, one side to another lot of his and a side to 
Adamhar St. Martin ; another lot bounding on the last and one 
side Mr. Barzadon, in front to a street and the rear to the river 
bank. Reverend Peter Gibbault, a lot about fourteen toises, one 
side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrye and to two streets. 
James Charbonneau, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to McNutty 
and on three sides by streets ; also two acres in front by forty in 
depth, in the Little River Prairie, one side to Beloup and another 
to Antoine Lefevre. Louis Ravelet, a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Metier, another to Campagnote and by two streets. John 
Baptiste Villeraye, a lot of twenty-five toises, one side to Louis 
Allare and three sides to streets. "William Page, a lot twenty-five 
toises, one side to Baillargon, another side by next described lot 
and two sides to streets; another lot twenty-five toises, one side 
to last lot; a tract of land of two acres in front, which has been 
directed for survey under Bergand's name, and it seems is in 
dispute; also a tract of land of three acres in front by forty in 
depth, in the Big Swamp Prairie, one side to Marie and another 
to Arpent. Nicholas Chapjirt, two acres in front by forty in 
depth, near the Big Swamp, one side to Villeneuve and the other 


to Dagneaii; anotlier tract two acres in front by forty in depth, 
in the Big Swamp Prairie, one side to Mallet and another to Eoi. 
Vitalle Boucher, two acres in front by forty in depth, in front by 
the Elm Road, and one side to Cardinal, the other to Ducherne. 
Ann Springer, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to Andre Langue- 
doc and three others to streets. Peter Latour, a lot twenty-nine 
toises by nine, one side to Turdelle, another to Bonneau and two 
sides to streets. Toussaint Dubois, a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Peter Gamelin, another to James Cardinal and two sides 
to streets ; two acres in front by forty in depth, one side to Andrez 
Roi and another to John Baptiste Roi. Charles Dielle, two acres 
by front and forty deep on the north side of the Wabash, one 
side to Paul Gamelin and another to Peter Latour. The original 
concession, or the best evidence of it, must be produced before 
this survey is made. Antoine Petit, a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to John Baptiste St. Aubin, another to Francis Languedoc 
and by two streets. Susannah Bolon, a lot of twenty -five toises 
by twenty-four, one side to Nicholas Mayot, the other three to 
streets. William Park, a lot of twenty-five toises, one side to 
Cotis, another to Guitar and two sides by streets; two acres in 
front bj forty in depth, in the Big Swamp Prairie, one side to 
Eichardville and another by Peter Cartier ; a lot of twenty-five 
toises, one side to Ganuchon, another to Bawthus and by two 
Robert Ficron, a lot twenty-five toises, one side by 
len St. Marie and another to the nest lot; a lot twenty -five 
toises, one side to last lot, another to Lafremiere and by two 
streets. Those lots are supposed to be old French concessions. 
"Widow of Gabriel Legrand,"a lot about fourteen toises in 
front, one side to Connoyer, one side to the river and two sides to 
the streets. Amable Guarguepie, a lot of twenty by twenty-five 
toises, one side to Bosseron, another to Dubois; two acres in front 
by forty in depth, at the Nut Point, one side to Cardinal and 
another to Latrimouille. Watts, McNutty, and Simson, two acres 
in front by the ordinary depth in the Cathilinette Prairie, one 
side to Reaux and another to Dielle. John Baptiste Harpin, a 
lot twenty- five toises, one side to John Small, another to Joseph 
St. Marie and to two streets ; a tract of land two acres in front by 
forty deep, one side to Mr. Page and another to J. B. Vaudry; 


also one acre in front by forty deep in the grand Marais Prairie, 
one side te Perodean and another to Neau ; also a lot twenty-five 
toises, one side to Dockac and another to Peter. Gerome Crely, 
a lot eight toises by nineteen, one side to St. Marie's heirs, 
another to Francois Barois and on two others by streets. Joseph 
Duchram, one acre and three quarters in front by forty in depth, 
north side the Wabash, one side to Paul Gamelin and another to 
Carron. Amable Delisle, a lot twelve and a half toises by twenty- 
five, one side to Nicholas Baillargon and another to Stephen 
Bowyer, and the rear to William Page, fi-ont a street. The widow 
of Peter Coder, a tract of land, two acres in front by forty in 
depth, in the Grand Marsh Prairie, one side to Baillargon and 
another to Chabot. Peter Gamelin, a lot twenty-five toises, one 
side to Joseph Hamelin, another to Toussaint Dubois and by two 
streets ; another lot eighteen by twenty-five toises, one side to J. 
B. Milliet, another to Bonneau, near to Vaudi-ey; also two acres 
in fi'ont by forty in depth in the Cathilinette, one side to Barois 
and another to Peltier. John Small, a lot about fifty-two toises 
in front on St. Louis Street, running back to the river bank and 
on two side streets; also a lot twenty -five by eighteen toises, 
one side to Arpent, another' to Shiskey and on two side 
streets. Louis Brouillette, a lot of thirteen toises, fronting 
on St. Honore Street and back to the beach, one side to 
Antoine Mallet and the other by a street; there seems to be 
some additional claim of a small part of a lot adjoining, which 
must be inquired into upon the survey; by the papers handed in 
it is very unintelligible. John Tougas, a lot of twelve toises in 
front on St. Honore Street, one side to J. M. Barois and three 
sides to streets. Paul Gamelin, a lot twelve and a half toises on 
St. Louis Street, and extending back to the beach, one side to 
Adamher St. Martin and the other by Calvary Street; two acres 
in front by forty in depth, north side of Wabash; this in two 
tracts, one bounded by Ducharm and Gueille, and the other to 
Detau and Connoyer. The heirs of Daniel Sullivan, a lot 
twenty-five toises by thirty-eiglit, one side to Chabot, and 
another to church lands and by two streets; also a tract 
eight acres in front and sixty in depth, fronting on the 
Wabash, originally granted to Chapart; four acres are to be on 


each side the Little Eiver, whereon is built a mill; two acres in 
front by forty in depth in the Cathilinette Prairie, one side to 
Dominique Bergand and the other to Laforest; another tract, 
two acres in front, situated in the Cathilinette Prairie, behind the 
ancient lands, and extending back to Otter Pond, one side to Bal- 
largon and old French improvement. John Martin, two acres in 
front by forty in depth in the Cathilinette Prairie, one side to 
Meteller and another to the lob of Sims, on McNutty and Watts. 
Benjamin Bawthus, a lot of thirty toises by twenty-five, one side 
to Ganuchon, and on the other by the next lot and by two streets ; 
a lot thirty toises by twenty-five, one side to the above lot, another 
Meldi'um and Park and by two streets ; a tract two acres in front 
situated on the Grand Prairie, west of the village from the Wabash, 
to the Cathilinette swamp, one side to James Dony's, and the other 
to Alexander Vallez. James McNutty, a lot, south to Page — -west 
by church lands and by two streets. Adamher St. Martin, a lot 
upon the Wabash, fi-ont to St. Louis Street, one side to Nich- 
olas Perrot, and the other to Paul Gamelin; he claims this as a 
mortgagee. James Johnson, a lot twenty-five toises, one side to 
Joseph Lafleure and by three streets. Alexander Fowler, a house 
lot in the village, one side to Decker, another to Baptiste Com- 
mefaux. Louis Meteiller, a lot twenty-six toises by fifty, one side to 
Joseph Levron, another to Brizard and two sides by streets. Peter 
Cartier, a lot twenty-six toises by twenty-nine, one side to Francis 
Mallet, and on three others by streets ; another lot of twenty-five 
toises, one side to Mr. Vigo, and three sides to streets; a tract of 
two acres in front by forty, in the prairie below the village, one 
side to park, and another to John Baptiste Lafreniere. John 
Baptiste Tongas, a tract of land opposite to the village, two acres 
and a half fi-ont by the usual depth ; this was originally granted 
to Noveaux, with the addition of another half acre, which has 
been transferred. Mr. Tougas claims at this time three acres, half 
an acre of which having been granted by the court, cannot be con- 
firmed by me at this time. Antoine Gamelin, a lot of about thirty 
toises, fronting on St. Honore Street and running to the Wabash ; 
this lot, it appears from certificates, was originally granted to the 
church, and has been by the church wardens, exchanged for the 


ground upon which the church now stands; it will be confirmed 
either to the church or Mr. Gamelin. 


ViNCENNES, July 31, 1790. 


"Sir: As you have given verbal orders to the magistrates who 
formerly composed the court of the district of Post Vincennes, 
under the jurisdiction of the State of Virginia, to give you their 
reasons for having taken upon them to grant concessions for the 
lands within the district, in obedience thereto, we beg leave to in- 
form you that their principal reason is, that, since the establish- 
ment of this country, the commandants have always appeared to be 
vested with the powers to give lands; their founder, Mr. Vin- 
cennes, began to give concessions, and all his successors have given 
lands and lots. Mr. Legras was appointed commandant of Post 
Vincennes, by the lieutenant of the county, and Commander-in- 
chief John Todd, who was, in the year 1799 [1769], sent by the 
State of Virginia, to regulate the Government of the country, and 
who substituted Mr. Legras with his powers. In his absence, Mr. 
Legras, who was then commandant, assumed that he had, in qual- 
ity of commandant, authority to give lands according to the 
ancient usages of other commanders, and he verbally informed the 
court of Post Vincennes, tliat, when they would judge it proper 
to give lands or lots to those who should come into the country to 
settle or otherwise, they might do it, and that he gave them 
permission so to do. These are the reasons that we acted upon, 
and if we have done more than we ought, it was on account of the 
little knowledge which we had of public afPairs. We are, with 
the greatest respect, your honor's most obedient and very humble 


L. E. Deline, 
PiEEEE Gamelin, 
PiEBEE QuEBEZ, his X mark. 
Post Vincennes, July 3, 1790. 



ViNCENNES, Knox County, October 23, 1797. 
"Sir: The governor, it seems, permitted, in his instructions 
to you, that actual improvements made before his visiting the 
country in 1795, might be covered by militia rights ; and I have 
further to add that, where parts or portions have been confirmed 
by me upon grants of the court since 1783 (in consequence of 
improvements) claimants may be permitted to cover by militia 
rights, not, however, to extend their plantations beyond 400 ar- 
pents ; the residue must be laid in one tract, and the concern con- 
sulted as to the situation, but it must not be carried to such a 
distance as to alarm or render uneasy the Indians, and with due 
attention to this consideration, as it seems to be the wish of the 
concerned, it may be taken across the White Kiver, near to Der- 
kus Station ; and, although it is intended the militia should have 
good lands, yet such regard must be paid to the interests of the 
Unitfed States that this location shall not militate with further 
settlements that may be intended, the tract to be divided by lot 
among the claimants. I herewith furnish you with a list of the 
names of persons entitled to lands from being of the militia, as 
reported to me, also an additional number of names to my list of 
those entitled to the donation of 400 acres, which was made out 
in the year 1790, and for which lands must be surveyed adjoining 
the former tract, .of good quality, and so as to continue said tract 
of as regular form as may be ; I add, also, a considerable list of 
lands to be surveyed by you for persons therein named, as ap- 
pearing to me to have due claims. But, sir, you must consider 
it a part of your duty, as an officer of Government, to report to 
me, with the return of surveys, all errors of boundaries, and also 
of evidence to title, that shall come to your knowledge, for any 
tracts ordered to be surveyed, in consequence of deeds, on or be- 
fore 1783, and which may happen to fall within the donation 
tract, you are to satisfy the persons upon whose lands they may 
fall, by surveys elsewhere. The term acres must be considered 
arpents, excepting where it applies to donations, or is especially 
signified to be English measui-e. You are authorized to admin- 
ister the necessary oaths of qualifications for chain carriers, etc., 
as also where it may be necessary to give you information of 


lines and boundaries proper to be known in making your surveys. 
For your surveying fees, the establishment of Congress is a good 
general rule, but in going a distance to survey a single tract it 
cannot be sufficient, and for small town or out lots there must be 
some agi'eement between you and those concerned, as no one rule 
can apply. Messieurs Harlein and Dubois have asked permis- 
sion to lay some militia rights upon the White and Embarras 
Rivers, for the purpose of establishing ferries. A single right 
may be laid at each place, the public accommodation seeming to 
require it, a high road to be left in front of the same; and se- 
curity must be given for keeping up the ferries as long as the 
public convenience may require them. 

"WiNTHROP Sargent. 
"Robert Buntin, Surveyor of Knox County. 

"Pierre Kerre, the elder, a piece of land on the east side of the 
Little River, two arpents in front and forty deep, one side to 
Pierre Cartier, toward the northeast by Baptiste Voillette, before 
by the Wabash and behind by vacant land. Jean Baptiste du 
Cherne, a piece of land four arpents in front and forty deep, lying 
on the Wabash, and bounded one side by Voillette, on the other 
by the Wabash, but to be diminished so far as it may interfere 
with the donation tract. Charles Bosseron, a lot in Vincennes 
thirteen and one-half toises in front, one side to a public road 
and joining Francis Vigo, on the other side a small piece of land 
belonging to said Bosseron and Mr. Vanderbiirgh facing the pro- 
longation of St. Honore Street, and behind by a street not named. 
Another lot of eleven and one-half toises in front on St. Honore 
Street, extending back to the next street and on both sides by 
Bosseron's other lots. The heirs of Francis Bosseron, a piece 
of land four arpents in front and forty deep on the north side of 
the Wabash, bounded on one side by lands of the Le Grand to 
the northeast and on the other side by Jean Cardain, the river 
in front and lands not granted in rear. A piece of land four ar- 
pents by forty on the north side the river St. Jerome, with a 
house thereon of twenty feet, one side to Louis Le Moye and on 
the other to the sieur Privet, lying along the river to the great 
road and behind by vacant land. Another piece of laud on the 
north side of the Wabash, with a house thereon twenty feet 


square, one side to Charles Guebriants, the other to Hugh Hew- 
ard, in front by the river to the great road, and from the road 
to vacant lauds. A piece of laud four arpents in fi-ont and forty 
deep on the uortli side of the Wabash, one side to John Pott, and 
on the northeast by Gabriel Le Grand; the heirs know not of 
this, supposed a mistake. Luke Decker, a piece of land two ar- 
pents in front and forty deep, on the river Du Chien, one side to 
the lands of De Coteau, the other to Jean Baptiste Martin. A 
piece of land two arpents wide and forty deep upon the river 
Du Chien, twenty arpents of which lie upon the northwest, and 
twenty on the southeast side of the river, joining other lands of, 
said Decker on two sides and vacant land behind and before. 
Four hundred acres of land in the prairie Du Chien ; at one corner 
of this land is a marked elm, and it runs from thence to the 
southward across the river, and is bounded on the west by Moses 
Henry, on the east by Harpain, and on the north and south by 
vacant land. A piece of land four arpents wide and forty deep 
in the prairie of the river Du Chien, on the west to the grand Mil- 
let, on the east b}^ the forest^ and on the north and south by va- 
cant land. 

Frangois Vigo, a lot in Vincennes twenty-five toises square, 
one side to Villeneuve, and by three streets. A lot in Vincennes 
thirteen toises in front, lying on the street St. Louis and running 
back to the street St. Honore, joining Louis Brouillette on one 
side and a public road left for a street on the other. Two lots 
in Vincennes twenty-five toises square each, one bounded on one 
side by Peter Thorn, and on the other by Mrs. Winne, and on 
two others by streets; the other bounded on one side, toward the 
southwest, by vacant land, on the northeast by Reple, and on 
the north and south by vacant lots. A piece of land of an irreg- 
ular figure containing ten acres, more or less, near the town of 
Vincennes, bounded on one side by the road leading to Bosseron's 
mill, and on another by lands of John Dorret, on a third side by 
Mr. Bosseron, and on a fourth by Louis Bayen, the son, and 
James McNulty. Two lots in Vincennes, opposite each other, 
twenty-five toises each in front, the one running from the street 
of St. Louis to the street of St. Honore, joining Paul Gamelin on 
one side and Jean Baptiste Vaudrey on the other side, the one 


running from the street of St. Honore to the nest street not yet 
named, joining Mr. Bosseron on one side and Vaudrey and 
Charles Bosseron on the other side. A tract of land, with a 
house and other buildings thereon, two arpents in fi-ont and forty 
deep, on the north side of St. Jerome, or Wabash, joining Jean 
Baptiste Chartier on one side, and on the other the Widow Du- 
mas ; also a piece of land on the same side of the river, opposite 
the town, joining a public road on one side and Vigo's lands on 
the other. A piece of land, two arpents in front and forty deep, 
on the north side of Wabash, joining on one side lands of said 
Vigo, and on the other Francis Paquine. A piece of land two 
arpents in front by the ordinary depth, at the Point aux Noyer, 
from the Elm Tree Eoad to the river St. Jerome, joining Fran- 
cois I'Ognion and said Vigo. A piece of land two arpents in front 
by forty deep, fi'om the Elm Tree Road to the river St. Jerome, 
joining said Vigo on both sides. A piece of land eight arpents 
in fi'ont by forty deep, to the east of the town of Vincennes, join- 
ing Toussaint Coder on one side and Antoine Vaudrey on the 
other side, bounded before by Joseph Hamelin, and behind by 
vacant lands. This grant seems to have been made to Rene Coder 
for cretain services, and duly conveyed to Vigo. It falls within 
the donation tract, but an equal quantity must be surveyed for 
Mr. Vigo upon vacant lands near the donation tract, as they may 
be had of good quality. A piece of land three arpents in front 
by forty deep, below the Little Rocks to the northeast of Vin- 
cennes, joining Toussaint Dubois to the northeast, and Jean Bap- 
tiste du Cherne to the soutliwest. A piece of land two arpents 
in front by forty deep, to the right of the road to the island be- 
yond the common, bought of Jean Baptiste Dubois. A piece 
of land four arpents in front by forty deep near the 'Belle Fon- 
taine,' bounded on one side by other lands of said Vigo toward 
the southwest, and to the northeast by Pierre Dubois. Two lots 
in Vincennes of about twenty-five toises square, each joining each 
other, and lying upon three streets, and joining James McNulty 
to the northeast. A lot in Vincennes, joining Lemon Spring on 
one side, vacant land on the other, and the two other sides on 
two streets. A house and lot in Vincennes, fourteen toises in 
breadth, lying on the street St. Louis in front, on one side a 


street that runs to the river, and on the other by a lot of the late 
Mr. Le Gras. A lot in Vincennes, ten toises and something more, 
lying on the street of St. Louis and running to the public rbad 
along the St. Jerome River, and fi-om thence to the beach, joining 
lands of the late Phillipe Le Gras on one side, and on the other 
side the public road reserved for a street. A lot in Vincennes, 
ten toises in fi'ont, or thereabouts, running from the street St. 
Louis to the public road along the river St. Jerome, and from 
thence to the beach, joining Mr. Le Gras on one side, and on the 
other the public road reserved for a street. A piece of land two 
arpents in front, running from the river St. Jerome to the Elm 
Tree Road, and joining lands of said Vigo on one side, and the 
widow of Jean Baptiste Vaudrey on the other side. A piece of 
land on the north side of the Wabash, a little above the town of 
Vincennes, four arpents in front and forty deep, bounded on one 
side by lands of St. Marie, and on the other by Hunat. 

"A lot toward the east corner of the town of Vincennes, join- 
ing Anthony Dunceford and a street not named. A piece of 
land four and two-thirds of an arpent in front, running from the 
King's road to the Wabash, joining Nicholas Cardinal on the one 
side, and Dominique Bergante on the other side. A piece of 
land in the old Piankeshaw town, sold by James Croche to Lie- 
berge, joining Lebanon on one side and Le Beuf on the other. 
A piece of land near the village of Vincennes, joining Wigg on 
the east, on the north St. Louis Street, and extending westerly 
to the village, and south to the great road. Three fields or 
pieces of land joining the village, running north 42°, west eight 
perches, then north 26°, east twelve perches, then south 53°, eight 
perches, and north 34°, east eleven perches. Three pieces of land 
in the old Indian village, sold by Montour and other chiefs to 
Spring and Bosseron, in April and May, 1786. Five pieces of 
land in the old Piankeshaw town at Vincennes, sold by Montour 
and other chiefs to the same persons as the former. The field 
lots and land formerly held by the Kettle Carrier, sold by Qui- 
qiiilaquia, grandson to the said Kettle Carrier, with the appro- 
bation of Montour and the other chiefs, to Spring and Bosseron. 
A piece of land running from the street of St. Louis to a street 
where Drouet de Richerville lives, joining on one side the last 


concession or acquisition of the town of Viucennes. on the other 
side to the heap of stones and Mr. Vigo's land, sold by Montour 
and to Francois Bosseron and Jean Baptiste Vaudrey. A lot in 
the ancient village of the Piankeshaws, sold by Centaral to 
Francois I'Ognion, joining said Vigo on every side. A piece of 
land on the little river of the Windmill, joining Mr. Cournoye 
on one side and said Vigo on the other, fronting the road and 
running to Jones' field, fifty toises broad and thirty deep, bought 
of the Widow Boye. A lot in the old Piankeshaw town, joining 
on one side to Louis Levere and Francis du Mois, two other sides 
on two streets, and the foiirth toward the little river joining James 
NcNulty. A piece of land fifty-two toises in front and thirty- 
four deep, to the east of Vincennes, bounded on one side by 
Christopher Eeple, on the other by Francois Bosseron, and two 
others by Captain Doyle, bought by Jean Guaries of Joseph 
rOgnion. Six lots, twenty-five toises square each, and running 
back to a street, there joining Pierre Cournoye on one side and 
Bosseron on the other side, and fronting the river, the other five 
joining Vigo on one side. Two fields or pieces of land to the 
east of Vincennes, one nineteen toises in front on the Elm Tree 
Eoad and sixty-eight toises deep, joining Louis Boyen on one side, 
and on the other lands late of Samuel Bradley, and running back to 
the fields formerly cultivated by the Indians, the other bounded 
on the north by the Mill Road and by Mr. Bosseron. and run- 
ning sixty-eight toises to Pierre Gamelin, and thirty toises to the 
east to lands late of Simon Spring, and having eighty-one toises 
on a third face and forty-one on the fourth, bought of Louis St. 
Aubin by James Johnston. A piece of land containing one 
hundred and eighty acres, part of a tract said to have been grant- 
ed by the court of Vincennes, 1779, to John Cardine (but the con- 
cession is lost), situated about five miles from Vincennes, on the 
road to the forks of White River, and lying between two small 
water courses that fall into the mill creek, joining laTads of the 
said Gadine to the westward, sold to him by Jean Cardine. Four 
hundred acres on the north side of the Wabash in the Grand 
Prairie about a league from Vincennes, granted to him by the 
court by certain courses, and bounded to the north by John John- 
son. Fran^'ois Vigo, the following, viz. : A house and lot near the 


town of Viiicennes, thirty toises in front, and bounded on one side 
by Spring and on the other by Montour, a street in front and a 
public road in the rear, sold by Montour to Leboye, etc. James 
McNulty, a field or piece of land in Vincennes, fronting on the 
public road, and joining La Chine on one side and Simon Spring 
on the other two, sold to him by Grosseblanc and wife. Another 
field joining Lielarge on the east, Jean Baptiste Vaudrey on tlie 
north, fronting on the public road to the barrier, and behind join- 
ing Pierre Gamelin, sold to him by Montour, chief of the Pian- 

"Francis Wilson, a lot in Vincennes twenty-five toises square, 
bounded on the east by Benjamin Bride, on the west and north by 
streets, and on the east by vacant land. John Small, a piece of 
land two arpents square on the northeast side of Vincennes, join- 
ing lands of Bosseron on the southwest, and Johnson on the south- 
east and northeast, and the great road on the northwest, sold him 
by Baptiste Dubois. A piece of land on the Wabash above the 
town of Vincennes, bounded on the north by the river, on the 
east by Vigo, running sixty-six perches north, 30° east, and forty 
perches north, 47° west, part of the Indian village. A piece of 
land two arpents in front and forty deep, in the jM'airie of the 
river Du Chien, one side to Jean Baptiste Millcet, another to Jean 
Baptiste Braton, sold to him by Joseph Pederot, Jr. A piece 
of land in the prairie of the river Du Chien two arpents in fi'ont 
and forty deep, on the north side to John Decker, on the south 
to John Small, on the east and west to vacant land, sold him by 
Jean Baptiste Millcet. A piece of land four arpents in front and 
forty deep on the saw-mill run, bounded south by Bosseron, west 
by Starkey, north by the run, east by John Martin, sold him by 
Joseph Amelin. Four hundred arpents of land on the little 
river, joining Daniel Sullivan on the west, Francis Bosseron on 
the north, vacant lands on the east and south, sold him by Pierre 
Kerre and wife ; Mr. Small has no deed for this, . but as it has 
been proved to Col. Sargent that this (in part) was an ancient 
concession, you are to satisfy the same with the usual quantity, 
that is, one hundred and sixty arpents. Laurent Barsadon, a lot 
in Vincennes twelve toises in fi-ont by twenty-five in depth, join- 
ing Cardinal on one side, Dubois on another, and the other two 


lying on streets, sold by Fran9ois Brouillet. A lot in Vincennes, 
twenty-five toises square, joining said Barsadon on one side and 
Vital Boucher on the other, and to two streets, sold by Joseph 
Drouen. Four arpents in front by the ordinary depth, on the 
west side of the Wabash, one side to lands of Deshom, on the 
other by Pierre Racine, on the third by Andrew Racine, on the 
fourth by the Wabash, sold by Francis Racine. Robert Buntin, 
a house and lot in Vincennes, front to the Wabash, back to the 
Indian fields, one side by Maonaam, on the other by Francis the 
Cat's Paw, about one acre in length each way. Another lot, and 
the buildings thereon, in Vincennes, eighty feet in fi-ont, and 
running from the road on the bank of the Wabash to the street 
St. Louis, one side by lands late of Autoine Marie, on the other 
by Henry Richard, sold by Maonaam to Richard and wife; two 
arpents of land by forty deep, on the north side of the Wabash, 
opposite the Indian village, one side to Du Cherme, the other to 
Baradi, being a part of four arpents granted by St. Marie to 
Pierre Barthe. Samuel Baird, one arpent of lajid in front by 
forty deep, on the north side of St. Jerome River, running from 
the river, and leaving a public road on the bank thereof, accord- 
ing to the custom, joining Pierre Cournoye on one side and Jo- 
seph Brossard on the other, with a house thereon. Jacob How- 
ell, a lot in Vincennes twenty-five toises square, on the south and 
west to streets, on the east by David Howell, and north by an- 
other street. Michael Barrackman, a lot in Vincennes in the 
common, twenty-five toises square, on the north and east by 
streets, on the south by John Day, and on the west by William 
Morrison. Christopher Wyant claims four hundred acres of land 
on the head of the south fork of the little river of Mill Creek, 
one side to Charles Langelo, the other by vacant lands bought of 
Louis Levron Mettye ; it has been proved to Col. Sargent that 
there was ancient possession upon this tract of one hundred and 
sixty arpents; this quantity, therefore, must be surveyed for 
Wyant. The heirs of Joseph Tougas, six arpents of land in 
front and fifty deep, situated at the Terre Noire, bounded by 
Nicholas Barjaron on one side. 

"Frangois Mallet, a piece of land at a place called the Faux- 
chenaille. You must endeavor to ascertain the old boundaries; 


the quantity must not, however, exceed 160 arpents, but upon 
good proof it was originally more. A piece of land on the river 
Du Ghien, and another at Bois Jaune. No boundaries for those 
are mentioned ; endeavor to govern yourself by the old ones ; they 
must not, at any rate, exceed 100 arpents each. Henry Vander- 
burg, a piece of land, twelve arpents, more or less, being a part 
of sundi-y fields formerly the lands of the Piankeshaws, containing, 
in the whole, about nineteen arpents, lying at the east of the vil- 
lage of Vincennes ; bounded westerly by T. Doyle," north by 
Francis Bosseron, and others ; sold by Simon Spring. A piece of 
land containing, of two fields joining each other in the old Indian 
village, sixty toises on one side and forty on the other, bounded 
in fi-ont by the street where Du Betz lives, and on the rear partly 
by the fields of Alebomane, and partly by that of Nisbreche; part 
of Samuel Bradley's lot on one side, and on the other the field of 
Saspacona and Nez du Oarbin; sold by the Nez du Oarbin to 
Pierre Gamelin. A piece of land, two arpents in front, in the 
prairie of the Grand Marais, and forty arpents deep, joining on 
one side lands now or late of Jean Baptiste Perrot, and vacant 
land on the other side. John Savage, a piece of land, four arpents 
in front and forty deep, lying on the mill run; bounded on the 
east by Bellow, and on the northwest and south by vacant lands. 
Charles Chartres, 400 acres of land upon the river Du Chien, to the 
east of Cardinal ; bounded south by the river, and west by Louis ; 
granted by the coui-t of Vincennes to Jean Marie le Grand, Febru- 
ary 19, 1781; by him transferred to Small, by Small to Chartiers, 
and mortgaged to Small for the purchase money; the original 
concession lost; the record in point apparently falsified, 1785 be- 
ing changed to 1781. No survey to be made of this till proof of 
the early date be established — a forgery. Jean d'Argilleure, 
called St. Pierre, a lot in Vincennes, twenty-five toises on one side 
and twenty on the other, joining Pierre Gamelin on one side, a 
street on the other, the Widow Bosseron on the third ; granted by 
Lieut. Eamsey to Jacque la Tremouille, November 9, 1768. 
Jacob Pea, 160 acres of lands bought of Frederick Bergen, 
granted by the court in 1783, and on which he lived in 1795. 
Benjamin Beckes claims 400 arpents by a grant to Moses Carter, 
in the year 1780, and .conveyed to him regularly. It seems this 


or a part thereof is within the donation tract; if so, it must be 
satisfied adjoining the same, or otherwise laid off agreeable to the 
expression of the concession. The heirs of Francis Bosseron 
claim a piece of land, ten arpents by forty, one side to Vaucb-ey, 
the other to Lefevere, granted to Bosseron, by the court, in 1785. 
This has been well improved, and in the year 1790 it was prom- 
ised by Col. ^ Sargent that, should it fall within the donation tract, 
he should receive an equal quantity adjoining the same, the sur- 
vey to be made accordingly. Four hundred acres of land on the 
river Du Chien, bounded on the west by Hainton, and on three other 
sides by vacant lands; granted originally to Thomas Jones. If 
this has fallen in the additional donation tract, the heirs must be 
satisfied by lands adjoining the same. Michael Bronliett, a piece 
of land upon the northeast of Vincennes, on the Chemin du Glaize, 
joining Charles Villeneuve and Jacque Cardinal, occupied by per- 
mission from the court, in 1777, four arpents by forty. The widow 
of Charles Villeneuve claims a grant from the court, in 1777, of 
160 arpents, about four miles east of Vincennes, and joining 
Brouillette upon the east. Depositions prove this, and it must be 
surveyed accordingly. A claim is made, for Joseph Chertier, of 
400 acres of land; Chertier knows nothing thereof, but gave a 
quit-claim, verbally, to John Westgall, for two arpents by forty, 
which was once irregularly given to him by Joseph Lerche, an 
old inhabitant. This laud lies upon the south side of the Island 
road, and may be surveyed for Westgall, upon his producing reg- 
ular conveyance thereof from Learche, who appears to have been 
entitled to the same. Benjamin Beckes claims 400 acres of land 
at the forks of the river Du Chien ; the river upon the east, Astui-gas 
on the west, vacant lands on the south. This, by a grant fi'om 
the court, January 22, 1785 ; survey for him 200 acres, English 
measure. A piece of land, by purchase from Frangois Mallet, 
lying on the Poplar Ridge, of four arpents by forty; granted by 
St. Ange, 1760. Joshua Harbin, a piece of land on the river Du 
Chien, and the island Trace, of four arpents by forty, granted by 
the court, February 16, 1785, to Bordelaux, by him to Vigo, and 
from Vigo to Harbin. This piece of land was given by St. Ange 
to Bordelaux more than thirty years ago. For John B. Delorie 
four arpents by forty, about ten arpents fi-om the lowest con- 


cessions in the lower prairie. This from St. Ange to Antoine 
Mallet, and from Mallet to Delorie. 

"The heirs of Peter Caunoyer, ten lots, of twentj-five toises 
square each, situated east of Vincennes, a part of the old Indian 
lands, and a house and lot, one side to St. Louis Street, the other 
to the Wabash ; Vigo at one end, Marechall on the other. Four 
arpents by forty, claimed by conveyances from Rouissant and 
Lemay. By the oath of Mr. Pierre Gamelin, it appears the same 
was granted upward of thirty years ago, and improved ever since. 
Henry Vanderburgh, by a conveyance from the heirs of Jean Bap- 
tiste La Guard, four arpents by forty, lying on the front line of 
the donation allotted by St. Ange to La Guard thirty-five years 
ago. Toussaint Dubois, two arpents by forty, on the southwest 
by Pierre Carter, on the northeast by Jean Baptiste Ouilette, by 
a concession from the court, 1783, to Pierre Kerre, and fr-om Kerre 
to him. Seven arpents by fifty, situated below the little rock on 
the Wabash, bounded on both sides by vacant lands, and granted 
in 1759, by St. Ange to Marie, Joseph, Richard and Widow Autire; 
by the heirs assigned to Pierre Gamelin, by Gamelin to Dubois 
and Vigo, and by Vigo to Dubois. Four arpents by forty, at the 
rock, beginning on the Wabash, granted by the court to Pierre 
Gamelin, 1783, and assigned by him to Dubois. Four arpents 
by forty, joining the aforesaid tract, granted by the court, 1783, 
to Pierre Gamelin, Jr., and by him also assigned to Dubois. 
Isaac Decker claims 400 arpents on White River, under a con- 
cession fr-om the court of June, 1784; fr-om consideration of the 
improvements, the whole granted. Joseph Decker claims four 
arpents by forty, on the north side of the Wabash, granted, in 
1780, to Hannah Daltoii, and assigned to him fr-om Val. Thorn. 
Dalton, and wife Hannah. Thomas Jones claims one and three- 
quarters of an arpent of land by forty deep, on the north side of 
the Wabash, by purchase from Du Charme, who purchased of 
Ruissient, who purchased fr-om Bosseron; Bosseron's grant be- 
lieved to have been from St. Marie, 1772. Henry Vanderburgh, 
two arpents by forty, in the lower prairie, purchased from old 
Louis Levron, called Mettie. Mrs. Gremare obtained this from 
St. Marie, and sold to Levron, who sells to Vanderburgh. Moses 
Decker claims four arpents by forty on the north side of the Wa- 


bash ; this, a grant from the court in 1783, to Andre Robinson. 
Dalton assigns it to Decker, but there is no assignment to Dalton. 
It may be surveyed, but cannot be conveyed to Decker till this 
error is corrected. Jean Bdptiste Vilray, four arpents by forty, 
on the river Embarras, joining Joseph Page on the south, by a 
grant from the court, March 14, 1782. The heirs of Mainard 
Arturgus, 400 arpents in the forks of Du Chi, joining Moses 
Henry on one side, Benjamin Beckes on another, Johnson on an- 
other, and Countzs on the other; by a grant fi-om the court in 
1785, From the state of improvements in 1791, and other causes, 
the whole of this is granted. James Johnson, Esquire, claims 
nine acres in front (more or less) and forty deep, situated on the 
fork road, bounded in front by Toussaint Codere, and on the other 
side by vacant land, purchased from Perodo, who had it in right 
of his wife, sister to Denoyon, who received it from St. Ange more 
than thirty years ago. 

" Robert Mays claims 400 acres by a grant from the court 
in 1784, situated between the river Du Chien and White River, 
one side to Matssou south, north and east by vacant lands. From 
the state of improvement certified to me, you are to survey for this 
claim one hundred acres English measure. John Small, four 
arpents by forty, granted by the court to Cardine, June 12, 1782, 
on Saw Mill Run, joining Amelin. Cardine sold to Jones, and 
Jones to Martin, as appears fi-om the testimony of Esquire John- 
son and John Doret; and a bill of sale from Martin appears to 
Thomas Small, whose heir is John Small, the claimant. Charles 
Thorn, by a grant from the court, June 25, 1781, fom- arpents by 
forty ; fi'ont on the Wabash, on the south and southwest by James 
Bourne, and on the north and northeast by John Beckey. Michael 
Thorn, by a grant from the court. May 15, 1783, claims four hun- 
dred arpents, which has fallen in the donation tract; the same to 
be satisfied where he now lives, provided it does not interfere with 
any legal claim. Tobias Decker claims four hundred acres, settled 
upon by permission of the court, which he proves to have been 
given in 1785, and then, and before 1791, a number of fruit trees 
had been planted there, and several houses built; some two or 
more acres of corn planted, and other improvements. One hun- 
dred acres of land to be surveyed for him ; he now lives upon the 


land. Allen Ramsay, a case exactly like the former; living now 
upon his claim. One hundred acres thereof to be surveyed for 
him. Jacque Coteau, by a grant of the court in 17S2, at the black 
grounds on the Embarras, joining to Vilray, four hundred arpents. 
Samuel Watkins, by a grant from the court, of 1782, four arpents 
by forty, on the other side the river Du Chien, joining the Cypress 
Swamp. William Hall claims four arpents by forty, a grant from 
the court of 1780, on the Wabash ; one side to Jabee Euland, an- 
other to Gabriel Le Grand. William Hall claims four arpents by 
forty, by a court grant of 1781, on the Wabash; one' side to Louis 
Paine, another side to Thomas Hall. Louis Paine, four arpents 
by forty, granted by the court, 1781, on the Wabash; joining 
William Hall on one side, and Depree on the other. Thomas 
Hall, four arpents by forty, granted in 1781, on the Wabash; 
joining William Hall on one side, and Henry Cotton on another. 
Robert Johnson claims four hundi-ed and forty arpents on the 
river Du Chien, granted by the court to Felix Countz, December, 
1783, assigned to Pierre Gamelin, June 16, 1789, for four hun- 
dred arpents, and by him to Johnson. Four hundred arpents to 
be surveyed for Johnson. 

Four arpents by forty in the common and at the end of Lafoe's 
tract; one side to Moses Henry, the other to vacant land, by a 
court grant of 1783, to Henry Stophe, by him assigned to Ann 
Collins, widow of Moses Henry, now said Johnson's wife. If it 
should be in the tract reserved by Congress for the commons, it must 
not be surveyed. Four arpents by forty, granted, in 1783, to 
Martin Leche, on the north side of Wabash, below the little vil- 
lage; one side to Martin Spetch, and the other to Henry Spetch, 
conveyed to the widow Ann Collins, now Johnson's wife. R. 
Johnson also claims fom* arpents by forty, granted to Moses Henry 
in 1783; bounded northeast by Cardinal, southwest by Johnson, 
on the north side of Wabash. This to be surveyed and deeded to 
Moses Henry's heirs. Barclay Hoche, four arpents by forty, north 
side of the Wabash, below the Little Prairie, by Dalton on one 
side, vacant lands on the other; grant .of the court in 1788. 
John Rice Jones, four hundred arpents on the north side of the 
river Du Chien ; one side to Countz, south by the said river, the two 
other sides by vacant lands; by assignment from Dalton, to whom 


the land was granted December, 1783. Four arpents by forty on 
the north side of the Wabash, within a league of the village; 
granted by the court to Dalton, November, 1780, and assigned to 
Jones by Dalton. Thomas Mallet claims two grants from St. 
Ange, dated in 1760. One of them from St. Ange is four arpents 
by forty on the river Du Chien, along the Island tract, and to be 
surveyed; the other not intelligible. If it can be explained, and 
should not exceed four arpents by forty, it may also be surveyed. 
Observe if warrants of survey have not been before entered for 
those tracts. It is believed the claims were exhibited to the gov- 
ernor. Daniel Sullivan, four arpents by forty, on the banks of 
the "Wabash, one side to Kuland, and another to William Hall; 
granted to John Bailey in June, 1782, assigned to Sullivan. John 
Askin, two arpents by forty, north side of the river Wabash, by 
purchase from Ettienne St. Marie, who held under Joseph Eivet ; 
sold by decree of the court. Eivet purchased of Boisverd. Sup- 
posed to have been a part of Bosseron's grant. Jacque Latra- 
moux, four arpents by forty, at the end of the second concession; 
one side to Baptiste Dubois. Angelique Kacine, four arpents by 
forty, at the Big Hill, granted and allotted to her father, Frangois 
Racine, upward of thii-ty years ago, about three miles east of 
Vincennes. John Small claims four hundred arpents between the 
rivers Bosseron and Marie; on the west to Thomas Small, on the 
south and east by vacant land, on the north by Eichard ; granted 
in 1785 by tiie court. Some small improvements are made to 
appear; survey for him fifty acres English. Thomas Small 
claims four hundred acres between the rivers Bosseron and Marie ; 
granted as the former; in the situation also of the former; sur- 
vey also to satisfy the same, fifty acres. John Small appears the 
heir of Thomas. Eobert Buntin claims four hundred acres on 
the big hill, about three miles northeast of Vincennes, on the road 
leading to the lick, by purchase from Jacque Cardinal. By the 
oath of Esquire Edeline, it is proved that Cardinal had permission 
to take up this land, and that in 1782 and 1791, there were upon 
it twenty acres under good cultivation; to be satisfied by four 
hundred arpents. Eobert Johnson, four arpents by forty, in the 
common at the church land, by a court grant of 1783 to Moses 
Henry, and Ann, his wife, now the wife of Johnson. If in the 


tract reserved as commons by the United States, must not be sur- 
veyed. Patrick Simpson claims four hundred acres by purchase 
from Eacine, where he now lives. Seven acres and a half only 
seem to have been conveyed even by Racine to Simpson. This 
must be surveyed for Simpson. The heirs of Paul Gamelin, four 
arpents by forty, granted in 1783 to Paul Gamelin, being part of 
a general division of a thirty-two acre tract, which was subdivided 
into four arpents for eight grantees ; lying at the rock above Vin- 
cennes. For the minor children of Antoine Danis and Josete 
Naux, a tract of land on the White Oak level, about four miles 
from Vincennes, four arpents by forty; a grant from St. Ange. 
If this is out of the commons it must be surveyed conformably to 
the ancient boundaries. 

"Cincinnati, January 8, 1798. 
"The following you will be pleased to consider as a supplement 
to my warrants for survey in Knox County, bearing date the 23d 
of October, 1797: For Abraham Decker, claiming four hundred 
arpents between the river Du Chien and White River, and joining 
to Benjamin Beckes by a court grant of March 20, 1785, and 
some small improvements thereupon; the grant was to John 
Decker, his father, and assigned by Luke Decker, the heir at 
law, to the said Abraham ; survey fifty acres. For Francois Bar- 
rais, six arpents by forty in the Cathalinette, one side to Dumais, 
and another to the common, granted by Lieut. Eumsey, July 24, 
1768, to St. Perthuion, and by him assigned to the said Barrais; 
survey the same. For Guilliam Page, four arpents by forty on 
the river Embarras, joining on one side to Joseph Page, by a 
court grant of the 14th of March, 1782; survey the same. For 
Joseph Page, four arpents by forty on the Embarras, joining 
Guilliam Page, by a court grant March 14, 1782; survey the 
same. For Laurent Barsadon, four arpents by forty, on the 
north side of the Wabash, one side to Ducharm and another to 
Lamotte, and nearly opposite the fort, by purchase from the heirs 
of Jean Baptiste Racine, once commandant of Vincennes, and 
who improved the same twenty-five years past; survey the same. 
For Joseph Lamotte, four arpents by forty, joining the above 
tract, by purchase fi-om Racine's heirs also, and proved by him 


to have been cultivated as the former; survey the same. For 
George Rogers Clark, three hundred and twenty arpents on the 
north side of the Wabash, in the grand prairie of the little vil- 
lage, beginning on the river, by a court grant in the year 1781; 
survey the same. For Antoine Marechall, two arpents by forty 
on the west of the village, and joining the lower prairie, begin- 
ning on the Wabash and running back to the Cathalinette swamp, 
on the east to Andrew Montpleseui-, and on the west to WiUiam 
Page, by purchase from Andrew Coder, to whom it was assigned 
by the Commandant Racine twenty years past; survey the same. 
Guilliam Page, two arpents by forty, joining the lower praii'ie, 
beginning on the Wabash and running back to the Cathalinette 
swamp, one side to Coder, another to vacant lands, granted to 
him by the commandant, Mr. St. Marie ; survey the same. Lau- 
rent Barsadon, one lot in town, twelve toises by twenty-five, join- 
ing Cardinal on one side, and Dubois on the other, by purchase 
from Turner Vachet, who held from Andrew St. Dezier, who 
possessed by exchange with Mr. Brouillette ; to be surveyed, but 
the right of Brouillette must be determined before a deed will is- 
sue. One other lot, twenty-five toises square, by purchase 
from Dubois, who purchased from Louis Bro^vne in 1773, one 
side Barsadon's land, another to Bouche, and two others to streets; 
this also may be surveyed, but Browne's title must be ascertained 
before a deed can issue. The heirs of Peter Barrackman, four 
hundred arpents on the waters of the river Du Chien, granted by 
the court, the 10th of March, 1782, to John Cardine; by him sold 
to St. Pierre, the cure of Illinois, and by him assigned to Eliza- 
beth, the wife of Peter Barrackman ; survey the same. Also one 
other tract of four hundred arpents on the waters of the river Du 
Chien, granted by the court the 10th of March, 1782, to Louis Car- 
dine, by him assigned to St. Pierre, and by St. Pierre to Eliz- 
abeth, the wife of Peter Barrackman; survey the same. The 
heirs of Peter Barrackman claim, also, four hundred acres more 
upon the waters of the river Du Chien, adjoining the before named 
tracts, by a grant from the court, the lOtli of May, 17S5 ; as there 
were early and considerable improvements on this tract, two hun- 
dred acres may be surveyed to satisfy the claim. They claim, 
also, one lot in the back part of the town, twenty-five toises 


square, by a court grant of 1785, which is to be surveyed, the 
same having been considerably improved. Peter Barrackman, 
Jr., claims a lot joining the same, granted also in 1785, upon 
which are considerable improvements; if it does not exceed the 
common size of the lots it is to be surveyed. Phillip Catt claims 
four hundred arpents taken up by permission, and an order 
of court for survey of the same in 1785 in favor of Christian 
Hoik, from whom he has purchased some small improvements, 
which were early made upon this place; therefore fifty acres 
may be surveyed to satisfy the same. Robert Day claims a lot 
in the rear of Vincennes, twenty-five toises square, in virtue of 
a court grant of 1785; if there are improvements upon this 
lot it may be surveyed. William Howell claims a lot, under 
the same authority as the former, of twenty-five toises. Jacob 
Howell claims a lot of twenty-five toises, situated and circum- 
stanced as William Howell's; they may both be surveyed if they 
have been improved. Nicholas Chappard, two arpents on the 
Wabash, south of the village, and running back to the Cathali- 
nette swamp, one side to Lalemere, by an old grant from St. 
Marie; survey the same. Isaac Miner, four arpents by forty on 
the north side of the Wabash, at the little village, by a grant of 
the court, in December, 1783, to Henry Spoch, conveyed by him 
through his attorney, Antoine Gamelin, to Ann Collins, widow of 
Moses Henry, and now the wife of Robert Johnson, and by Rob- 
ert Johnson to said Miner ; survey the same. Antoine Lalemere, 
two arpents by forty, joining Chappard's tract, and running back 
to the Cathaliuette, by an old grant from St. Marie ; survey the 
same. Daniel Smith, four arpents by forty, at the Rock, by a 
court grant of 1783, to Bonday, and sold by him, through his 
attorney, Gamelin, to Levrie, and by him to Murphy, and by 
Murphy to the said Smith ; survey the same. Alexander Vallee 
claims foui- arpents by forty on the Wabash, below the Rock, 
joining on one side to Latulippe, by a grant from the court in 
1785; some small improvements having been made, survey, to 
satisfy the claim, twenty-five acres. 

"Margaret Bolon, widow of Antoine Marie, claims four arpents 
by forty, on the Wabash, bounded on the southwest, to her hus- 
band, by a grant of 1785, from the court to her for services in 


interpreting the Indian language or tongue ; unless some improve- 
ments can be proved, or the case be a most special one, it is not 
probable this claim can be granted. The one other tract of sim- 
ilar quantity and adjoining, claimed by her as granted unto her 
husband, is exactly alike circumstanced. John Day claims a lot 
of twenty-five toises square, back of the town, by a court grant 
of 1785, which is to be surveyed if it has been improved. Will- 
iam Morrison, four arpents by forty, north side of the Wabash, at 
the little village, granted to Robert Jennings in the year 1783, 
and by him assigned to Jones, and by him to the said Morrison ; 
survey the same. Joseph Baird claims three several tracts of 
four arpents by forty, each, said to have been granted by the court 
in 1783 to Nicholas Joseph and Alexis Edeline. Query: Were 
they then minors ? were they capable of improving lands ? or was 
the grant intended as an imposition ? The coiu-t never possessed 
the right to make grants, and all confirmations, on or before 
1783 (after Virginia had assumed the government), must be 
passed to the account of generosity. It is a pity those claims 
were not before exhibited, and they must be better understood 
before they are confirmed. Samuel Baird, one arpent by forty 
on the north side of the Wabash, one side to Connoyer, and the 
other to Joseph Bresaid, by purchase from St. Jean, called Detard, 
who purchased from Louis Lemay on the 15th of October, 1787 ; 
Lemay's title to be proved previous to an order of survey. Ann 
Dalton, wife of T. Dalton, four arpents by forty on the north 
side of the Wabash, by a grant in 1783 (supposed to be a coui't 
grant), and assigned by T. Dalton, on the 11th of May, 1784, to 
Adam Shoemaker, and by him to Daniel Barton, who is supposed 
to be the claimant if he has not forfeited by absence ; it must be 
surveyed. The heirs of Jean Baptiste Beaux Chein, 160 arpents 
of land joining the donation ; sxirvey the same agreeably to old 
boundaries, it appearing to have been very early with the family. 
The heirs of Daniel Sullivan claim four arpents by forty in the 
river Du Chien prairie, where the station formerly stood. It ap- 
pears from Mr. Decker's testimony that the written claim to this 
land is supposed to have been lost or mislaid at the time Col. 
Sargent formerly examined the claims at Vincennes. Every paper 
relating to the lands in that quarter, which was presented, has 


been recorded or entered; there -were very many from Sullivan 
but this is not in the niimber; there would be risk in ordering it 
to be surveyed for the heirs at this time. George Catt, two ar- 
pents by forty on the river Du Chien prairie, by concession of tlie 
government twenty-five years past to Francis Lamar, and who ex- 
changed the same with Pierre Gramaud, who sold it to Luke 
Decker, from whom the said Catt purchased it ; survey the same. 
Lawi-ence Slouter, four arpents by forty, granted by the court in 
1781, on the north side of the Wabash, one side to Le Grand; 
survey the same. Moses Decker, 400 arpents between White 
Biver and Du Chien; although there appears to have been early 
improvements upon this tract, yet, as no authority is produced for 
entry or occupancy, it cannot be surveyed. Abraham Decker, Jr., 
400 arpents in the White River prairie, by a court grant of 1784, 
and joining to Isaac Decker. It being proved that there were 
considerable and early improvements upon this tract, 200 acres 
must be surveyed to satisfy the claim. Patrick Simpson's claim 
of seven and a half arpents by forty, upon which he lives, being 
an old grant to Racine, from whose heirs he purchased it, you 
must survey it; and, if I mistake not, this, your application for 
the same, is a second, and this also my second warrant of survey 
for Simpson's land. This claim of Simpson's is the last you have 
transmitted me, and, I trust, I am now through this disagreeable 
business. I have endeavored to do justice to the United States 
and also to individuals, and to deal generously by them. I sup- 
pose copies of the claims you have transmitted me are kept ; upon 
those where I have observed silence a total rejection must be un- 
derstood; and amongst them for such as were in the donation 
tract, notwithstanding small improvements which may have been 
evidenced, it was out of my power to order the smallest compen- 
sation, though I did ^his, in one or two instances, at Vincennes, 
where I had so pledged myself, previous to the order for laying 
off the tract as a matter of general accommodation. In all cases 
where I have conditionally ordered surveys, it will be necessary 
that you state to me with your returns that the conditions have 
been complied with; that is, that improvements are made where 
such are required, and that the claim of conveyance, etc., is pro- 
duced to make titles complete. "I am, sir,, youi- humble servant, 

"W. Saegent." 



At Vincennes, January 19, 1802, William Henry Harrison 
wrote to James Madison, Secretary of State, that the court of 
Todd in 1779 and onward assumed the right to grant laud to all 
applicants ; that they did this for a time without opposition, and 
concluded that, as they were not interrupted, they could continue 
as they pleased; that finally the whole country, to which the In- 
dian title was supposed to be extinguished, was divided between 
the members of the court and perhaps others, and' that on the day 
of voting each member absented himself from the consideration 
of his own case that it might appear the act of his fellows only ; 
that the tract thus disposed of extended on the Wabash Eiver 
twenty-four leagues fi'om La Pointe Coupee to the mouth of 
White Eiver, and forty leagues west and thirty east, excluding the 
land only surrounding Vincennes, which had been before granted 
to the amount of 20,000 to 30,000 acres; that the authors of this 
division soon perceived, if not at first, that their coiirse was ille- 
gal and the scheme was abandoned, but was revived a few years 
before 1802, and portions of the land purchased by speculators 
and sold fi'audulently to Eastern settlers ; that upward of 500 
persons had settled, or would soon settle upon these lands in con- 
sequence of these frauds, having bought their claims sometimes for 
a song — a rifle or a poor horse having been given in exchange for 
1,000 acres ; that the owners pretended that the court had ample au- 
thority from Virginia to grant the land, and had all necessary 
documents to validate the claims ; that speculators had gone to 
Virginia, had secured a deed for a large tract, had had it recorded 
and duly authenticated, and had then made their fraudulent 
transfers to the credulous. 

It was a long time before the results of these fraudulent prac- 
tices were quieted and settlers felt that their claims were se- 
cured. All claims were made under the acts of Congress of Au- 
gust 29, 1788, and March 3, 1791. By act of Congress of March 
26, 1804, claim commissioners were appointed to examine all 
claims to land at Vincennes. They were divided as follows:* 
First, claims which had been decided on and confirmed by the 
governors; second, claims founded upon Indian purchases and 

•American State Papers. Public Landa, Vol. I. 


unusual grants made by the court. Under the former division 
were, first, claims founded under ancient grants or possessions 
under the French or British Governments ; second, claims founded 
on supposed grants from the courts; third, claims to the dona- 
tions of 400 acres as heads of families on or before 1783; 
fourth, claims to the donation of 100 acres as militiamen en- 
rolled in the militia August 1, 1790, and had done militia duty. 
It required many years to clear the clouds from the titles. 

The ordinance of 1787 was passed August 13, and on the follow- 
ing October 5 Congress elected Arthur St. Clair, governor of the 
Northwest Territory, and Wiuthrop Sargent, secretary, and eleven 
days later appointed Samuel H. Parsons, John Armstrong and 
James M. Varnum, judges. January 16, 1788, Armslxong 
resigned and John C. Symmes was chosen. In the following 
summer St. Clair, Varnum and Parsons, at Marietta, Ohio, enacted 
a number of laws which were not approved by Congress, as the 
governor and judges, in their legislative capacity, had only 
authority to adopt existing laws from the codes of the original 
States, and could not enact new laws.* St. Clair was reappointed 
governor, and Winthrop Sargeant, secretary, August 20, 1789, 
and on the same day S. H. Parsons, J. C. Symmes and William 
Barton, were reappointed judges. George Turner soon succeeded 
Barton, and in March, 1790, Eufus Putnam succeeded Parsons 
(deceased). Return J. Meigs succeeded Turner in 1798. Joseph 
Gillman succeeded Putnam in 1796. In July, 1790, Sargent, sec- 
retary and acting governor, Symmes and Turner met at Vin- 
cennes and enacted a few laws, one to curtail or prevent the sale 
of liquor, suppress gambling, etc., and later enacted others; but 
these laws were all void ab initio, as the officers power to 
enact laws — could only adopt from the codes of the older States — 
though the laws thus enacted by them were enforced to a greater 
or less extent for some time. The Maxwell code, published in 
Cincinnati in 1795, was a selection of laws from the older States, 
which code soon drove from existence the so-called enactments of 
the Territorial Legislature. Knox County was formed during the 
spring or early summer of 1790. In 1796 the Northwest Terri- 
tory-comprised four counties: Washington, with county seat at 

♦Notes on the Northwest Territory.— barton. 


Mariette, Ohio ; Hamilton, with seat at Cincinnati ; St. Clair, with 
seat at Kaskaskia, and Knox, with seat at Vincennes. Samuel 
Baird did much of the early surveying at Vincennes. All claims 
under unlawful grants were rejected, but persons who had made 
improvements under the impression that Todd and the court had 
authority to grant the lands were given the right to pre-empt such 
lands. The grantors charged §4 for each grant, and seemed to 
have the question of perquisites more in view than the right to 
grant, while grantees wanted large bodies of land for little con- 
sideration.* In 1742 the French secured from the Indian tribes 
a grant of the lands at Vincennes and vicinity "lying between the 
point above (Pointe Coupe^ en haut) and the river Blanche below 
the village, with as much land on both sides of the Wabash as 
might be comprised within the said limits.f In 1763 this coun- 
try passed to the British Government, and in 1783, at the close 
of the Revolution, to the United States. From about the end of 
the year 1785 to about two years after the ti-eaty of Greenville 
(1797), Vincennes was in the center of a hostile Indian country. 
Farms could not be cultivated in safety, and the inhabitants, 
though many were connected by ties of blood to the Indians, were 
encompassed by daily perils. 



prepared by z. t. emerson. 

Organization of the Couxty— Concerning the Northwest Terri- 
tory—Formation OF Townships— Public Buildings— Railroads 
AND Other [Iighway's— The Agricultural Society— The Med- 
ical Society— The Paupeus— Finances— Miscellaneous Items- 
Outstanding Bonds— Election Returns— Population— County 

AS is generally known all the Northwest Territory fell to Vir- 
ginia by her chartered rights after the close of the EeYO- 
lutionary war. But owing to difficulties among the States Virginia 
agreed, January 2, 1781, that on certain conditions she would cede 
all her claims to said territory to Congress ; among other things 
she reserved the same rights for her French and Canadian set- 
tlers that they enjoyed under the laws of Virginia. Congress 
agreed to accept this ^proposition September 13, 1783, and Octo- 
ber 20, 1783, the Legislature agreed to make the gift, and in 
March of the following year appointed Thomas Jefferson, Samuel 
Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe, delegates in Congress to 
make the deed. This territory was to be divided into States of not 
less than 100 miles square, nor more than 150 miles square, being 
subject to physical conditions, and each State was to be guaran- 
teed a Republican form of government. In 1787 the celebrated 
ordinance for the government of the Northwest Territory was 
passed. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor of the ter- 
ritory. He served from 1788 to 1800. Wiiithrop Sargent was 
his secretary. Kaskaskia and Vincennes were then the two main 
military posts. In January, 1790, Gen. St. Clair sent Winthrop 
Sargent to Vincennes to take military command, and to lay off 
a county. The county of Knox was accordingly formed some time 
between the date of his arrival at Vincennes and the succeeding 
July, 1790. Soon after his arrival an address was presented to 
him. It was dated Vincennes, December 10, 1790, and addressed 
"To the Hon. Winthrop Sargent, Esq., Secretary of the terri- 


tory of tlie United States north of the Ohio, and vested with 
all the powers of governor and commander-in-chief." The letter 
expressed great pleasure at his coming ; satisfaction- at the recent 
change in government; great loyalty to their new master; paid 
a glowing tribute to Maj. Hamtramck, his predecessor; expressed 
implicit confidence in his generosity and magnanimity, and asked 
him to convey to the President their good wishes. This Sargent 
agreed to present to his "august President." It was signed by 
Antoine Gamelin, Pierre Gamelin, Peard Gamelin, John Johnson, 

Lewis Edeline, Dick, Francois Bosseron, Francois Vigo and 

Henry V. Derburg. 

The county of Knox was named in honor of Gen. Henry Knox, 
Secretary of War. It then embraced all of Indiana and Mich- 
igan. In 1798 Wayne County was cut off of the northern part of 
Indiana, and included Michigan with Detroit as the seat. May 
7, 1800, Congress made two distinct Territories, with Vincennes 
as the seat of the one and Gen. Harrison as governor. In 1802 
Clark and Randolph Counties were formed. In 1805 Dear- 
born was formed. These counties seem to have been formed by 
proclamation as no record can be found showing their divisions. 
The Territory of MicJiigan was cut off in 1805, and Illinois in 
1809. Jefferson and Franklin Counties were separated in 1810. 
Knox County still embraced almost half of the State, and the 
pruning went on. 


The county, as it is now limited, contains an area of 540 sec- 
tions or square miles. Knox County has never experienced the 
contentions of other counties in locating her county seat, as Vin- 
cennes was chosen while under the control of Congress, and its 
eligibility has never been seriously questioned. 

In 1791 the court of quarter sessions ordered the county to be 
divided into two townships, Vincennes and Clarksville. Vin- 
cennes embraced all the territory from the Ohio Eiver on the 
south to the northern line, lying between St. Clair County on the 
west and Blue River on the east. Its symbol was the letter "V." 
Clarksville Township embraced the remainder of the county; its 
symbol was the letter "C." An order was made in 1801, at the 
court of quarter sessions, by James Johnson, Antoine Marechall 


and Epliraim Jordan, "esquires justices," that two townships 
should be laid off as follows, to-wit: "The township of Vincennes 
shall be composed of the village of Vincennes, the upper and 
lower prairie and the commons, and shall be known and called by 
the name and style of Vincennes Township." "Ordered, that the 
second township shall be bounded by the road leading from the 
town of Vincennes to Harbin's Ferry, beginning at the point 
where the road crosses the line of the township of Vincennes; 
thence along that road until it strikes the division line between 
the county of Knox and the county of ^ Clark, and that it be 
named and styled Harrison Township." It, of course, was named 
in honor of Gen. Harrison. " Ordered, that the third township 
shall be bounded by the said road until it strikes the said division 
line between the counties of Knox and Clark, and should be known 
by the name and style of Palmyra Township." It further ordered 
that no respect should be paid to boundaries heretofore laid off. 

Vincennes Township at that time embraced the western part 
of the township, Harrison all to the southeast and Palmyi-a all to 
the east and northeast. In 1808 Busseron had been laid off, and 
embraced the northern part of the county. It was named in 
honor of Maj. Francois Bosseron. The next township was 
Widner, the record of which is lost, but it was about 1812. 
It was named in honor of John Widner, and embraced the 
greater part of Vigo Township. Between the last named date 
and 1823 Johnson and Decker Townships were laid off; the rec- 
ord of these is also missing. In 1838 it was ordered "that part 
of Harrison Township lying south of the township line between 
Harrison and Palmyra on tlie east side of Pond Creek, running 
down said creek to fi-actional Sections Nos. 9 and 16; thence east 
to White River, be attached to Palmyra." 

The court at the September term formed a new township, with 
the following boundaries: "Beginning at the juncture of the river 
Du Chien ; thence up the river to the township line of Decker ; 
thence north to Vincennes Commons; thence west to the ditch; 
thence down the ditch to Grand Coupee ; thence up Coupe(^ to the 
Wabash; thence down the Wabash to the mouth of the Embar- 
ras, the same to be called Uno Township, and the place of elec- 
tion to be St. Thomas' Church. In 1846 a material change was 


made in the boundaries of this township. This township was 
done away with in a few years. These two explanations were 
given by a gray-haired man for the action of the commissioners — 
one given was that there were not enough who could read and 
write legally qualified to fill an election board ; and another given 
was that a great number of farmers were in the habit of driving- 
their hogs into this township to feed, and so few of the hogs 
were ever driven out that it came to be known as "hog thief 
.township," and the better class of citizens petitioned to the 
board to have the township organization abandoned. 


From 1801 to 1807 courts were held at the house of Laurient 
Bazadon, corner of Bradney and Second Streets. Grand jury 
rooms were sometimes furnished elsewhere. The allowances for 
Bazadon for 1801 were $1.20 a day when fuel was needed, and 
75 cents a day on other occasions. In 1807 Antoine Marechall 
was allowed $100 for the use of his house for a court room. 
Steps were now taken to build a new court house. A com- 
mittee consisting of Robert Buntin and John Rice Jones pur- 
chased the two lots where Judge Niblack's residence now stands, 
on condition that a good title could be given. This was in 1807. 
The price paid was $50. The justices immediately advertised 
for 100,000 brick and eighty perches of stone. William Lindsey 
received the contract for the brick at $2.50 per thousand; Will- 
iam Dunica received $50 for the shingles, also $100 for scant- 
ling. The committee on court house were William Wallace, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Robert Buntin and Peter Jones. The house 
was completed in 1813, and its completion was celebrated by a 
banquet at the Lasselle House, where the notaries Avere wined 
and dined. The total cost of the house was $3,156.41^. The 
tax duplicate then showed only $1,759.55 taxes for the year. 

However, in 1808, the inhabitants of the town entered a pro- 
test against building the court house so far away from the central 
part of the town. The house served till 182G, when the question 
of building a new structure began to be considered. In July, 
1820, Samuel Langdon, Joseph Chambers, Joseph McClure, John 
Black and William Raper, a committee, reported that the old 


court house ought to be sold and a new one -erected. This was 
in July, 1826. A committee of David L. Bonner, Benjamin V. 
Beckes and John Moore were appointed to receive bids and select 
a "scite" for a new building. A new committee was appointed 
in 1830, who reported that the court house was safe for the pres- 
ent, and recommended $300 worth of repairs to be made on the 
old house, which act was accordingly done. 

In a few months work began again in earnest on a new court 
house. Lots 310, 311, 328 and 329 were selected and purchased 
by Martin Robinson, A. G. Roberts and James Thorne, commis- 
sioners. The contract was let to John Moore for $3,971.46, to 
which $100 was afterward added for a cupola. It was stated that 
the "front end" should be toward the Wabash. The contract 
for this was let in 1831, and the work completed in due time. In 
1868 a new court house began to be talked of. Plans and speci- 
fications were furnished by Edwin May, architect, of Indianapo- 
lis, for which he received $2,000. The estimated cost was $80,- 
000. Bids were called for; they varied from $87,998 to 
$167,000. The contract was let in 1872, the building to be of 
brick. Dissatisfaction arose as to the style of building, and a 
new contract was entered into, Edwin May still being the archi- 
tect. The commissioners at the time were Thomas Dayson, Asa 
Thorn and John M. Berry. The building is of light-colored 
limestone, and is a magnificent building in architectural beauty 
and style. In a niche in front stands a life-size statue of George 
Rogers Clark to the left, and to the right stands a full-size 
United States soldier. In another face of the building is the 
Goddess of Liberty. On a tablet to the left is inscribed the 
date, 1702, and to the right 1872. Notwithstanding the contract 
price, the building from changes, etc., has cost to the present over 


Prisons seem to be a necessary accompaniment of courts. 
Under the common law persons could be imprisoned for debt. 
The following prison bounds were ordered in 1801 by the justices 
of the quarter sessions: "Beginning at low- water mark on the 
Wabash, on the street between Antoine Marchall and Margaret 
Gamelin's; thence down said street to the lower corner of James 


PuTcell's; thence up to St. Louis Sti-eet; thence up said street, in- 
cluding the same, to the corner of John Ochiltree's house, next 
to Thomas Coulter's; thence up the street between Coulter's and 
Ochiltree's to James Creley's lott; from thence to the corner of 

lott, opposite the Widow Brouillette's; thence down that 

street, leading by H. Vanderbui-g's, to the place of beginning, 
including the streets." An order was passed by the board in 
1808, that no objection being made by the creditor, and the debtor 
making oath that he possessed neither personal nor real prop- 
erty, he should be released. Numbers availed themselves of the 
order of the coui-t. Criminal prisoners were at first confined in 
the casement of Fort Sackville, and later in a temporary jail. 

This jail was completed in 1803, and stood at the corner of 
Third and Buntiu Streets. This was a very indifferent jail, as it 
was declared unsafe for prisoners in 1807, the sheriff (Sullivan) 
entering his protest at that time against it. Robert Slaughter was 
one of the fii-st prisoners in the jail. He was incarcerated for the mur- 
der of Joseph Harbin. He was executed in 1805, by Daniel 0. Sul- 
livan, for which and his coffin, gallows and burial the county 
paid $11. In a short time a new jail was erected, on one of the 
lots adjoining the court house. On building the new court house 
a new jail was soon after built. This was burned down on De- 
cember 23, 1860, the estimated loss being $2,000. The present 
jail was erected a short time after, at a cost of $13,074. George 
C. Smith did the stone work for $6,67-4; William & Haugh, iron, 
$4,400, and Thomas Bishop the jailer's residence for $2,000. 


A petition, signed by Samuel Judah, Alfred Smith and Thomas 
Bishop, was presented to the commissioners, praying that leave 
might be granted them to use any county or State road from Vin- 
cennes to Bruceville, by Kelsoe's and the tan-yard and fi-om Bruce- 
ville to Emison's. This prayer was asked in accordance with an 
act of the General Assembly for the construction of plank roads. 
The prayer of the petitioners was granted April 23, 1850. A 
company was formed, called the " Lawrenceville Plank Road 
Company." About 400 shares of $50 each were sold, and the 
road built to Bruceville. Great rejoicing followed the comple- 


tion of the road. This road soon shared the fate of other simi- 
lar enterprises, and the company became embarrassed with a 
non-paying investment, and the enterprise was soon abandoned. 

In February, 1849, the commission voted $200,000 to aid in 
the construction of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. This work 
was begun in 1851, and it was not completed till 1858. The 
whole line from St. Louis to Cincinnati being head gauge, was 
changed to standard gauge from 6 o'clock A. M. on Sunday, July 
19, 1871, to 7 P. M. of the same day. Much litigation arose 
over the Ohio & Mississippi bonds, and not until within the last 
decade was the matter settled. This road gave excellent outlets 
to the East and tlie West. The Evansville & Terre Haute Road, 
then the Evansville & Crawfordsville, was built between 1850 
and 1854. The Indianapolis & Viucennes was completed between 
1869 and 1873, and the Cairo & Viucennes between 1872 and 1874. 


The first agricultural society organized in this county began 
and ended its career in 1809. John D. Hay and Symmes Harrison 
were the principal officers, and they devised a premium list ag- 
gregating nearly $400, to encoui-age "domestic products." Pre- 
miums were offered upon linen, flax thread, yarn, jeans, linsey 
and cotton cloth, called " homespun." The largest sum offered 
was $5 for the best brood mare showing a foal. There was no 
report of success attending the first exhibition, but in 1826 a call 
appeared in the Western Sun, signed by Henry D. Wheeler and 
others, for a meeting to organize a new society, "notwithstanding 
former failures." In 1835 another effort was made to organize 
a new society, under the act of the General Assembly for the 
encouragement of agricultural interests. The county commis- 
sioners appropriated the sum of $25 in 1836, and $25 in 1837, 
and $30 in 1838 (but what became of this does not appear), to 
assist the enterprise, but no fair was held at that time. The 
"fifth annual fair" was held at the court house October 11 and 
12, 1855. The officers were James D. Williams, president; A. 


B. McKee, secretary, and Thomas J. Beeler, treasurer. A mem- 
bership cost $1. 

There was a stock, an agricultural, a mechanical and a domes- 
tic manufacture department; also a premium of $5 offered for 
the best essay on stock raising, and one on agriculture. This 
was called the fifth annual fair, but when the others were held 
cannot be determined. The sixth fair was held October 15 and 16, 
1856, one mile from Vincennes, on the plank road. This fair 
was greatly interfered with on account of inclement weather, but 
was a success financially. Over $200 were given in premiums. 
Particiilar mention is made of knitting done by Miss Baird, and 
Chinese syrup made by A. B. McKee. The society at this time 
held $4,000 in funds, as was claimed, but there was much dissat- 
isfaction in regard to the possession of it. The fair of October 
28, 29 and 30, of 1858, was called a district fair. Gibson, War- 
rick, Pike, Sullivan and Lawi-euce Counties, 111., were represented 
by exhibits. 

This was one of the most successful ever held. The officers for 
that year were: J. D. Williams, president; Ab. Smith, treasurer; 
Dr. Graff, secretary. Over 1,000 entries were made. Fine displays 
were made by parties from Evansville and Louisville. It was in- 
tended to close the fair on Friday, but so flattering had been the 
success, that it was concluded to make Saturday the day. It should 
be stated, also, that Judge Law delivered a lecture on agriculture 
on Friday, the 29th. On Saturday was the display of horseback 
riding by the ladies. The entries for this ring were. Miss Par- 
melia Long, Miss Sallie McClure, Mrs. Alf. Purcell, and Mrs. Ann 
Langton, of Knox; Miss Devin and Mrs. Mitchell, of Gibson; 
Miss Merritt, of Lawrence County, 111. ; Miss Paxton, of Carlisle, 
and Miss Hornbrook, of Pike County. After a display of their 
equestrianism, the judges, after some deliberation, awarded the 
first premium to Mrs. Langton, and the second to Miss Paxton 
(13 years of age), of Carlisle. So enthusiastic were the friends 
of the Misses Long and McClure, that they purchased for each a 
saddle and trappings that were on exhibition and presented to 
the young ladies. Notwithstanding the great success attending 
this fair it ceased to exist after one more effort, until 1871, when 
it was revived under the present organization. It is known as 


the Knox County Agricultural and Mechanical Association. It was 
chartered by the State June 29, 1871, with a capital stock of $20,- 
000, in shares of $10 each. Its creation was largely due to the efforts 
of late Gov. James D. Williams, who was its first president. 

For the association the present grounds were purchased, to 
which additions and improvements have since been made almost 
every year. Fairs have become a fixed institution, and their suc- 
cess now rests almost entirely with their officers. This change is 
noticed in the management of fairs since the decade of 1850, the 
abandonment of the riding-ring, and lectures on agricultural sub- 
jects, and an increased interest in the speed-ring, and a more 
gorgeous display in all departments. Since Gov. Williams 
ceased to act as president the following ofiicers have served: 
Presidents, H. A. Foulks and W. W. Berry; secretaries, E. R. 
Steen and Gerard Eeiter ; treasurers, H. Foulks and C. G. Mathe- 
sie. The total liabilities of the association, March 4, 1884, were 
$2,147.59. The following is a tabulated statement of receipts 
and expenses for each year, to 1885: 


1871 ?9,880 55 

1872 3,95600 

1873 4,482 05 

1874 4,869 35 

1875 5,67235 

1876 4,95210 

1877 4,786 15 

1878 5,563 80 

1879 6,068 25 

1880 5,978 18 

1881 4,213 25 

1882 3,94910 

1883 6,385 10 

1884 6,078 35 

1885 7,078 91 

1886 6,81895 

Total Receipts $90,732 44 

*Year ending March 1. 

















Totals. . 

$ 3,000 00 

1,250 00 
1,000 00 

$8,381 ! 
3,064 ; 

2.448 ( 


$1,012 50 
1,526 50 
1,445 00 


2,320 00 
2.061 00 
2,360 50 
2,768 70 
2,597 50 
2,530 25 
2,634 50 
2,9.55 00 
3,289 50 
3,143 .50 
3,672 25 

$ 743 16 
1,1.52 87 
1,441 10 
1,645 56 
4,644 45 
1,177 72 
1,780 06 
2,133 45 
1,671 65 

,238 05 
,391 72 
,940 49 

137 58 
743 61 
741 91 
152 45 
159 67 
559 04 
027 85 
164 09 
364 42 
997 84 
773 81 
470 04 
329 03 
877 00 

$5,250 00 

$36,247 45 $34,529 79 $93,832 44 


This county can boast of some of the oldest and most distin- 
guished men of the medical profession. Among the oldest and 
most eminent may be mentioned Dr. Tisdale, who came to Vin- 
cennes in 1792; Dr. Samuel McKee, who was surgeon in the 
United States Army, and came to Vincennes in about 1800, and 
died May 6, 1809 ; also Dr. McNamara, who came a short time 
later. The physicians of the place met in 1817, and formed the 
first medical society ever formed in this county or in the State of 
Indiana. They met again the following year and among other 
things passed a resolution recommending the formation of a State 
medical society, and also sent a petition memorializing Con- 
gress to pass an act for the formation of a medical jjharmacopeia. 
No further permanent society was formed for fifty-eight years. 

From a call a number of physicians met in the city hall April 
24, 1875, for the purpose of forming a medical society for Knox 
County. Dr. Beard was chosen chairman. The following became 
members : A, J. Thomas, James T. Organ, H. M. Smith, J. "W. 
Pugh, W. H. Wise, W. B. Sprinkle, O'Connell Fairhurst, J. N. 
Merritt, A. J. Haughton, Alfred Patton, F. W. Beard. John C. 
Bever, John B. Mantel, W. W. Hitt, W. B. Harris and M. Wither- 
Bpoon. The following officers were elected: John W. Pugh, pres- 

*Year ending March 1. 


ident; F. W. Beard, secretary; Alfred Patton, treasurer; H. M. 
Smith, O. Fairhurst and A. J. Haughton, censors. The members 
now are as follows : W. B. Anderson, F. W. Beard, J. C. Bever, E. 
P. Busse, S. C. Beard, W. B. Bedell, Eoyse Davis, G. L. Dorsey, O. 
Fairhurst, C. A. Foulks,W. B. Grigsby,W. B. Harris, F. M. Har- 
ris, S. L. Harrison, J. H. Hensley, A. J. Haughton, B. T. Keith, 
J. W. Milam, W. T. Martin, T. B. Owings, J. W. Pugh, E. Eeel, 
J. A. Kandolf, H. M. Smith and L. B. Staley. The present 
officers are J. W. Milam, president; F. W. Beard, secretary; 
J. H. Hensley, treasurer; G. L. Dorsey, B. F. Keith and W. B. 
Harris, censors. The regular meetings of the society are on first 
Tuesday in April, July, October and January of each year. The 
society is in a healthful condition, which is largely due to Dr. F. 
W. Beard, who has been its efficient secretary since its organiza- 
tion. The following are deceased members : Drs. D. W. Hitt, 
Alfred Patton, M. Baiier and Emanuel Reel. 


"The poor ye have always with you," seems to have been liter- 
ally fulfilled in this county, as allowances were made for their 
keeping and burial as early as 1800. Three commissioners of 
the poor were appointed for each township to look after those who 
were in absolute want. These commissioners reported their out- 
lay to the County Board for settlement. The " pauper practice" 
was soon after let to the lowest responsible bidder, farmed out as 
it were, something after the present custom. The first step taken 
toward the erection of a county poor house was in 1820, when the 
General Assembly appointed David McClure, Thomas Emison, 
Samuel Chambers, Thomas Jordan, William Gamble, Abraham 
Kuykendall, James Watson and Henry Euble, as commissioners 
to purchase a farm. That the borough of Vincennes might share 
in its benefits the town board appointed Gen. W. Johnson a com- 
mittee of one to confer with the commissioners. The commons 
were then in the hand of the town board, and Johnson was in- 
structed that if the commissioners would purchase the southwest 
half of commons Lot No. 88 (ten acres), the board would donate 
the other half. This was accordingly done. This seems not to 
have been successful, as the custom of making allowances in the 


various townships with little modification till 1843, when it was 
thought but to have the poor all brought together and placed 
under the care of one person as a matter of economy and human- 
ity. Bids were received for keeping the poor for one or two 
years. Vanarsdale bid $28 for each " regular pauper," and V. 
S. McClure $25, the county to furnish medical attendance and 
funeral expenses. McClure received the contract. For the same 
work in 1845, McClure received $35 for each pauper, with the 
privilege "of keeping the asylum, if no objections were made." 
The success of the plan of having all the paupers under one man- 
agement showed the necessity of the county owning its own farm 
and buildings. In 1851 the auditor called the commissioners 
together in special session for the purpose of buying a poor farm. 
The commissioners, James Polk, William Junkins, and Andrew 
Gardner, met for that purpose December 30, 1851. They pur- 
chased Lot No. 2 of Surveys 45 and 47, containing forty acres, 
from A. T. Ellis, for which they paid $450. 

On April 3, 1852, the contract was let for building the asylum. 
Charles Daws received the contract for the carpenter and joiner's 
work and painting for $1,325. John Green received the contract 
for 157,184 brick at $3.50 per 1,000, and cellar for $25, making a 
total of his bill of $5,636.44. Soon after the completion of the 
asylum the commissioners passed an order requiring all paupers 
to be sent to the asylum for care, and when they were not sent not 
to allow any more for their care than if they were at the asylum. 
The cost of poor farm and asylum has varied considerably through 
the different years. From 1872 to 1873 it was $3,006.23; from 
1873 to 1874 it was $3,433.43; from 1874 to 1875 it was $2,- 
784.22; from 1875 to 1876 it was $2,618.72; from 1876 to 1877 it 
was $3,000.25; from 1877 to 1878 it was $5,072.95; from 1879 to 
1880 it was $2,500; from 1880 to 1881 it was $2,100. The ag- 
gregate for 1882 and 1883 is about $6,000 for each year. The 
June report for 1885 shows the cost of poor to be $4,032.72; poor 
farm, $1,308.73; poor at asylum, $1,350.07; making a total for 
1885 of $6,697.52. 

Those years in which very large sums were paid improve- 
ments were made to the asylum or the farm. The cost of the 
superintendent has also varied. In 1853 it was less than $200. 


In 1874 and 1875 Timothy Graham, received $500 for each year; 
H. A. Johnson about the same for the years 1877 and 1878, and in 
1879 and 1880 Robert N. Keever received $350 for each year. For 
the years 1881 and 1882 Thomas W. Pea received $400 for each 
year. J. Steen was appointed superintendent in 1884. In 1881 the 
commissioners entered into a contract with John H. Piel for the 
erection of a new asylum, which was to cost $15,544,15. The 
aggregate of the expenses of the poor in the township and 
assistance given to other charitable institutions is greater than 
the poor farm and asylum together. 


The tax duplicate for 1808 calls for 122 slaves taxed at $1 
each, amounting to $122; 1,945 horses at 50 cents each, or 
$972.50; 2,634 neat cattle at 10 cents each, amounting to 
$263.46; 183 single men or bachelors taxed at $1 each, or $183; 
also 121 houses, valued at $66,550, the tax on the same amount- 
ing to $196.45; seventeen stud horses were taxed $45. The tax 
on ferries amounted to $34; other taxables brought the duplicate 
to $1,759.50. The expenses for the year were about in proportion, 
to the tax duplicate. The expenses for the courts, including 
justices, sheriff, clerk, and other items, amounted to $380.32. In 
addition to these expenses was the cost of the poor and other 
items, making the total cost of running the county at $1,369.27. 
This was as a total population of 2,517, according to United 
States census of 1800. Ten years previous, and in 1798, the ex- 
penses of the justices' courts was $217.58, and the amount of 
revenue collected amounted to about $300 ; this was a population 
estimated at about 900. A decade later than the first mentioned, 
or in 1818, the resources of the coianty had greatly increased. 
Notwithstanding the ordinance of 1787 and the State constitution 
of 1816, there were still about 100 slaves in the county. Two 
items of taxation had changed — slaves and single men. The 
population had increased fi-om 2,517 in 1800 to 7,945 in 1810. 
The rate was 50 cents on each 100 acres of land ; 50 cents on each 
horse and mule; $3 on each stud horse; 12| cents on each 
work ox; 50 cents on each watch; ferry at Vincennes, $10; on 
White Eiyer, $3 each; other ferries on the Wabash, $5; town 


lots, $1 each; four-wheeled pleasure carriages, $4; tavern li- 
cense in town, $15; in the county, $7.50. Tavern license 
always included the item of intoxicating liquors. The total 
amount of taxes amounted to $5,671.85. The expenses, after 
paying for the new court house, were but nominal. It will be 
seen that the rate of taxation was about in proportion to the rate 
of increase of population, as the population for 1820 is given at 
5,437. The same year following in the next decade the rate of 
taxation was as follows: $70 on 100-acre tracts of land; 50 
cents on each horse or mule ; 12^ cents on work oxen ; 30 cents on 
pinchbeck or silver watches; $1 on gold watches; $1 on brass 
clocks: $1.50 on four-wheeled carriages, and $1 on two-wheeled 
vehicles. The total amounted to $7,140.06^. The expenses for 
the same year were $597 for the poor; $687.17 for court house 
and jail expenses; $3,672 for books and stationery for the use of 
the officers of the court house. Clerks' fees, $107. 18|; sheriff, 
$102; wolf scalps, $10; printing, $7.80. Coimting sundi-ies and 
all the expenses for the year 1828 amounted to the sum of 

In 1838 the rates were as follows: Lands were $1.50, $1.22^, 
90 cents per 100 acres, according to quality ; horses or mules, 37^ 
cents each; work oxen the same amount as the last named. 
Four-wheeled carriages were $2, and two-wheeled vehicles were 
$1.50 each; brass clocks, $1; gold watches, $6.50 each; town 
lots were 90 cents, and tavern license in town, $20; in the coun- 
try, $10; to vend wooden clocks cost $10. The following is the 
item of expense for the same year: The expense for the poor was 
$783. 87i; court house, $1,170. 38 J; books and stationery, 
$37,414; printing, $15.75; wolf scalps, $8. The officers' fees 
were for clerk, $390.66; sheriff, $140; assessors, $102; return- 
ing judges of elections, $34; associate justices, $76; jurors, 
$304.25; bailiffs, $92.31^; commissioner, $54, and the jail and 
jailer, $167.53^. The total of receipts amounted to $11,798.67|, 
and the total expense to $11,779.98|. This was on a population 
of 10,657, coimting 1,840 for 1838. In 1848 the receipts were 
for grocery license, $99.97; ferry license, $43; peddlers and 
shows, $76; county revenue,' $4,863.22; interest on seminary 
fund, $60.80; surplus revenue, $309.50; redemption of land, 


$513.25; delinquent taxes, $588.30; interest on revenue, $388.61; 
jury fees, 90 cents; merchant license, $147.54; saline fund, 
$112.17; county seminary fund, $209.56; bank tax fund, $34.02; 
delinquent taxes recovered, $198.91; interest on bank tax fund, 
$24.15, and interest on saline fund, $14.15, the total being 
$7,469.43; expenses for the same year were for outstanding 
claims, $1,210.75; assessors' claims, $243.12; specific allow- 
ances, $339.34; criminals, $15; inquests, $2.50; surplus reve- 
nue, $230; three per cent fund, $52.90; interest on fund, 
$138.99; expense for poor, $687.24; expenses incident to sur- 
plus revenue, $50; seminary, $1,046; interest on same, $24.47; 
redemption of lands, $518.96; delinquent taxes, $320 ; interest on 
surplus revenue, $397.92; roads and highways, $228.78; Saline 
fund, $202.17; bank tax interest, $345; books and stationery, 
1166.93; other claims making a total of $7,409.43, leaving a bal- 
ance on hand of $30.16. 

The same receipts as per item as above for the year 1858 
amount in the aggregate to $20,714.12, and the expenses to $20,- 
368.37, leaving a balance on hand of $345.77. The rate of popu- 
lation increased about in proportion, the number of inhabitants 
being 16,056. A decade later the receipts and disbursements 
had increased to over $40,000. Owing to a change in the plans 
of the new court house, the cost greatly exceeding the estimate, 
the county expenses were immensely increased. The receipts for 
the year 1874 amounted to $202,988.27, and expenditui-es to 
$158,591.61. For the year 1875, counting the surplus, the re- 
ceipts were $203,529.95, and the expenses were $203,529.95. For 
the year 1876 the receipts were $80,764.64, and expenditures 
were $221,510.52. The item of receipts for 1877 was $84,721.85, 
and expenditures were $89,590.04. In 1878 the receipts were 
$120,470.88, and expenditures were $127,650.74 ; and in 1879 
the receipts were $165,560.29, and the expenditures were 147,- 
129.84. In the year 1880 the receipts were $164,272.72, and 
the item of expenditure was $91,840.65. In 1881 the first item 
amounted in the aggregate to $172,702.06, and 'the second to 
$99,069.56. For the next year the receipts amounted to $176,- 
397.19, and the expenditures were $130,176.44. In 1883 the full 
item was $149,583.03, and the second was $88,674.19. The re- 


ceipts for 1884 were $153,410.06, and the expenditures were $97,- 
218.83. It will be seen that the receipts since 1876 have largely- 
exceeded the expenditures. The last report of the auditor, June, 
1885, shows the following items of receipts: From county- 
revenue, $63,921.41; from , $56,191.21; township revenue, 

$7,443.50; roads, $10,984.29; dog tax, $1,853.53; court house 
bonds, $10,458.16; interest on bonds, $11,816.10; ferry license, 
$3; agricultural fund, $40; land redeemed, $913.10; jury fees, 
$102.20; state revenue, $13,297.55; state house revenue, $2,103.- 
31; docket fees, $3,220; total receipts, $179,487.94. The ex- 
penses were, for jurors, $4,162,40; bailiffs, $1,292.75; court, 
$314.55; roads, 542.75; inquests, $421.70; insane, $953,10; 
blind, $85.91 ; house of refuge, $1,009.70; poor farm, $1,308.73; 
poor at asylum, $1,356.07; poor, $4,032.72; criminals, $1,736.- 
40; assessors, $1,758; fuel, $495.89; bridges, $3,974.81; super- 
intendent of public schools, $1,068; sheriff, $1,268.40; treasurer, 
$800; public offices, $189.43; printing, $249.55; auditor, $3,665,- 
45; claims, $557,85; attorneys, $800; jail, $500; taxes refunded, 
$259.45; lands redeemed, $857.46: miscellaneous, $10.33; court 
house clock. $25. Total amount expended, $101,182.64. 


Date. Time to Run. No. Denomination. Total. 

June 10, 1879 10 years 63 $500 f 31 ,000 

March 5, 1875 15 " 20 500 10,000 

■' 11, " 10 " 10 500 5,000 

•• 17, " 15 " 20 500 10,000 

May 6, " 15 " 38 500 19,000 

"14, " 15 ■• 23 500 11,000 

Total amount $86,000 

In addition there are twenty county bonds of $1,000, being a 
total of $20,000 of county bonds. 


In 1801 Henry Vanderburg was granted ferry license for the 
Wabash at Vincennes for $10. Luke Decker same license for 
White Eiver for $5. In 1824 John Goffin received 50 cents as re- 
turning judge in Vincennes; Jacob Anthis, $1.70 for the same for 
Decker Township ; Jacob Pea, 90 cents for Johnson Township ; Sam- 


uel Adams, $1.16 for Harrison; Daniel McClure, $1.72 for Palmyra 
Township; William Price, $1.96 for "Washington Township ; John 
Hill, $1.34 for Busseron Township; John Keith, $1.4(> for Widner 
Township, and Charles Polk, $1.4:6 for the same township. In 
1828 Samuel McClure was made judge of election for Busseron 
Township; Abe Miller for Widner; William Price for Washing- 
ton ; George McClure for Palmyra ; Joseph Judkins for Harrison , 
Abe Thompson for Johnson ; Nicholas Browning for Decker, and 
R. P. Price for Vincennes Township. John Decker was granted - 
ferry license over White River. John Scott, Daniel Judkins and 
John Staiford were made school superintendents for Harri- 
son Township; William Eoper for Palmyra Township; A. G. 
Roberts for Washington Township ; Samuel Chambers for Wid- 
ner; J. S. Mayer for Johnson; James Dick for Decker; 
Samuel McClure for Busseron, and R. P. Price for Vincennes 
Township. William McClure, William Rjabinson, William 
Nicholson, Newton Edeline, Ephraim Harrell, Albert Diggs, 
John Snyder, Edward Calloway and Martin Tade each were fined 
$1 for "fiddling and dancing on the Sabbath," which was given to 
the seminary fund. Michael Brouillette was charged $10 for tavern 
license in ISSi. Samuel Thorn and William Mason each were 
taxed $10 for ferry license on the Wabash. James S. Edwards, 
Joseph McClure and James Thorn were appointed commissioners 
to sell the poor house. A. Massy became the purchaser in 1828. 
Elihu Stout, John Shepard, John Barkman, Solomon Weisbaum, 
J. McClure, William McCoy, Robert Lemon, William Raper and 
Samuel Sharp were appointed judges of election for 1831 in Vin- 
cennes, Busseron, Johnson, Decker, Washington, Harrison, Wid- 
ner, PalmjTa, in order named. The same year L. Bonner, J. C. 
Holland, Hiram Decker, Andrew Burnside, Andrew Gushing, J. 
S. C. Harrison, G. W. Johnson became trustees of the university. 
In 1842 C. Robinson, Emanuel Gunther, E. S. Morris, D. 
Price, G. W. White, J. Dennison, James AVilson, J. Short, J. B. 
Lapland and S. S. Martin were called as special jurymen. In 
1839 Zachariah PuUiam was made collector of State and county 
revenue with bond at $18,000, James Johnson the same in 1840 
with bond at $15,000. The same year Bruceville voted against 
the selling of liquors by a large majority. James Thorn was 


granted a ferry license for a point on White Eiver in Section 1, 
Town 1 north, Eange 9 west, with the following rates: Four- 
horse wagon, 50 cents ; six horses and wagon, 6'2i- cents. 

The following inquest jury was chosen for 1842 ; H. P. Brokaw, 
H. D. Wheeler, J. Harper, John Myers, J. Massey, B. H. Corn- 
well, Jesse Crocker, J. D. Martin, Asa Washburn. In 1843 the 
line between Johnson and Harrison Townships was run from Wil- 
son Smith's old ferry to White Eiver at Catt's, to include Thomas 
Small in Johnson Township. The same year Peter Euby, Charles 
Polk, J. A. McClure, George Simpson, W. B. Eobinson, Zacha- 
riah PuUiam, J. E. Snyder, John Barraman and H. Moore were 
made returning judges of their respective townships. In 1847 
the commissioners refused to receive $300 in Illinois paper money 
because it was not current, and they thought the "sacred fund" 
should be guarded more carefully. In 1860 the commissioners 
paid the sister of Eiorden $17.56 for the poor. In 1864, $500 to 
G. E. Green for damages done to his office by the soldiers. In 
1866 the commissioners granted to the Vincennes Draw Bridge 
Company through its president, L. L. Watson, and its secretary, 
W. H. DeWolf, the privilege of erecting the bridge. lu 1876 $500 
was appropriated for the proper memorial services attending the 
death of Gov. James D. Williams, and in 1882 $100 for similar 
on account of the death of President James A. Garfield. 


The following is the vote, by townships, on presidential elec- 
tions since 1856. In the vote in 1856, the scattering votes for 
Pillmore and those for Bell are not counted : 

Buchanan. Fremont. Total. 

Vigo ' 91 96 187 

Widner 94 49 143 

Busseron 73 67 140 

Washington 144 54 198 

Palmyra 96 66 157 

Steen 59 45 104 

Harrison 133 104 337 

Johnson 90 46 136 

Decker 60 45 105 

Vincennes 418 392 710 

Totals 1358 864 3117 


Ill 1860, for president, the vote stood: 

Douglas. Lincoln 

Vigo 175 161 

Busseron 117 98 

Widner 130 142 

Washington 96 176 

Palmyra 107 112 

Harrison 173 166 

Johnson 140 76 

Decker 93 52 

Steen 83 104 

Vincennes 562 483 

Totals 1666 1570 























In the campaign of 18(d4, between Lincoln and McClellan, 
ihe vote stood: 

McClellan. Lincoln. 

Vigo 177 160 

Widner 115 133 

Busseron 137 86 

Washington 92 157 

Palmyra 104 98 

Vincennes 627 399 

Harrison 194 157 

Johnson 154 46 

Decker 119 26 

Steen 98 89 

Totals 1817 1351 

In 1868 the vote stood as follows: 


Vigo ; 331 

Widner 152 

Busseron 168 

Washington 137 

Palmyra 144 

Vincennes 852 

Harrison 283 

Johnson 213 

Decker 115 

Steen 123 

Totals '. 2517 

In 1872 the vote stood: 


Vigo 375 

Widner 177 

Busseron 211 

Washington 125 

Palmyra 143 

Vincennes '.'.'.[['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['.'.'.[['.'.'.'.'.['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 891 

Johnson 175 

Decker Ill 

Steen 134 

Totals 2527 






In 1876 the vote on election was as follows: 

Tilden. Hayes. 

Vigo 336 380 

Widner 199 203 

Busseron 234 154 

Washington - 157 230 

Palmyra 136 188 

Vincennes 1,088 682 

Harrison 347 296 

Johnson 268 88 

Decker 136 42 

Steen 157 125 

Totals 3058 2888 

In the campaign of 1880 the vote stood: 

Hancock. Garfield. 

Vigo 373 877 

Widner.. : 213 202 

Busseron 256 140 

Washington 157 239 

Palmvra 139 155 

Vincennes 1351 924 

Johnson 271 115 

Harrison 384 336 

Decker 148 56 

Steen 158 152 

Totals 3449 2695 

In 1884 the vote by townships was as follows: 

Cleveland. Blaine. Butler. St. John. 

Vigo 407 358 13 

Widner 237 188 

Busseron 245 130 4 

Washington 159 229 1 2 

Palmyra 138 136 1 

Vincennes 1487 976 7 

Harrison 843 318 

Johnson 292 136 

Decker 134 68 

Steen 186 155 ' 

Totals 3578 2694 14 14 


In 1800 2,517 

In 1810 7,945 

In 1820 5,437 

In 1830 6,525 

In 1840 10,657 

In 1850 11,084 

In 1860 16,056 

In 1870 31.562 

In 1880 76,823 

In 1886 (estimated) 28,000 

•The decrease in population in any decade is due to the formation of new counties out of Knox. 



Clerks.— Uohert Buntin, 1706-1818; Homer Johnson, 1818- 
22 ;H. L. Withers, 1822-26; Homer Johnson, 1826-30; Daniel C. 
Johnson, 1830-33; Alexander D. Scott, 1833-38; William R. 
McCord, 1838-51; William Denny, 1851-59; H. S. Cauthorn, 
1859-70; A. P. Woodall, 1870-74; W. B. Robinson, 1874- 
82; G. A. Alsop, 1882-86, present incumbent. 

Sheriffs.— Willmm Prince, 1796-98 ; Christian Wyant, 1798- 
1801; William Prince, 1801-04; Daniel O. Sullivan, 1804-09; 
Parmenas Beckes, 1809-11; John Myers, 1811-13; Benja- 
min V. Beckes, 1818-19; John Decker, 1819-24; Seneca 
Almy, 1824^30; John Purcell, 1880-35; Zachariah PuUiam, 
1835-39; Abraham Smith, 1839-44; Isaac Mass, 1844-48; 
William T. Scott, 1848-52; R. J. Beeler, 1852-56; Martin 
Anthis, 1856-60; James Reynolds, 1860-64; J. C. Lahue, 
1864-68; J. C. Reynolds, 1868-72; Simon Payne, 1872-76; 
James H. Shouse, 1876-80; James E. Kackley, 1880-84; M. 
L. Seddelmeyer, 188-^86 ; incumbent. 

Audiiors.—S. W. Elliott, 1845-55; J. B. Patterson, 1855- 
68; Hiram A. Foulks, 1863-70; A. J. Thomas, 1870-74; 
Garret Reiter, 187^82; James A. Dick, 1882-86; incumbent. 

Becorders.—W. D. Hay, 1814-16; John Gibson, 1816-18; 
Robert Buntin, 1818-22; William R. McCall, 1822-23; Samuel 
Dilworth, 1823-30; William Ruble, 1830-39; Nicholas Harper, 
1839-51; Elihu Stout, 1851-59; R. Y. Caddington, 1859-63; 
James Beck, 1868-67; Emanuel Meisenhelter, 1867-70; James J. 
Mayes, 1870-78 ; Fred Hall, 1878-86 ; incumbent. 

Treasurers. — John W. Cooke, 1852-54; William Williamson, 
1854-56; A. L. Connoyer, 1856-60; John W. Cannon, 1860-62; 
W. W. Berry, 1862-66; Henry Knirihm, 1866-74; James Rey- 
nolds, 1874-78; Christian Hoffman, 1878-82; S. S. Hollings- 
worth, 1882-86. 

Surveyors. — Stephen Benton, deputy United States, 1805-14; 
the same with D. Sullivan, William Harris, R. Buntin, Arthur 
Henrie, 1815; Samuel Emison, 1816-52; George Calhoun, 
1852-54; Andrew Armstrong, 1854^57; Samuel E. Smith, 1857- 
59; William P. Roberts, 1859-61; Samuel E. Smith, 1859-63; 
John Armstrong, 1868-66; C. S. Kabler, 1866-74; John C. Hen- 


non, 1874-80; R P. Mayfield, 1880-85; J. C. Hennon, 1883; in- 

Coroners.— Joseph Eoseman, 1824-26; Daniel Wilton, 1826- 
28 ; Abram Eodarmel, 1828-32 ; William Bruce, 1833-35 ; H. P. 
Brokaw, 1835-39; William Bruce, 1839-42; Isaac Mass, 1842- 
44; F. J. Myers, 1844-54; J. W. Emery, 1854-56; F. J. Myers, 
1856-60; T. A. Smith, 1860-62; J. S. Westfall, 1862-64; B. V. 
Thorn, 1864-66; James' Bliss, 1866-74; J. Reiter, 1874-76; Fred 
Hilbert, 1876-78; Charles M. Connoyer, 1878. 

Representatives. — Isaac N. Eastham, 1858-60; Cyrus M. 
Allen, 1860-62; W. E. Niblack, 1860-64; John B. Patterson, 
1864-66; O. F. Baker, 1866-68; James D. Williams, 1868-70; 
H. S. Cauthorn, 3870-74; Charles E. Crane, 1874-76; F. W. 
Viehe, 1876-78; H. S. Cauthorn, 1878-82; S. W. Williams, 
1882-86; M. J. Niblack, 1886. 

Senators.— J. D. Williams, 1858-66 ; William Turner, 1866- 
70; James D. Williams, 1870-74; Henry K. Wilson, 1874-78? 
F. W. Viehe, 1878-82; J. Ernst, 1882-86; W. W. Berry, 1886- 


pkepaked by hon. henry s. caothorn. 

History of the Bench and Bar— Jueisdiction of the Early Courts 
—Provisions of the Ordinance of 1787— Formation of Knox 
County by Proclamation— Early Court Practices— List of 
Judges— Other Courts— Professional Character of the Judges 
-Slavery in Indiana— Probate Matters— Clerks— ;Members of 
the Bar— Catalogue of Circuit Judges— Sketches of Jurists 
—The Vincennes Bar. 

KNOX COUNTY has been called the "mother of counties," 
and so far as the territory embraced within the limits of 
Indiana is concerned, the appellation has been appropriately ap- 
plied. As a civil organization it antedates both the Territorial 
and State governments. 

It was first laid off and organized in the spring of 1790, by 
Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the Northwest Territory, acting- 


under special instructions to that effect from Gov. Arthur St. 
Clair, who was then at Kaskaskia, employed in organizing St. 
Clair County. It was named in honor of Gen. Henry Knox, then 
Secretary of War of the United States. It originally embraced 
all the territory now constituting the States of Indiana and Mich- 
igan. In 1805 the Territory of Michigan was severed from it 
by the organization, by act of Congress, of that Territory. Its 
area was decreased from time to time by the carving out of new 
counties fi-om its territory, until it was reduced to its present di- 
mensions in 1820 upon the organization of Greene County. 


A number and variety of tribunals claimed and exercised ju- 
risdiction in civil and criminal matters, within the territory now 
constituting the county, prior to its organization by Secretary Sar- 
gent in 1790, which date only marks the inception of organized 
Federal authority. Prior to that date, and before the acquisition 
of the Northwest Territory by Virginia, the several commandants 
of Post Vincents exercised such powers, either in person or 
through magistrates appointed by them. De Vincenne, St. Ange, 
Le Gras and all commandants of the post claimed and exercised 
the right to donate the public and unappropriated lands. Their 
transactions were authenticated by notaries, but the business was 
loosely transacted and no permanent record made, but land grants 
and other important transactions authenticated by them were com- 
mitted to loose strips of paper, which were not deposited or pre- 
served in any ptiblic place, but were retained, destroyed or carried 
off by the notaries who authenticated them. But the greater part 
of the lands granted under their authority or the courts organized 
by them, not tainted with fraud, were subsequently recognized 
and confii-med by the Federal Government, in conformity with 
the requirements and stipulations of the French and English 
treaties and the Virginia act of cession. 

After the conquest of the Northwest by the troops under Gen. 
George Kogers Clark February 2-4, 1779, and its consequent 
acquisition by Virginia, that State in the spring of the same year 
passed an act for the government of the territory thus acquired. 
Under that act John Todd was appointed "lieutenant of the country 


and commauder-in-chief," and immediately repaired to Vincennes 
to assume and exercise his authority as such. Upon his arrival 
he issued a proclamation announcing and declaring his powers 
and purposes. In June of that year he organized "a court for 
the district of Post Vincennes." Said court thus established pos- 
sessed both civil and criminal jurisdiction, and also claimed by 
uniform custom and precedent, and exercised the power of grant- 
ing lands. This court continued in existence from June, 1779, 
until the summer of 1787, when the power and jurisdiction of 
Virginia was superseded by federal authority, and the passage, 
July 13, 1787, of the ordinance of Congress for the government 
of the territory northwest of the river Ohio. This court was 
composed of the following persons: F. Bosseron, L. E. Deline, 
Pierre Gamelin and Pierre Queray. None of these were profes- 
sional lawyers, and none of its records are now in existence, and 
its transactions in all probability were very informally and unskill- 
fuUy kept, as the members of the court in a letter dated Post 
Vincents, July 3, 1790, addressed to Secretary Sargent, when he 
was here employed in the organization of the county, admit they 
possessed "but little knowledge of public affairs," and attribute 
to that cause any errors or mistakes they may have committed in 
the discharge of their official functions. 


Secretary Sargent, in June, 1790, issued his proclamation 
declaring Knox County duly organized, and establishing courts of 
justice for the transaction of business therein. He appointed as 
judges of the court the following persons: Antoine Gamelin, 
Paul Gamelin, Frangois Busseron, James Johnson and Luke 
Decker. None of these appointees were learned in the law or, 
at least, never acquired any distinction as jurists. He also 
appointed John Small sheriff of the count}-, who was the first 
incumbent of that office. He a[)pointed Samuel Baird clerk of 
the county, who was also the first incumbent of that office. This 
court possessed both civil and criminal jurisdiction. When 
engaged in the transaction of criminal business it was styled "the 
court of general quarter sessions of the peace for the coiinty of 
Knox." When occujjied with civil and probate matters it was styled 


"the common j^leas court of Knox County." The same judges 
presided for the transaction of civil or criminal business, but sep- 
arate terms were held for each kind, and separate records kept. 
The presence of all the judges was not necessary, and as a gen- 
eral practice only one or two presided at the same term. The 
sheriffs and clerks of the county attended all sessions of the court. 


The first session of this court was held July 14, 1790, when 
all the judges were jDresent. The following persons were empan- 
eled and sworn as a grand inquest, the oath being administered 
in both English and French, as some of the jury did not under- 
stand English: John Mills, John Rice Jones, Henry Vanderburg, 
Francis Vigo, Thomas Tredwell Jackson, Nicholas Miet, John Bap- 
tiste Miet, Eobert Johnson, Patrick Simpson, John Baptiste Sa- 
marta, Robert Mayes, Joseph Leflore, Thomas Jourdan, John Gane- 
shaw, Abraham Westfall, John Durgalon, Benjamin Beckes, Joseph 
St. Mary, Robert Day, Laurent Bazadon, Antoine Lalumiere and 
Peter Mallet. This grand inquest, the first in the county, returned 
no indictment, but came to the bar of the court and made verbal 
presentment, to the court, "that a murder of malice aforethought 
was committed in the county on or about the 19th or 20th day of 
November, 1789, by one Michael Graife upon a certain Albert 
Guest, and as the same has not been taken notice of by any 
court, to the knowledge of the jury, present the same to the court 
that it may be taken cognizance of according to law." This was 
the first presentment made by a grand jury, and no further notice 
was ever taken of the matter, and the accused was never prose- 
cuted. This was the only presentment made, and the court trans- 
acted no business except the ajjpoiutment of constables for the 
village and county. 


The next term was held the following October and adjourned 
without doing any business, as a jury could not be obtained, " as 
the militia of the county had been called out against the Indians 
of the Wabash by the United States in Congress assembled." 
The next January term did no business for want of a clerk. The 
April term following met at the house of John Small, the sheriff, 


but did no business. At the July term, 1791, the grand inquest 
presented to the court the follo-\ving persons for the offenses 
named: Patrick Simpson, Anthony Smith, Joseph Janes and 
Derick Simpson for a riot; Joseph Janes for an assault and bat- 
tery upon Marie Lefevre, a widow; Patrick Simpson and Anthony 
Smith for an assault and battery upon Josette Andre, wife of 
Joseph Andre. It was the practice for the grand jury to appear 
at the bar of the court and make verbal presentment to the court 
of persons charged with crime, and for the coui-t to direct the 
prosecuting attorney to draw up and sign the indictment. Upon this 
occasion the coui't appointed John Eice Jones, prosecuting attor- 
ney, and he prepared the indictments against these parties. These 
were the first indictments prepared in the coiinty charging persons 
with the commission of crime, and John Eice Jones was the first 
prosecuting attorney. At the ensuing October term these parties 
were tried on these indictments and found guilty, and severally 
assessed with fines ranging from $12 to $22. John Eice Jones 
was allowed by the court $14 for prosecuting on the part of the 
United States. The said Jones was, in addition to his appoint- 
ment as prosecutor, appointed clerk of the court in the absence 
of the regular clerk. Henry Vanderburg was authorized by the 
court "to conti'act for erecting in front of the chm-ch a pillory and 
stocks for the use of the county, to be paid for out of county funds 
when there shall be sufficient for the purpose." John Eice Jones 
was also employed for the sum of $33.33 to translate the laws into 
the French language, as some of the judges did not understand 
the English. He reported to the next term that he had made the 
translation and was paid the contract price. The county was di- 
vided by the court into two townships, Vincennes and Clarksville. 
Vincennes Township embraced all the county fi-om the Ohio Eiver 
on the south to the northern line, lying between St. Clair County 
on the west and the course of Blue Eiver on the east. Clarks- 
ville Township embraced the balance of the county. The mark 
adopted for Vincennes Township was the letter "V" and for 
Clarksville the letter "C." 

At the November term, 1797, John Taitham was indicted by 
the grand jury for grand larceny, and tried by a jury, who re- 
turned a verdict of guilty as charged. It was not the practice for 


the jury to measure the punishment, which was reserved for the 
court. In this case the court rendered the following judgment: 
"That the said John Taitham pay to William McConnell the sum 
of 54 French crowns and $50, the amount he had stolen from him, 
and also pay into court another sum of 54 French crowns and $50 
agreeably to the laws of the Territory, and further pay as a fine 
the sum of $20 and the costs, and on failure to do so to receive 
the quantity of fifteen stripes and be sold agreeably to the laws 


The following persons presided as judges, at different times, in 
this court in addition to the first appointees: Henry Vanderburg, 
Louis Edeline, Jonathan Purcell, Abel Westfall, Max-ston G. 
Clark, Antoine Marechall, John Gibson, James N. Woods, Benja- 
min Beckes, Ephraim Jordan, Abraham Huff, John Ochiltree, 
George Leech, Peter Jones, George Wallace, Daniel McClure, 
Elihu Stout and William N. Moorman. With the exception of 
Henry Vanderburg none of the judges were lawyers. Marston 
G. Clark, however, made a reputation. He was a native of Vir- 
ginia and was raised in the backwoods, and his education was 
limited. He was a cousin of Gen. George Rogers Clark, was fully 
six feet high and very muscular, and wore leather pants, moc- 
casins and a fox-skin cap. John Long was tried by a jury before 
him on a charge of horse stealing. The jury found him guilty. 
His attorneys moved in arrest on the ground that the indictment 
did not charge the crime to have been committed in the Indiana 
Territory. The judge, after argument, held the motion up for 
decision until next day, and adjourned court. After adjournment 
he directed the sheriff to take the prisoner out and give him 
thirty -nine lashes on his bare back, which was the penalty pre- 
scribed by law for the offense. The sheriff did as directed. The 
next morning on opening court he granted a new trial. It was the 
last motion in arrest made before him. 

The following persons acted as sheriffs dui-ing the existence of 
this court in the order named: John Small, Christopher Wyant, 
William Prince, John Ochiltree, Daniel Sullivan, Parmenas 
Beckes, John McCandless, James Crow and Benjamin V. Beckes. 
Samuel Baird and Robert Buntin were clerks. The first attorney 


ever admitted to practice law in the county was Gen. W. Johnson, 
who was sworn at February term, 1799. 


A circuit court of "Oyer and Terminer, general jail delivery 
and nisi prius''' was held at Vincennes, in October, 1795, before 
John Cleves Symmes, senior judge of the territory northwest of 
the Ohio. He is the same man who had a contract with the Fed- 
eral Government for the purchase of 1,000,000 acres of public 
land on the Ohio around the present site of Cincinnati, which 
created much litigation, and called for congressional action to 
adjust the difficulties arising out of it. It was the only term of 
such a court ever held here of which there remains any record, 
and but little was done. 


The Indiana Territory was erected by act of Congress, May 7, 
1800, and William Clarke, Henry Vanderburg and John Griffin 
were appointed the first Territorial judges. Under the Territorial 
government there were two coiu'ts that exercised jurisdiction in 
this county. One was the "General Coiirt" and the other the 
"Common Pleas." The general court possessed jurisdiction in 
civil, criminal and chancery cases throughout the Territory, which, 
prior to the organization of Illinois Territory, was all the North- 
west outside of Ohio. The Territorial judges presided in this 
court, and Henry Hurst was clerk from its organization until it 
was superseded by the courts organized, in 1816, under the State 
constitution. It held terms as a circuit court in all the counties 
of the Territory, which were few, but of extensive territorial 
limits. The records of this coui-t followed the Territorial and 
State capitals, and were taken fi'om here to Corydon and thence 
to Indianapolis. The first term of this court was held here 
March 3, 1801. The fii-st grand jury in this court was composed 
of the following persons : Luke Decker, Antoiue Marechall, Joseph 
Baird, Patrick' Simpson, Antoine Petit, Andre Montplaiseur, John 
Ochiltree, Jonathan Marney, Jacob Teverbaugh, Alexander Val- 
ley, Fran(;;ois Turpin, F. Compagniotte, Charles Languedoc, Louis 
Severe, F. Languedoc, George Catt, John Bte. Barrois, Abraham 
Decker and Philip Catt. 


In this court, held at Vincennes, before Judges Vanderburg 
and Parke, on Friday, October 14, 1808, Abraham Haley was 
indicted for the murder of John Coffman. The next day he was 
tried by a jury and found guilty and the death penalty affixed, 
and Saturday 29, of the same month, appointed for his execution. 
On that day he was taken to the place where the gallows was 
erected, to be hung, and standing on the gallows, with the rope 
around his neck, he was respited by the governor until 
the following Tuesday, when he was again taken to the gallows 
and placed in position, when he was pardoned by the governor. 
It appears fi-om this that in those days justice was administered 
"speedily and without delay." 


Heruy Vanderburg, one of the first judges in this court, was 
an old citizen of Vincennes, and had been an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary war. He acquired large landed possessions in this city 
and county. He died, being yet on the bench of this court, April 
5, 1812. He was very generally esteemed by his neighbors and 
was regarded as a just and able judge. He was buried with the 
honors of war at his country seat, one mile east of the city. He 
left a widow and a number of children, one of whom married 
the late Dr. Somes. He left a very large estate in lands. His 
widow survived him nearly forty years, and up to her death drew 
a pension from the Government as his widow. Vanderburg 
County in this State is named in remembrance of him. 

Benjamin Parke, another judge in this court, was born in 
New Jersey, September 2, 1777. He came West on the organiza- 
tion of Indiana Territory, and located in Vincennes in January, 
1801. He was a pure, upright and gifted man, and his worth 
was soon perceived and recognized by his fellow citizens. He was 
called to fill many offices of trust and honor under the Territorial 
government. He was delegate to Congress for the Territory, and 
was appointed the first judge of the Circuit Court of the United 
States for the district of Indiana, and died the incumbent of this 
office at Salem, Ind., on the 12th of August, 1835. His residence 
here was on the John Wise property, now known as "Parke 
Place." Parke County, Ind., was named in honor of this just 
and conscientious judge. 


Walter Taylor, another of the judges of the general court, 
was born in Lunenburg County, Va., and came to Vincennes 
upon the organization of the Territory. He was an able man, 
and justly regarded as one of the first men of the Territory. 
Upon the admission of the State into the Union he was elected 
one of the United States senators, and was again elected for a 
second term. He died at his mother's house in Virginia, August 
26, 1826. 

Thomas T. Davis, John Johnson and James Scott were also 
judges in the general court. This court ceased to exist with the 
Territorial government. 


The common pleas was a local court for the county. It had 
jurisdiction of civil, criminal, probate and county affairs gener- 
ally. The taxes were levied by this court, and collected and dis- 
bursed by the sheriff. At the February term, 1801, this court 
adopted rules which are commendable for their brevity. They 
were only four in number, and provided, fii-st, for certain days 
during each term to make up issues ; second, for a docket for the 
use of the court of all causes at issue; third, for the distribution 
of the causes over the term days so as to insure a speedy trial of 
every cause on the day set; and fourth, for the service and at- 
tendance of witnesses on the day the cause was set for trial. 
These rules, strictly adhered to and enforced in conjunction with 
common law practice, are sufficient for any court at any time. 

This court, at the March term, 1807, levied the taxes for 
county purposes that year which present some strange and re- 
markable features. The taxables returned by the assessors as a 
basis upon which revenue was to be derived, were as follows : 

Houses, lands, lots, dwellings, mills, etc., total value 

$54,500, tax $163 50 

108 servants assessed $1 a head 108 00 

1,395 horses assessed 50 cents a head 697 50 

2,136 neat cattle assessed 10 cents a head 213 60 

179 single men assessed $1 ahead 179 00 

18 stud horses assessed 43 00 

Ferries assessed 24 00 

Total taxes levied $1,429 10 


This levy compares shabbily with last year's collection in this 
«ounty of $179,487.94. But it did not hurt the tax-payers as 
badly. It will be observed that a bounty was given in the way 
of exemption from taxation to married men, and that single men 
were discriminated against, no doubt, to encourage marriage, with 
a view to increase the population. It also appears that one-half 
the entire county revenue was derived from the tax on horses. It 
also shows that slavery was still in existence and legally recog- 
nized here, and that slaves were held notwithstanding the ordi- 
nance of 1787. And this state of affairs continued until long 
after the adoption of the constitution of the State in 1816, which 
was equally unfi-iendly to slavery. 


This com-t, at the March term, 1808, made a contract for 
building the first brick court house erected in the county. It was 
erected on the lot on the west corner of Buntin and Fourth Streets, 
now occupied by the residence of Judge Niblack. The con- 
tract was very loosely drawn and brief, and was awarded 
to Samuel Parr for all the work, and the price to be paid was 
19f cents less than the prices for the same kind of work in 
the city of Philadelphia. Notwithstanding its looseness and 
brevity it answered the purpose, as honesty and fair dealing was 
the rule in those days. It was a fine specimen of architecture for 
the time. The judge's seat and the bar were in a circular form at 
the northwest end of the building, similar to the construction of 
the rear of the Cathedral. It was a better building when torn 
down than its successor, which was erected on the present court 
house square about twenty years afterward. It only cost the 
county $3,156.41-^, and compares favorably with the result of the 
cost of the present court house, the erection of which was guarded 
by long and elaborate plans and specifications prepared ostensibly 
with care by a skillful architect, at a cost equal to the entire cost 
of the com-t house of 1813, and supplemented by a long and ver- 
bose contract and bond, and to be completed for $85,000, and 
which finally cost the tax-payers of the county about $500,000, 
exclusive of the recent improvements in the court room. It was 
completed and occupied in July, 1813. It was not the first court 


house in the county, as several other buildings had been used for 
court purposes prior to that time, and from 1810 to 1813 a house 
owned by Antoine Marechall had been used, for which $200 rent 
was paid. This court was a continuation of the court first organ- 
ized by Secretary Sargent, in 1790, and was presided over by 
some of the judges already named. 


Since the organization of the State government probate mat- 
ters have been transacted by different courts. The first one in 
the order of time was the "court of probate." The following 
judges presided in this court, in the order named: William Ca- 
ruthers, "William E.. McCall, John Ewing, John B. Drennon, 
Henry Ruble, Mark Barnett, William L. Colman, William Polke, 
John Moore and Richard P. Price. This court adjourned sine 
die, Saturday, August 15, 1829. None of the judges of this court 
were lawyers or ever achieved any judicial reputation, although 
some of them, particularly John Ewing, gained reputation in. 
other public employments. Mr. Ewing was for many years a 
representative of this county in either the House or Senate of the 
General Assembly of the State. He also represented this district 
in Congress for two terms, being the Twenty-third and Twenty- 
fiith Congresses. He always boasted, when alluding to his birth, 
that he was born on the ocean in an American vessel, and that 
the first sight that gladdened his infant eyes was the "star span- 
gled banner." But his claim was unfounded. The writer of this 
was administrator of his estate, and found, after his death, among 
his papers, his letters of naturalization taken out in the marine 
court of Baltimore, wherein he declared he was born on the 
"Green Isle." He had the rich Irish brogue in his speech, which 
betrayed his Irish origin, and in 1844 W. W. Carr, at the exciting 
aud hotly-contested election of that year between Clay and Polk, 
challenged his vote on the ground of alienage, and called for the 
production of naturalization papers, or for him to take the oath 
prescribed. Mr. Ewing would not recede from his uniform claim 
of being an American citizen, and refused to take the oath. The 
challenge came near producing a bloody conflict of the opposing 
forces at the polls, which was averted by allowing Mr. Ewing to 


vote without showing any papers or taking any oath. Mr. Ewing 
took a very active part in that election, and was a firm supporter 
of Mr. Clay and his "American system." He made a speech 
during the canvass nearly every day and night. He was a fluent 
speaker and used elegant language, and could dress his ideas 
upon the same subject matter in such new and varied verbiage as 
to be apparently dealing with a new subject, and, consequently, 
his speeches wei-e always interesting. He could do this as facile- 
ly and readily as the chameleon can change its color. From his 
long service in public life he had an extensive acquaintance with 
the distinguished men of his day. He left at his death commu- 
nications received from Clay, Webster, Choate, Crittenden, Mc- 
Lean, Carmin and other great leaders of tlie Whig party in the 
Union. These were carefully preserved by him, and after his 
death were deposited in a room of the court house, where they 
were eaten up by a cow of Martin Authis, the sheriff, which got 
into the room and could not get out. She lived on these letters 
for several days as her only food, but died before her imprison- 
ment was discovered. The last official position Mr. Ewing held 
was clerk of the city of Vincennes, in 1857. He never married, 
and left no known relatives. He lived a lonely and isolated life, 
and died in this place in his ofiice and chamber, without any one 
being present, April 6, 1858. He was buried in the center, and 
is yet the sole occupant, of a lot in the city cemetery. 

This court was succeeded by the "probate court," which was 
organized September 7, 1829. The following persons presided 
as judges in this court in the order named: William Polke, from 
September, 1829, to 1831 ; George W. Ewing, from April, 1831, 
to 1835; Abner T. Ellis, from October, 1835, to 1838; Robert N. 
Carnan, from December, 1838, to 1839; George R. Gibson, from 
August, 1839, to 1841 ; Robert E. McCanaghey, July term, 1841 ; 
John H. Harrison, from October, 1841, to 1842; James Thorne, 
from August, 1842, to 1849; Clark Willis, from August, 1849, 
until 1852, when the court was abolished. Of the above judges 
Ewing, Ellis, Carnan, Gibson and McCanaghey were lawyers, but 
the others were not. George W. Ewing was a native of this 
county and a son of Nathaniel Ewing and brother-in-law of John 
Law. He acquired an enviable reputation for the care and atten- 


tion he gave to guardian's accounts and the settlement of 
decedents' estates, and was called generally by the people " the 
orphan's friend." Mr. Ellis and Mr. Carnan were very promi- 
nent in the politics of the county, and very often represented the 
county in the Senate and House of the State Legislature. Mr. 
Carnan was speaker of the House during the session of 1847. 
He was also receiver of this land district under President Taylor. 
He^still lives in retirement in a northwestern State. Mr. Ellis was 
for many years president of the borough of Vincennes, and was 
one of the prime movers for the improvement of the navigation of 
the "Wabash River and was president of the company that con- 
structed the lock and dam at the grand rapids in 1846-47. He 
also projected and aided the construction of the Ohio & Missis- 
sippi Railroad and was the first president of the company. He 
died in this city in October, 1864. Mr. Gibson was a lawyer and 
a partner of Samuel Judah. He left here many years ago and 
removed to Crawford County, 111., where he still resides, but is 
not in the practice of law. Mr. Harrison was a minister of the 
Christian or Campbellite Church, and served but a short time. 
He married Sarah P. Wheeler, a daughter of Henry D. Wheeler, 
and his widow and several of his children reside in this city and 
county. He died from accidental drowning in White River dur- 
ing his term. Mr. McCanaghey was a very young man and a 
professional lawyer. He came to this place from western Penn- 
sylvania, where he was born and educated. He soon attracted 
attention, and was considered a safe and reliable lawyer. A 
bright future seemed to open before him when he was raised to 
the bench, but he died during his term, having presided only at 
the July term, 1841. Judges Thorne and Willis were rivals. 
The former was charged with being too much influenced and 
controlled by Col. Allen; but he kept his seat on the bench for 
seven years. An allowance he made Col. Allen for drafting 
administrator's deeds for lots sold in the now defunct town of 
Pierreville, being a sum five times in excess of the amount the 
lots sold for, was the particular feather that broke the camel's 
back. It afforded Judge Willis campaign thunder to use with 
effect on the stump and resulted in a Waterloo defeat for Thorne. 
Judge Thorne lived on a farm and lost his life in the fall of 


I860, his body being entirely consumed with his house by fire. 
Judge Willis lived at Bruoeville and was engaged for many years 
in the mercantile business as a partner of Hugh Barr. He took 
a lively interest in political matters and loved to make political 
stump speeches. He possessed considerable influence, and practi- 
cally controlled his township in the interest of his political party. 
He was a candidate for representative in 1856 against James D. 
Williams, but was defeated by a large majority, owing partly to 
■the fact that at the time the opposition to the Democracy was 
divided in political sentiment and action between the American 
And Bepublican parties. He enlisted during the civil war and 
was elected cajotain of a company, but performed little active 
service in the field. He was an unsuccessful candidate for door- 
keeper of the House of Representatives of the Indiana Legisla- 
ture in 1873. He died during the spring of that year at his 
liome in Bruceville, leaving several children surviving him, some 
of whom are still residents of this county. 


This court was succeeded by the " court of common pleas," 
which in this county was organized January 3, 1853. This was 
not a county court, but several counties were grouped together to 
form a district, and the same judge and prosecutor officiated in 
all the counties of the district. This district was composed of 
Knox, Daviess, Pike and Martin Counties. This court possessed 
jurisdiction of probate matters and of misdemeanors, and in civil 
matters except divorce, slander, ejectment and where the amount 
in controversy was less than $1,000. The following persons pre- 
sided as judges in this court: Bichard A. Clements, from 1853 
to 1866; James C. Denny, October term, 1866; Bichard A. Clem- 
ents, Jr., from 1866 to 1867 ; William B. Gardiner, October term, 
1867; James T. Pierce, fi-om 1867 to 1873. The judges in this 
<3onrt were all lawyers, and with the exception of Mr. Denny, who 
held by the governor'^ appointment to fill a vacancy caused by 
■death, were all residents of Daviess County. Bichard A. Clem- 
ents, the fii-st judge, was born in Bladensburgh, Md. He came 
West to contract for stone work on the public works being con- 
structed by the State and Federal Governments, during the inter- 


nal improvement era, lie being by occupation a stone-mason. He 
did not resort to the law as a profession until after he came to 
Indiana and when he was advanced in years. But possessing a 
Btrong and vigorous mind, and applying himself diligently to 
study, he soon gained a reputation at the bar and secured a large 

He represented Daviess County in the State Legislat- 
ure, and was elected judge of the common pleas, in October, 
1852, by a large majority, over Robert N. Carnan. He distin- 
guished himself as an upright, pure and conscientious judge, and 
was continued on the bench by successive elections until his death 
in 1866. His son, Richard A. Clements, was elected his suc- 
cessor. His son was a native of Daviess County, Ind., and a 
graduate of the Law Department of the State University. He 
commenced the practice of his profession in Washington, Ind., 
where he continued to reside until his death, in the summer of 
1867. He represented Daviess County in the House of the State 
Legislature, and was several times elected the prosecuting attor- 
ney of this judicial circuit. He was elected judge of the common 
pleas in October, 1866. He was j^revented by death from dis- 
playing or developing his judicial capabilities. He died during 
his first term, being still a very young man. Mr. Gardiner was 
appointed by the governor to fill the vacancy caused by his death, 
and held the October term, 1867. He never acquired any par- 
ticular reputation as a jurist from this service, as it was so brief, 
but he would doubtless have done so if opportunity had been 
allowed him. He has since, at the bar, acquired a just and mer- 
ited reputation, not confined to this State, as one among the most 
eloquent and gifted advocates in the West. He was defeated for 
the judgeship at the October election, 1867, by James T. Pierce. 
This was not the result of the lack of any personal popularity, 
but solely due to political considerations. He was a Republican, 
and the district was largely Democratic, and he fell with his 
party. In 1872 he joined the column of "liberals," and left the 
Republican party, and, as he declared, "had burnt the bridges 
behind him." He came within a few votes that year of being 
nominated as the Democratic candidate for reporter of decisions 
of the Supreme Court, over John Robinson, of Spencer. We 


regret to say the pontifical structures alluded to by him were not 
wholly destroyed in the conflagration of 1872, and have since 
been repaired and enabled him to cross back to his first allegiance. 
James T. Pierce, his successor; was born in Bussell County, Ky., 
October 30, 1835. He graduated at Center College, Ky., and 
came to Indiana and located at Washington, and commenced the 
practice of law in 1860. He was twice elected prosecutor of this 
common pleas district. He was elected judge of the district in 
1867, and held the ofiice until it was abolished in 1873. He now 
resides in Terre Haute, and is engaged in the practice of his 

The clerk of all the above courts as well as the circuit yet to 
be mentioned are the following in the order named : Samuel 
Baird, Robert Buntin, Homer Johnson, Daniel C. Johnson, 
Alexander D. Scott, William R. McCord, William Denny, Henry 
S. Cauthorn, Aquilla P. Woodall, William B. Robinson and 
George R. Alsop. It will be observed that during the lapse of a 
century only eleven persons have been incumbents of the clerk's 
office in this county. 


The most important court in dignity and jurisdiction has ever 
been the circuit court from its organization to the present. It 
has ever possessed general common law and equity powers in all 
cases both civil and criminal. It was first created by an act of 
the Territorial Legislature passed at Corydon in 1814. The 
court first met in this county on the second Monday in May, 1814, 
being the 9th day of May, that being " the day fixed by law for 
opening the Circuit Court." But none of the judges putting in 
an appearance the clerk and sheriff of the county opened and ad- 
journed the court from day to day for three days successively, and 
then adjourned until court in course without doing any business. 
The same proceeding took place at the following August term. 
March 6, 1815, court met with Isaac Blackford, president judge, 
and Daniel Sullivan and James B. McCall, associate judges. The 
first grand jury was empaneled and sworn, consisting of the fol- 
lowing persons: William Polke, foreman, John Widner, Christopher 
Wyant, Aaron Quick, Conrad Crum, Joshua Thorn, James Niele, 


Jesse Davis, John Eoderick, Isaac T. Decker, Michael Thorn, 
Jonathan Pm-cell, Jr., David Wilkins, Adam Harness, Jr., Levi 
Hollingsworth and Alexander Chambers. 

The following persons at this first term were admitted as 
members of the bar: Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, John John- 
son, William Prince, George E. C. Sullivan and Benjamin Fur- 
guson. They were all sworn "to support the Constitution of the 
United States and to honestly and faithfully discharge their 
duties as attorneys at law, and specially to avoid and prevent 
duelling, and to aid in enforcing the act against duelling. 

The following persons have presided in the circuit court in 
this county during the periods and in the order named: 

Isaac Blackford, March 6, 1815, to March 4, 1816. 

David Eaymond, March 4, 1816, to October 12, 1816. 

William Prince, February 24, 1817, to April 14, 1818. 

Thomas H. Blake, May 14, 1818, to October 17, 1818. 

Gen. W. Johnston, February 1, 1819, to February 13, 1819. 

Jonathan Doty, May 3, 1819, to October 13, 1821. 

Jacob Call, March 25, 1822, to March 29, 1824. 

John E. Porter, September 27, 1824, to August 19, 1829. 

John Law, March 1, 1880, to March 30, 1831. 

Gen. W. Johnston, September 5, 1831, to Sept. 15, 1831. 

Amory Kinney, March 5, 1832, to September 15, 1836. 

Elisha M. Huntington, March 6, 1837, to April 3, 1841. 

William P. Bryant, September 21, 1841, to October 3, 1848. 

John Law, March 25, 1844, to March 2, 1850. 

Samuel B. Gookins, August 19, 1850, to August 81, 1850. 

Delana E. Eckles, February 18, 1851, to August 25, 1852. 

Alvin P. Hovey, March 14, 1853, to September 10, 1853. 

William E. Niblack, March 13, 1854, to September 19, 1857. 

Ballard Smith, March 8, 1858, to September 19, 1858. 

Michael F. Burke, March 14, 1859, to March 5, 1864. 

James C. Denny, August 15, 1864, to September 1, 1864. 

John Baker, February 13, 1865, to October 8, 1870. 

Newton F. Malott, February 6, 1871; present incumbent. 


Of the above persons who have presided as judges in our cir- 
cuit court, all are now dead except Judges Gookins, Eckles, Hovey. 


Niblack, Denny, Baker and Malott. All of them are professional 
lawyers and deeply versed in common law learning. They all 
discharged the duties of their trust creditably and satisfactorily, 
and the judicial ermine has not been soiled by the official acts of 

Isaac Blackford, the first one of the line, was a native of New 
Jersey, and a graduate of Princeton College. He located at Vin- 
cennes and began the practice of law while Indiana was a territory. 
He was small of stature and thin in person, and as void of surplus 
flesh as his decisions of surplus verbiage. He was not a speaker 
in any respect, and was a man of few words and to the point. He 
held many official positions. He represented the county in the 
Legislature, and was speaker of the House at the first session under 
the State government. He was appointed a judge of the supreme 
court of the State, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John 
Johnson, September 10, 1817, and was continued by successive 
elections on the supreme bench until January 3, 1853. He was 
subsequently appointed a judge of the Federal court of claims, 
and died while still a member of that court. He was very econom- 
ical in his habits and always wore a black suit glossy from long use, 
and a black silk hat well worn from frequent brushings. As a 
consequence he amassed a large fortune. He married a Miss 
Johnson of this county, but their marital relations were not pleas- 
ant and they ceased to live together before her death. His wife 
and only child, George, died in this county long before he died. 
He was thought by many, at the time he was appointed supreme 
judge, as too young for that high judicial station, but he fully 
realized the expectations of his friends, and his enduring reputa- 
tion will rest upon the decisions delivered by him while a judge 
of that court, and the eight volumes of reports of its decisions 
which he published. 

David Eaymond presided as president judge in the circuit 
court of this county in 1816, during all terms held that year. But 
little is known concerning him, whence he came or whither he 
went. His signature to the recoids of court disclose a fair, regu- 
lar and uniform hand writing, indicative of culture and refinement. 
His commission as judge of the circuit was not spread on record 
according to the usage in this county. "We think, however, he was 


from one of the Southern States, with slavery predilections. While 
he presided as judge in this county, Ma-sou-pe-con-gar, or the Owl, 
an Indian, who owned and lived on the survey in the upper prairie, 
of which Judah's addition to Vincennes is a part, brought an action 
of detinue against Thomas Jones, for a black or mulatto girl and 
a cross-cut saw. The case was tried by jury, October 5, 1816, who 
returned a verdict that the Indian was entitled to recover the black 
girl and the saw. A new trial was granted. The wonder is that 
such a cause of action could travel along so far as an issue and 
trial in a court proceeding according to the course of the com- 
mon law and under the operation of the ordinance of 1787. 

William Prince came to Vincennes and located under the Ter- 
ritorial government and commenced his career here. He was a 
young man when he came, and he married Miss Theresa Puryea, 
a daughter of one of the old resident French families of Vincennes. 
His wife's parents resided on the lot on Main Street, now occupied 
by the Presbyterian Church and parsonage. They lived to a very 
advanced age, and the old man took delight in keeping his lot 
clean and nice, which he did when over ninety years of age. 
Judge Prince on the organization of Gibson County, removed 
there and the county seat was named for him. He was elected to 
Congress fi-om tSis district in 1824 and died that year during his 
term. He left surviving him two daughters, one of whom mar- 
ried Judge Samuel Hall, the projector and first president of the 
Evansville & Terre Haute Railroad. Many of his descendants 
yet reside in Gibson County. 

Thomas H. Blake came to this place from Washington City, 
where his father was at one time mayor. He was admitted to 
the bar in our circuit court May 27, 1816. He afterward re- 
moved to Terre Haute. He was an educated and accomplished 
man, and ambitious to a fault. He was of splendid personal 
appearance, fully six feet high and straight as an arrow. He was 
a perfect gentleman and honorable in all his dealings. He soon 
showed a decided preference for political distinction, and, after 
several unsuccessful efforts, was returned to the Twentieth Con- 
gress, in 1827, fi-om this district. He Avas afterward appointed 
commissioner of the general land office. He died when yet com- 
paratively a young man. 


Gen. Washington Johnson was a native of Culpepper Coun- 
ty, Va., and came to Vincennes in ' 1793, and was the first 
attorney at law admitted to the bar in this county of which there 
is any record. He was a prominent member of the bar in his 
day, and filled many places of trust in the borough of Vincennes 
and under the Territorial government. He represented the coun- 
ty several times in the Legislature, and was speaker of the House 
during the second sessions of the second and third Territorial 
Legislatures. In conjunction with John Rice Jones he prepared 
in 1808, by authority, the first revision of the laws of the Terri- 
tory. He died in this place on October 26, 1833. 

Jonathan Doty was a native of Somerville, N. J., and a grad- 
uate of Princeton College. He was quite young when he came 
to Vincennes, but must have displayed superior legal talent, as 
he was soon elevated to the bench as president judge of the cir- 
cuit court. He died the incumbent of that office February 22, 

Jacob Call was a native of Kentucky. He presided in the 
circuit court for two years. During his term Thomas McKinney 
was indicted and tried for the murder of James Boyd, and con- 
victed and sentenced by this judge to suffer death, and was 
accordingly executed October 15, 1822. William Cos, a colored 
man, was also indicted and tried for committing a rape on Miss 
Smith, and was convicted and also sentenced by this judge to 
stiff er death, and was executed April 9, 1824. These are the only 
persons who have suffered the death penalty in this county, in 
accordance with a judicial decree. Judge Call was elected to 
Congress from this district, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Judge Prince, over Thomas H. Blake, in November, 
1824. He committed suicide by hanging himself with a silk 
handkerchief at Frankfort, Ky., April 20, 1826. 

John E. Porter resided in this State in Orange County. He 
was admitted to the bar in Martin County at the fii-st term of the 
circuit court held in that county in 1820. He had in all prob- 
ability been admitted before that in some other court and county, 
and had been in the practice of the profession for some time. 
One of his relatives was one of the first associate judges of Mar- 
tin County, and he was prosecuting attorney of the circuit. Por- 


tersville, the first county seat of Dubois County, was named in 
honor of this judge. 

John Law was -a native of New London, Conn., where he was 
born October 2, 1796. He came to Vincennes in 1817, and com- 
menced his professional career. His' talents and eloquence soon 
advanced him in public estimation, and for nearly half a century 
he was regarded as a leading citizen of this county. He filled 
many positions of public trust. He was prosecuting attorney of 
the circuit, receiver of public moneys for this land district, com- 
missioner of the United States to adjust land titles in the Vin- 
cennes land district, and was twice elected to represent the dis- 
trict in Congress. He was one of the original owners of Lamas- 
co, now part of Evansville, the said town deriving its name from 
taking the first letters of the names of the three proprietors — 
Law, McCall and Scott — and combining them together. In con- 
sequence of this interest he removed to Evansville and resided a 
few years, where he died, October 17, 1873, but his remains, in 
accordance with his often expressed desire while living, were 
brought and buried in the public cemetery near this city. 

Amory Kinney resided at Terre Haute while he presided in 
our circuit court. He was a learned and able lawyer and noted 
for the encouragement and advice he gave young men. He was 
a good judge of human nature, and his appreciation and discern- 
ment of the capabilities of men was excellent. He discovered in 
Samuel B. Gookins (who had learned the printer's trade, and 
was about to leave Terre Haute for Washington City to seek em- 
ployment at his trade under government patronage) a legal mind 
that needed only training and development. After much persua- 
sion he finally induced him, at an advanced age, to commence the 
study of law, and while he was yet on the bench he gave him the 
use of his office and library, and trained him until he was called 
to the bar, with what result is well known. 

Elisha Mills Huntington was born in Otsego County, N. Y., 
March 26, 1806. He came to Indiana in 1822, and was admitted 
to the bar in this county March 27, 1827. He was elected pres- 
ident judge of this circuit in 1837, and acquired considerable 
reputation as a learned and conscientious judge. In 1841 he was 
appointed commissioner of the general land office by President 


Tyler, which he held only for a short time, as, upon the death of 
Judge Holman, he was appointed judge of the United States Cir- 
cuit Court for the district of Indiana, and discharged the duties 
of that important position for a number of years, with credit to 
himself and the satisfaction of the public. He died the incum- 
bent of that position, at St. Paul, Minn., October 26, 1862. 

William P. Bryant was judge of our circuit court for two 
years. During his occupation of the bench but little business of 
any exciting or important nature occupied the attention of the 
court. That he discharged his duties acceptably is attested by 
the fact that his official course never provoked criticism or cen- 
sui'e. We do not know where he resided when he was judge of 
this circuit, but have always been of the impression that he resided 
in Rockville, Parke County. 

Samuel B. Goodkins lived at Terre Haute when he was our 
circuit judge. He comes of an old Puritan family that immi- 
grated to this country among the first who came. He was born in 
Bennington County, Vt., May 30, 1809. In 1823 he came to 
Indiana, and located at Terre Haute. In 1830, after finishing his 
apprenticeship as a printer, he came to Vincennes and commenced 
the publication of the Vincennes Gazette, a political newspaper, 
which was continued for many years by R. Y. Coddington after 
he left. He returned, after a residence of a year or two, to Terre 
Haute, and there commenced the study of law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1834. He had received in his youth but a limited 
education, and may be called a self-made and self-educated man. 
He was elected one of the judges of the supreme court of Indiana, 
and continued on the bench in that court for three years, when he 
resigned on account of the smallness of the salary. He removed 
to Chicago and commenced the practice of law, and secured a lu- 
crative business. He is still living, and has returned to Terre 
Haute, where he resides. 

Delana E. Eckles lived at Greencastle when he was our circuit 
judge. The business of our court had been suffered to lag, and 
many cases undisposed of had accumulated, until the docket, when 
he took the bench in our county, was very large. By his energy, 
promptness and strict enforcement of rules, he soon cleared his 
docket, and acquired a reputation as a jurist in dispatching bus- 


iness which is yet remembered and spoken of by old residents of 
the county. Yet he discharged his duties well and all cases were 
fairly tried, and no complaint was ever made that he sacrificed 
the interest of any litigant in order to expedite business. He was 
afterward appointed chief justice of Utah, and held that position 
until 1861. The judge, in addition to being a well read lawyer 
and able jurist, is an agreeable companion. As a pastime he 
has been partial to fox hunting. According to his own relation, 
one morning he mounted his charger and called his hounds, and 
soon "raised" a fox near his premises in Putnam County. His 
trained perceptions in such matters soon convinced him he had 
"roused a veteran." It was just sunrise, and he determined to 
give chase, and succeeded in capturing the fugitive, about sunset, 
on the banks of the Ohio River. Judge Mack, of Terre Haute, 
informs me he is living in retirement on his farm, as Blackstone 
expresses it "o/utwi cum dignitate.''^ Long may he live. 

Alvin P. Hovey was quite young when he presided as judge 
in our circuit court. He has a quick and penetrating mind, and 
being well versed in the science of law could easily and readily 
grasp the salient points of a case, and consequently dispatched 
business rapidly. He was as a general rule courteous and urbane, 
but impulsive and excitable, and sometimes, for a moment, mani- 
fested irritation in dealing with attorneys. But such feelings 
passed away as quickly as they appeared, and he gave general sat- 
isfaction as a judge, and was held in high esteem by attorneys 
and litigants. He was afterward district attorney for Indiana, 
and also a judge of the supreme court of the State. During the 
Rebellion he entered the army and gained an enviable reputation 
for skill and bravery as a general in the Federal service. He ran 
for Congress in this district, and was defeated by Judge Niblack, 
but by a reduced majority. He still lives and is engaged in the 
practice of law at Mount Vernon, Ind. 

William E. Niblack was born in Dubois County, Ind., May 
19, 1823. He commenced his public career in Martin County. 
He was elected to the House and Senate of the State Legislature 
while he resided there. He was appointed judge of this judicial 
circuit in 1854. While still circuit judge he was elected, in 1858, 
to Congress from this district to fill the vacancy caused by the 


death of James Lockhart, and was re-elected at different times, 
until he served in Congress altogether fourteen years. He served 
in Congress during the trying period of the civil war, and by his 
wise and conservative course was esteemed a prudent and safe leg- 
islator. During this period he came in possession of a curious 
gun, and called a few friends to his house to inspect the weapon. 
The peculiarity about it was that it "kicked," and without great 
care was liable to hurt the person using it. ' He was elected to 
represent Knox County in the House of the State Legislature in 
1862, and from his long service in legislative bodies and his expe- 
rience should have been elected speaker, but his modesty caused 
him to yield to the claims of a friend. In 1876 he was elected a 
supreme judge of the State and re-elected in 1882. He has in- 
creased his reputation as a judge during his service on the supreme 
bench. He removed to this place about the commencement of his 
congressional service, and has resided here ever since. 

Ballard Smith was a young man when he became judge of the 
circuit court, and served but a brief period. He had previously 
been a member of the House of Eepresentatives of the State 
Legislature, and was speaker thereof. He resided at Cannelton, 
in Perry County. He was a brother of Hamilton Smith, who was 
so largely interested in the manufacturing interests of Cannelton. 
Judge Smith died young, before his mental powers were inllj 
developed, and before he had opportunity for the display of his 

Michael F. Burke was also young when he became circuit 
judge. He was born in Limerick, L-eland, March 10, 1829, and 
came to this country in 1848. He had a thorough classical edu- 
cation. He commenced the study of law and graduated at the 
law department of the State University in 1851. He commenced 
the practice at Washington. He was a hard student, and pre- 
pared his cases for trial with much care. He was energetic and 
labored for success in whatever he undertook. He was a forcible 
speaker, and relied more upon fact and reason than the flowers of 
eloquence. Before he became judge he prosecuted the pleas of 
the State one term in our county, by court appointment, in the 
absence of the regular prosecutor. He made his mark by the 
vigor and ability he displayed in managing the State cases and 


materially advanced his chances to be elected judge the same year. 
He was elected in 1858. He had a judicial mind and disposed of 
business rapidly. He was very poptdar with the bar. He waa 
an active and influential Democrat, and was regarded as the leader 
of his party in Daviess County, and, during his life, through his 
tact and management, his party was invariably successfid. He 
had bright prospects of being distinguished in his profession, 
and would undoubtedly have reaj^ed a harvest of honors in any 
field he may have sought to cultivate, had not death claimed him 
in the very dawn of his public career. He died in the summer of 
1864, during his first term on the bench. He was a warm and 
devoted friend, and many a tear was shed over his early death. 

James C. Denny was appointed by Gov. Morton to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Judge Burke, and presided at the 
August term of our circuit court. He was born we think in this 
county, and is in a great measure a self-made man. He is 
enei-getic in looking after his professional business and seems 
never to realize when he is beaten in a law suit or is willing to 
say "hold, it is enough," until the last ditch has been reached. 
He was elected attorney-general of Indiana in 1872, and removed 
fi'om here to Indianajjolis where he now resides and practices law. 

John Baker was elected by the people in 1864, and served 
one full term of six years. He was born in Woodford County, 
Ky., near Versailles, October 12, 1812, and came to Indiana in 
1815. He had, in youth, but limited educational advantages. 
He first learned the stone-mason trade and followed that occupa- 
tion until after he arrived at full age. He commenced the study 
of law after his marriage. He then resided in Orange County, 
this State. But he studied hard, and possessing a strong mind, 
sound judgment and a good memory, he made rapid progress and 
soon took rank as an able lawyer and managed his cases with 
skill. As a judge he gave very general satisfaction, and was 
prompt in the discharge of his duties and disposed of business 
rapidly and satisfactorily. He resided and practiced law for 
many years in Bedford, Lawi'ence Co., Ind. He removed to 
Vincennes in 1859 and resided here until about three years ago, 
when he removed to Washington, where he now resides engaged 
in the practice of his profession. 


Newton F. Malott was born in Lawrence County, Ind., in 
1831, and practiced law for many years at Bedford in partnership 
with Thomas E.. Cobb. He graduated at the law department of 
the State University. He removed to Vincenues in 1867 and 
commenced the practice here. He was first elected judge in 
1870 and has remained on the bench until the present, having 
been re-elected in 1876 and again in 1882. He has continued in 
service as circuit judge much longer than any of his predecessors 
and on the expiration of his present term, will have served con- 
tinuously in that capacity for eighteen years. He is yet, com- 
paratively speaking, a young man, and comes of a healthy and 
long lived ancestry. The parents of his wife celebrated their 
golden wedding February 9, 1886, a very remarkable event very 
rarely occixrring, and to no more than one couple out of every 
20,000 marriages actually solemnized. When he was first elected 
six counties, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike and Dubois, 
■composed this circuit. When the common pleas was abolished 
in 1873, and its business and jurisdiction transferred to the 
circuit court, it was reduced to comprise the first three named 
counties, and in 1879 Martin County was transferred to another 
circuit, and in 1885 Knox County was constituted a circuit of 
itself. Judge Malott is a very cautious and prudent judge, and 
carefully examines every matter requiring his decision. He is 
particularly careful in the examination of the accounts of guardi- 
ans and administrators under his jui-isdiction, and has saved much 
to widows and orphans interested in estates passing through his 
court. He is generally regarded as a thoroughly read and educated 
lawyer. He takes time to consider and investigate all legal 
questions that arise in the progress of a cause on trial before him 
which require his judicial decision. He devotes more time, per- 
haps, in the trial of causes than a speedy dispatch of business in 
a nisi lyrius court will allow. But the business when done is 
more matui-ely considered and less liable to be tainted with error. 
As a judge he has given general satisfaction and enjoys a reputa- 
tion at home and abroad as an able and safe judge. He is 
frequently called upon to preside at the trial of important causes 
in place of the regular judge in other circuits. He has tried to 
redeem the pledge he made to the convention which first nomin- 


ated him iu Princeton in 1870 "that every man in his court 
should have justice done him." 


The Vjncennes bar has always maintained a high rank. Li 
the early days of the Territory, when Vincennes was the capital, 
it was the common point which attracted the attention of the 
yoimg and aspiring candidates for fame and fortune in the popu- 
lous portions of the country, and to which they directed their 
steps when they first came West "to grow up with the couutry." 
The most of the distinguished names which have given luster and 
renown to oiu- own and other Western States by their eloquence 
at the bar and in political employments, first located here when 
they sought a home in the West and here commenced their career. 
We cannot name them all, but will refer to a few who attained 
marked prominence and renown: 

John Eice Jones was a young man when he came to this 
place. He was an educated man and something of a linguist, as 
he was employed by the common pleas coui-t in 1791, to translate 
the laws of the Territory into French for the use of the court. 
He was also appointed clerk of the- court at October term, 1791, 
as well as prosecuting attorney of the pleas of the United States 
and was the first prosecutor in the county after the acquisition of 
the Northwest by the Federal Government. He was an able and 
active man fi-om all accounts we have of him, and took a promi- 
nent part in the controversy that arose upon the proposition to 
have the ordinance of 1787 suspended in the Territory as to the 
tenui-e of slave property. He was challenged to fight a duel on 
account of his prominence in that controversy, and his friends 
claimed the object was to compass his death to get rid of his 
influence. He removed from here to St. Clair County, in the 
Illinois Territory. He was the father of George W. Jones, for 
many years a United States senator fi-om Iowa. 

Moses Tabbs was admitted to the bar here in 1818. He was 
a native of Maryland, and married one of the daughters of Charles 
Carroll, the last survivor of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. He was a learned man, an able lawyer and an 
eloquent speaker. He was noted for his probity and uprightness. 


and was an exemplary member of the Catholic Churcli. He was 
popular, and would have left a splendid official reputation behind 
him, and ranked as one of the first men of his day, had he remained. 
After a residence of a few years he returned to his native State. 

Charles Dewey was a leading lawyer of the State from its 
organization until he was elected a supreme judge of the State. 
We do not know where he was born, and have never seen it stated, 
but suppose he came from New England, as the old Kentucky 
and Tennessee settlers of this county used to refer to him as a 
good lawyer, but a dangerous politician, as " he had Federal no- 
tions and hated slavery." He was engaged in many important 
cases in our court. In conjunction with David Hart he defended 
Thomas McKinney on his trial for murder, one of the two men 
who have been executed, in accordance with judicial decree, in 
this county. He had the reputation of being one of the best spe- 
cial pleaders at the bar. At the Clarke Circuit Court he argued 
a demurrer a whole day before the coui't. He was elected a 
member of the supreme court in 183G, and remained on the 
bench until 1847. It was thought he could not on the bench 
sustain the reputation gained at the bar, but he developed splen- 
did powers, and left an enduring reputation as a jurist. 

David Hart was a native of North Carolina, and a graduate 
of the university of that State. He came to Indiana in 1816, 
and located at Princeton. His legal abilities were soon discov- 
ered, and he was elected judge of that judicial circuit, and re- 
mained on the bench for three years. His active mind longed 
for a more exciting field for the display of his abilities, and he 
resigned the judgeship to make his fame at the bar. He removed 
to this place in 1820, and at once took a leading position at our 
bar among the many able members then composing it. His 
career was cut short by death December 22, 1822. 

Thomas Bandolph was a native of Virginia, a relative of the 
celebrated John Randolph, of Roanoke, and also of President 
Jefferson. He was attorney for the United States for Indiana 
Territory. He soon entered the political arena. He was a friend 
to Gov. Harrison, and was charged with being in sympathy with 
him in his efforts to have the ordinance of 1787 suspended in 
regard to slavery. He was a candidate for congressional dele- 


gate in 1809, but was defeated by Jonathan Jennings by only 
forty -three votes. He attributed his defeat to the charge made 
of his having slavery proclivities, which he denied in circulars 
and in his public speeches during the canvass. After the elec- 
tion he challenged one of the reputed authors of the charge, 
which was not accepted. He was the father of Mrs. William 
Sheets, of Indianapolis. 

Alexander Buckner came from Louisville, Ky. He was con- 
nected with the wealthy and influential families of Buckner and 
Sullivan of that State. He remained here but a short time, and 
went West, and on the admission of Missom-i into the Union was 
elected one of her first senators in Congress. He was an able 
and eloquent man, but died in the bloom of early manhood. 

George E. C. Sullivan was also from Kentucky, and a relative 
of Mr. Buckner and Elihu Stout, the founder of the Western Sun. 
He came when Indiana was a territory, and held many official 
positions. He was secretary of the legislative council at both 
sessions of the Fifth General Assembly of the Territory. He 
represented the county several times in the Legislature, and 
served for many years as postmaster at Vincennes. He was pros- 
ecuting attorney for this circuit, and acquired the reputation of 
being one of the most eloquent advocates at the bar. He removed 
from here to Quincy, 111., where he died. He married a daughter 
of Judge Vanderburgh, and left several children. Henry Sulli- 
van, one of his sons, founded the Quincy Whig, one of the most 
influential political papers in that State, through the financial 
success of which he accumulated a large fortune, which he still 
lives to enjoy. 

John Johnson came to this place in territorial days and com- 
menced the practice of law. He was a hard student, but nothing 
of a public speaker. He was of the same order of talent as 
Judge Blackford. He removed from Vincennes to Princeton, 
and represented that county in the first Legislature under the 
State government. He was elected one of the first judges of the 
supreme court of the State, but died the following year, before he 
had opportunity to prove his fitness and qualifications for the 
position by his official acts. 

Edward A. Hannegan first located at Vincennes, and was 


married here by Samuel R. Alexander, April 4, 1829, to Miss 
Margaret C. Duncan. He practiced at our bar for several years. 
He removed from here to Covington, lud., and was elected from 
the Seventh District to the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Con- 
gresses. In 1843 he was elected United States senator, and 
served in that body until 1849. He was regarded (distinguished 
as the senate was during that period), as one of its most eloquent 
members. The death of Henry Clay was announced to the Sen- 
ate by the prearranged signal of the tolling of all the bells in 
the city, while Mr. Hannegan was addressing the Senate, who 
instantly left the subject he was discussing and referred to the 
death of the "great commander" in a speech that attracted the 
attention and praise of the entire country. After the expiration 
of his senatorial term he left the State and located at St. Louis 
to practice law, but soon after died broken-hearted, occasioned by 
the homicide of his brother-in-law under an insane impulse. 

Samuel Judah was born in the city of New York in 1798. 
He came to Indiana and located at Merom, in Sullivan County. 
He very soon came to this place and commenced the law practice, 
and continued until his death. He was regarded as one of the 
best lawyers in the country, and was' often consulted in impor- 
tant-cases outside of this State. He was engaged in almost 
every important case that arose in this county during his long 
practice at our bar. He consequently accumulated documents 
and memoranda relating to causes that were disposed of in our 
court, which he received in his professional capacity and pre- 
served, many of which in all probability contain evidences which 
the parties concerned would not desire made public, and he 
made provision in his will that no Vincennes lawyer should be 
permitted to examine them. He was the chief counsel employed 
by the Vincennes University in the long and tedious litigation to 
recover the township of land in Gibson County granted by the 
United States for its use. He first instituted a number of eject- 
ment suits in Gibson County to dispossess the grantees of the 
State who had purchased at the sales authorized by an act of the 
State Legislature for the benefit of the State University at Bloom- 
ington. These suits caused great excitement in Gibson County, 
and the attorneys of defendants stimulated it and advised mob 


violence as the easiest way of getting rid of them. Mr. Judah 
was in great personal danger while in the county to attend to 
them. The excitement increased, and so many persons were 
involved that bloodshed would have resulted had not the State 
wisely prevented it by passing an act authorizing a suit to be 
brought against the State in the Marion County 'Circuit Court to 
try the title, and pledging the honor and faith of the State to 
abide the result. Mr. Judah brought the suit so authorized 
against the State, and dismissed the Gibson County suits. After 
a long and tedious litigation in the Marion Circuit Court, the 
Supreme Court of the State and the United States with varying 
results Mr. Judah was finally successful, and recovered the value 
of the land sold by the State. The State should, in accordance 
with her plighted faith and honor, have appropriated the money 
or issued her bonds to liquidate the amount recovered. But this 
was not done until some of the leading and influential members 
of the Legislature had tarnished their reputations by accepting a 
"quid 2)>'o quo'" to cease their opposition, and support the biU 
authorizing the issue of State bonds to cancel the claim. Mr. 
Judah, as attorney for the university, received the bonds so 
issued by the State in satisfaction of the claim. He retained 
one-third of the amount he so received for his legal services and 
expenses incurred in procuring the passage of the bill through 
the Legislature. The trustees of the university then brought 
suit against him to recover these bonds. This suit was almost 
as long and notorious as the suit brought against the State. The 
ablest legal talent was employed. David McDonald and Asher 
F. Linder for the trustees, and John P. Asher and Mr. DeBruler 
for Mr. Judah. It developed in its progress through court legis- 
lative corruption and bribery. Mr. Judah was United States at- 
torney for Indiana under President Jackson, and served several 
times as a member of the Legislature from this county and was 
once speaker of the House. He died in this city April 24, 1869. 
Noble Judah, of Chicago; John M. Judah, of Indianapolis; and 
Samuel B. Judah, of this city, are his sons. The two former are 
leading and prominent attorneys in their respective cities. 

Benjamin M. Thomas was a native of, the city of Philadel- 
phia, and came here with his brother, Frederick A., and in part- 


nership they commenced the practice. Benjamin M. was admit- 
ted to this bar March 25, 1839. He was thoroughly educated 
in common law learning, and was as well versed in the principles 
and science of law as any one who ever practiced at this bar. 
He was not a fluent or eloquent speaker, but his strength lay in 
his knowledge of the law, and the plain and forcible manner in 
which he presented his points. He was, like Mr. Judah, engaged 
in all cases of importance in oui- court while he practiced here. 
He had a very extensive and lucrative practice, and may be said 
to have had a monopoly of the collection business, which at that 
time was the cream of the lawyer's profits, all such business 
passing through their hands instead of the banks. In 1853 he 
was appointed district attorney for Indiana. He became a con- 
vert while here to the Catholic Church, and was a faithful and 
strict member thereof until his death. He removed in 1856 to 
Chicago and in partnership with Judge Gookins practiced law. 
His abilities secured him a lucrative practice. He came back 
here completely broken in health, and died in 1863. 

William W. Carr was admitted to the bar of this court Octo- 
ber 2, 1843. He formed a partnership with Cyrus M. Allen and 
practiced several years with brilliant success. He was just of 
age when he came to the bar. He was well educated, having pur- 
sued both a classical and legal course of studies. He was a step- 
son of Judge John Moore, the first mayor of Vincennes. He was 
appointed by the court prosecuting attorney for the September 
term, 1845. During the exciting political election of 1844 he 
took a leading and prominent part on the Democratic side, and 
was a favorite speaker at all the mass meetings of that party in 
this section. He was a fluent and eloquent speaker and of fine 
personal appearance, with white flaxen hair that added to his 
looks. He was appointed by President Polk secretary of Oregon 
Territory, but held the position for only a short time and was com- 
pelled to resign in consequence of failing health. He died at 
the residence of Judge Moore of consumption in 1847. 

Cyrus M. Allen was a native of Clarke County, Ky., and came 
to Indiana about 1838, and first located at Paoli, and afterward 
at Petersburg, but in 1843 removed here and commenced the 
practice and continued until his death. He was not a first-class 


lawyer, so far as reading and learning were concerned, and his 
main forte was as an advocate. Whilst not an orator or even a 
pleasing or agreeable speaker, he possessed a certain suave and 
familiar address, which gained him favor with juries and rendered 
him a formidable opponent at the bar. He did not confine him- 
self to his profession, but was largely interested in contracts in 
building the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad and the Indianapolis & 
Vincennes Railroad and other roads. He represented this county 
twice in the State Legislature, and during the regular and special 
sessions of 1861 was speaker of the House. He was secretary of 
the Knox Insurance Company when it failed, and it required all 
his tact and skill to pacify the creditors of the concern who came 
to collect their claims. He was the Republican candidate for 
Congress in this district in 1864, and ran against Judge Niblack. 
They made a joint canvass of the district. He was only defeated 
by a majority of about 1,500 in a strong Democratic district and 
always claimed he would have been elected had not a "rebel raid" 
in Kentucky, just before the election, assisted Judge Niblack by 
preventing soldier friends from leaving the front and coming 
home to vote. He died in this city November 2, 1883. 


The following gentlemen now compose the Vincennes bar: 
Frederick W. Viehe, Henry S. Cauthorn, George G. Reily, Will- 
iam H. DeWolf, John M. Boyle, Smiley N. Chambers, Thomas R. 
Cobb, Orlando H. Cobb, William C. Johnson, William A. Cullop, 
George W. Shaw, Lewis C. Meyer, Benjamin M. Willoughby, 
William C. Niblack, James S. Pritchett, James P. L. Weems, 
Samuel W. Williams, Orlan F. Baker, John Wilhelm, Charles M. 
Wetzel, Charles G. McCord, John T. Goodman, Mason J. Niblack, 
John C. Adams, John S. Long, Frank Bloom, Curtis Smith and 
Edward Cooper. 

The Vincennes bar of the present day maintains the reputa- 
tion it has borne in the past. It may appear invidious to dis- 
criminate, but without giving cause of offense on the part of the 
younger members we may give more than a passing notice to a 
few of the older ones. 

Frederick W. Viehe was born in Westphalia (Prussia), Sep- 


tember 2, 1832. He came to this country with his father's family 
in 1845, his father having procured for himself and family ex- 
patriation papers from the Prussian Government. He has resided 
in this country so long that he discovers nothing of a foreign ac- 
cent in his speech. He was admitted to this bar September 2, 
1859. He is regarded as one of the ablest counselors in the State, 
and his opinion upon important questions of law is often sought 
by persons at a distance. He cannot be said to possess oratorical 
powers and rarely attempts aijything like forensic display. In 
speech he is brief and concise, and presents his cases to court or 
jury in a forcible and convincing manner. He was appointed by 
the court prosecuting attorney at February term, 1870. He was 
city attorney of Viucennes from 1869 to 1871. He has represented 
this county in the Senate and House of the State Legislature and 
was elected by the Senate president pro tempore. He has a large 
and lucrative practice. 

Thomas R. Cobb was boi-n in Lawrence County, Ind., July 2, 
1828. He studied law and commenced the practice at Bedford in 
1853. In 1867 he removed from there to Vincennes, where he has 
since resided. He was actively engaged in the practice here and 
other portions of the circuit until 1876, when he was elected to 
Congress fi'om this district. Mr. Cobb has manifested a decided 
preference for political work and has been a very successful can- 
didate for popular favor. He was a member of the State Senate 
for eight years, the Democratic candidate for presidential elector 
in 1868, and president of the Democratic State Convention in 1876. 
He has been re-elected to Congress four times, and at the expira- 
tion of his present term will have served in the House for ten con- 
secutive years. He is chairman of the Committee on Public 
Lands and has made a reputation throughout the country by his 
efforts in Congress to forfeit to the Government unearned grants 
of lands to railroad corporations. He has a fine personal appear- 
ance and is still active and vigorous. 

• George G. Reily was born in Martin County, Ind., March 30, 
1841 He came to Vincennes after the close of the war and com- 
menced the practice in partnership with James C. Denny. He 
has from the first controlled a full share of the practice and has 
been successful in the management of his cases. His strength at 


the bar lies in his grasping the true state of the case and in his 
appreciating and measuring the weight and effect of evidencei 
and in the cross-examination of witnesses. He is a fluent, grace- 
ful and interesting speaker. He was a captain in the Fourteenth 
Eegiment of Indiana Volunteers during the civil war, and served 
with honor until its close. He was the Republican candidate for 
Congress in this district in 1884, and received a very flattering 
vote. He has realized from his practice more than a competency 
and is in good financial circumstances — the fruit of his labors at 
the bar. 

William H. DeWolf was born in Middleboro, Mass., Septem- 
ber 30, 1832, and when became to Indiana, located at Petersburg, 
but removed to Vincennes in 1863, and commenced the practice 
of law in partnership with Judge Niblack. He is a safe and 
reliable lawyer and has a good practice. He is a pleasant speaker 
and is impressive in manner, never indulges in displays of fancy 
but deals in facts. He is uniformly polite and courteous to oppos- 
ing counsel and court, and is never rude or harsh with witnesses. 
He has confined himself strictly and closely to his profession and 
has not sought honors outside of its legitimate pursuits. He was 
appointed prosecuting attorney of the court for the October term 
1866. He is a prominent Odd Fellow and has been Grand Master 
of the State. 

John M. Boyle was born in the city, in March, 1837. He was 
educated in Danville, Ky. He is a grandson of John Boyle, the 
first chief justice of the courtof appealsof Kentucky. Hegraduated 
at the law department of the State University. He was admitted 
to this bar August 7, 1866. He has always been a student and 
has mastered the legal science by diligent application. He is 
generally regarded by the profession as fi good judge of legal 
questions. He was elected city attorney of Vincennes in 1871, 
and has been re-elected successively to the present. "When first 
elected he at once applied himself to the study of the particular 
branches of the law most likely to require his ofiicial attention, 
and is now the best posted of any member of the bar on corpora- 
tion law. 

Orlan F. Baker was born in Paoli, Orange County, Ind., August 
4, 1843. He was admitted to the bar August 18, 1863, and mth the 


exception of a few years' residence in Indianapolis, has continued 
in the practice of law in Vincennes. He possesses a quick and 
active mind, and can without much study or reflection form his 
opinion and theory of a case. He has gained his greatest repu- 
tation as an advocate. He is a fluent and graceful speaker and 
commands the choicest language to express his ideas. His fine 
delivery has gained for him the appellation of "the silver tongue." 
He represented this county in the House of the State Legislature, 
in 1867. He was also city attorney of Vincennes. 

James S. Pritchett was born in Warrenton, Gibson Co., Ind., 
August 16, 1844 He was admitted to the bar February 17, 1862, 
and has practiced here ever since. He was elected city attorney 
of Vincennes for one year, and also a member of the common 
council of the city, and in 1873 was elected mayor of Vincennes. 
He has devoted most of his time to the study of criminal law and 
has acquired an extensive reputation as a criminal lawyer. He 
does not study a case or attempt to solve it from text books or 
adjudicated cases, but relies upon his knowledge of human nature 
and in its presentation in the best possible light to the compre- 
hension of a jury. He has been very successfiil in the defense of 
criminal cases and seems to be pleased when engaged in the 
defense of a criminal, prosecuted for homicide or other felony.* 

*For sketch of Hon. H. S. Cauthorn, see biographical department. 



""Military Histoky— The Old Militia Companies— Gen. Harrison 
AND THE Indians— Campaign of Tippecanoe -The Black Hawk 
War— The Mexican Company— Opening of the Rebellion— Vol- 
unteers— Sketches OF THE Regiments— Casualties— Thk Drafts 
—Bounty and Relief— Camp Knox. 

QUITE a number of Revolutionary heroes settled atVincennes 
after the close of that memorable struggle; among them 
were Benjamin Parke, Henry Vanderburg and Gen. W. Johnson. 
These men did good service in the Indian wars later. Al- 
most all the inhabitants capable of bearing arms were members 
of some militia company, and prepared for service at a moment's 
warning. The following is the list of effectives belonging to 
Capt. Pierre Gamelin's company: Paul Gamelin, captain; Chris- 
topher Wyant, ensign; Peter Tliorne, sergeant; Fred Mehl and 
Jeremiah Meyer, sergeants; also, Richard Johnson, cadet; pri- 
vates — Robert Johnson, Joseph Cloud, Daniel Pea, John Loe, 
Godfrey Peters, John Murphy, John Lafferty, Frederick Barger, 
George Barger, Peter Barger, Frederick Middler, Ben Becker, 
Robert Day, Edward Shoebrook,' John Westfall, Ed Johnson, 
Joshua Harbin, John Robbins, John Martin, Abe Westfall, James 
Walls, Thomas Jordan, Robert Smith, Daniel Smith, James 
Johnson, Teke Holiday, Michael Thorne, Solomon Thorne, Daniel 
Thorne, Charles Thorne, Abraham Barkman, Charles Barkman, 
John Rice Jones, Patrick Simpson, John Melmore, Frederick 
Lindsay, Mathew Dubbons, Hugh Dempsey, John Culbert, Robert 
Garavert and Isaac Carpenter. 

In all the wars which have been waged in the United States 
since the organization of Knox County, which in any way affected 
the county, her military record has been honorable. From the 
time of the capture of Vincennes, February 24, 1779, by Col. 
Clark and his heroic band, to the close of the second war of inde- 
pendence. The men serving as militiamen in 1790 were each 
allowed 100 acres of land for their services. The following is a 


roster of the militia at Vincennes, as returned by Maj. Francois 
Vigo, on July 19, 1790; Eobert Mayes, James Holliday, John 
Martin, Fred Mathler, Michael Thorn, John Small, James Watt, 
Joseph Cloud, John Wilmore, Robert Day, James Johnson, God- 
frey Pellen, Peter Thorn, Thomas Jordan, Christ. Wyant, John 
Westfall, Jacob Thorn, Dick Ryan, Henry Vanderburg, John 
Mehl, Richard Dick, B. Frederick Phillip (captain), Jacob 
Pea, John Pea, Ralph Matson, Ike Dacker, Abraham Decker, 
Moses Dacker, Abraham >Siiapp, Lauis Frederick, Samuel Moore, 
Thomas Dick, Jonathan Conger, A. Ramsey, Jacob Teverbaugh, 
John Decker, William Duggau, Fred Linden, John Rehm, Daniel 
Thorn, John Lane, John Murphy, Peter Barrier, Solomon Thorn, 

Daniel Smith, John , William Smith, Daniel Pea, Charles 

Thorn, Abraham Barrackman, Matthew Dobbin, John Dorrett, Ed- 
ward Shoebrook, James Johnson, J. R. Johns, William Mayes, 
Jeremiah Mayes, Abe Westfall, John Harbin, Joshua Harbin, 
Daniel Meredith, Henry Holliday, Patrick Simpson, and Frangois 
Vigo. These men and others did service in occasional "brushes" 
with the Indians till the general outbreak in 1811. 


Complications with Great Britain doubtless had much to do 
in stirring up hostilities with the. Indians. Early in 1811 the 
Indians grew so aggressive and intolerant, committing depreda- 
tions and murders, that Gen. Harrison sent a message to Tecum- 
seh, warning him of the danger of the course he was taking, and 
threatening him with arms in case he did not desist. The mes- 
sage of Harrison was politely received by Tecumseh, and in Beply 
he agreed to visit Harrison at Vincennes in a few days. He 
arrived July 27, 1811, bringing with him a considerable force 
of Indians. This created alarm among the inhabitants. Harri- 
son had taken the precaution to have the militia armed and ready, 
about 750 in all; two companies of dragoons were near. Tecum- 
seh seeing the precautions taken by Harrison, professed friend- 
ship and agreed to mutual forgiveness. He then, with about 
twenty of his followers, started south, on a visit to the southern 
Indians. Harrison determined to forestall Tecumseh in his move- 
ments. He determined to erect a fort at the mouth of the Wabash, 


and to break up the assemblage of Indians at the Prophet's town. 
For the latter j^urpose Col. Boyd's regiment was ordered from the 
falls of the Ohio to Vincennes. When Harrison was on the 
point of starting for Prophet's town, a delegation of chiefs ar- 
rived in Vincennes, on September 25, 1811, and held a conference 
with Gen. Harrison. In that conference the Indians protested 
against any evil intention on their part, and declared their will- 
ingness to comply with the wishes of the Government. 


Gen. Harrison was not deceived by their false promises, and 
on the next day, September 26, he took up his line of march from 
Vincennes for Prophet's town. He kept near the river, and 
arrived near Terre Haute on October 3, where he built Fort Har- 
rison. On the night of the 11th a sentinel was wounded by the 
Indians. On the 28th Fort Harrison was finished, and, leaving 
a small garrison under Col. Miller, on the 29th he again moved 
forward. His army consisted of about 900 men. 270 of whom 
were mounted, and 250, under Col. Boyd, were regular troops. 
When within a half-mile of Prophetstown, a conference was 
opened with the Prophet. The Indians manifested surprise at 
Harrison's appearapce among them with hostile intentions. It 
was mutually agreed, in words, that there should be no battle that 
night, and that another conference should take place the next 
morning. Harrison selected the best place possible for a camp, 
yet not a very desirable one. He selected a dry oak ridge, rising 
about ten feet above the marshy prairie toward the Indian town. 
In the rear was a small stream bordered with willow and brush- 
wood. Toward the left the ridge widened considerably, but to- 
ward the right it became narrower, and at the distance of 150 
yards terminated abruptly. Two columns of infantry occupied the 
front and rear. One flank was filled by two companies of 120 
men, mounted riflemen, under command of Maj.-Gen. Wells, of 
the Kentucky militia, and one by Spencer's company of 80 
mounted riflemen. The front line was composed of one battalion 
of United States infantry, under Maj. Floyd. To the right of 
these were two companies of militia, and to the left one company. 
The rear line was composed of a battalion of United States dra- 


goons under Capt. Bean, and four companies of militia under 
Lieut. -Ool. Decker. Capt. Spencer's company formed an angle 
with Decker's men, on the left. Two troops of dragoons en- 
camped to the rear of the left flank, and Capt. Parke's comi)any 
to the rear of the right flank. The men encamped in the order of 
battle, and slept on their arms. Gen. Harrison, knowing the 
cunning foe he had to deal with, was prepared for what his judg- 
ment foresaw would take place. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of November 7 the firing of a 
sentinel's gun announced the attack of the enemy. Gen. Harri- 
son had just risen; the men were quickly in line; the storm struck 
Capt. Barton's company of the Fourth Regiment and Capt. Gei- 
ger's mounted riflemen, who formed the left angle of the rear 
line; these men suffered severely. The morning was dark and 
cloudy; the camp fires of the Americans gave the Indians the ad- 
vantage of the light ; these were quickly extinguished. Gen. Har- 
rison quickly mounted his horse and rode boldly into the 
thickest of the fight. Cook and Wentworth were ordered to the 
relief of Barton and Geiger. Bean, Snelling and Prescott held 
the center. Maj. Daviess was ordered to dislodge some Indians 
sheltered in a clump of trees a short distaiice away. The attempt 
was boldly made but with too small a force, and he was struck in 
the flanks by the enemy and compelled to fall back, and himself 
was mortally wounded. Capt. Snelling's company did the work 
attempted by Maj. Daviess. According to Gen. Harrison's policy 
the lines were kept entire till daylight, when a general charge 
along the whole line was made and the Indians driven in precip- 
itate flight. Harrison had 700 effective men and the Indians 
possibly more. Harrison lost 37 killed, 35 mortally wounded 
and 126 with lighter wounds. Among the officers killed were Da- 
viess, Spencer, Owen, Warrick, Randolph, Bean and White. The 
Indians left thirty-eight dead upon the field ; their exact loss is not 
known. This battle was effective in breaking up the Indian con- 
federacy. On the 11th the American Army returned to Vincennes, 
where the greater part was discharged. 

The following is a roster of the officers and soldiers who went 
from Vincennes to Tippecanoe, together with the casualties : Luke 
Decker, lieutenant-colonel commanding; Noah Pui-cell, major; 


Daniel Sullivan, lieutenant, acting adjutant; William Reed, ser- 
geant-major; James Smith, quartermaster, and Edward Scull, 
surgeon. Capt. Walter Wilson's company. The company officers 
were Walter Wilson, captain; B. V. Beckes, lieutenant; Jasper 
Macomb, ensign; sergeants, James S. Withers, Thomas White; 
(badly wounded), Isaac Minor and John Decker; corporals, Dan- 
iel Risby, William Smuck, John Gray and Peter Prenton ; Pri- 
vates, Baptiste Sharalae, Asa Thorn, Thomas Chambers, John 
Chambers, Joseph Harbin, Andrew Harris, Joseph Jordan, Joshua 
Anthis, Louis Frederick, Louis Reel, Robert Guentrer, Samuel 
Clutter, Jacob Anthis, James Welke, Nathan Baker, John Barger, 
Peter Barger, S. Almy, Moses Decker (badly wounded), Joseph 
Boodry, Wolsey Pride, Robert Brenton (deserted), Abraham Pea, 
Thomas Melburne (deserted), William Pride, Benjamin Welker, 
Jacob Harbison (deserted), Sutler Coleman, Jacob Chappell, Rob- 
ert McClure, John Risley (deserted), Jonathan Walker, David 
Knight and Jonathan Purcell. Capt. Benjamin Parke's Light 
Dragoons. Officers: Benjamin Parke, captain; Thomas Emerson, 
first lieutenant; George Wallace, second lieutenant; J. Balthis, 
bugler; sergeants, Christopher Geater, William Harper, Henry 
Ruble and John McClure; corporals, William Donica, Charles 
Allen (woimded), R. Sullinger and Levi Elliott; saddler, John 
Braden; privates, Charles Smith, Peter Jones, Joel Bond, Par- 
mer Becker (deserted), Jesse Slawson, Toussaint Dubois, Theo- 
dore Randolph (killed), John McDonald (slightly wounded), 
Miles Dalahan, Thomas Danahau, John Elliott, Mathias Rose, 
Jr., Henry Dubois, Jesse Lucas, William Berry, William Pur- 
cell, John Crosby, Leonard Crosby, William Mehan (killed), 
SamuelDrake, Samuel Emison, Nathaniel Harness, Daniel Decker, 
Hanson Seaton, John D. Hay, Hiram Decker, Ebenezer Welton, 
John T. Neeley, John McBain, Pierre Leplante, James Steen, An- 
drew Purcell, John Pea, Albert Badollet, Josiah S. Holmes, W. W. 
Holmes, Thomas Colter, Charles McClure, Jacques Andre, Thomas 
McClm-e, Thomas Palmer, Gen. W. Johnson, William A. Mc- 
Clure, Archey McClure, James Neal, John Wyant, Charles Scott, 
James S. Petty, Isaac White (killed), Thomas McClure, Henry 
J.Mills, James Neal, George Croghan (aid-de-camp), Albert Hines, 
Ben Louders, James Naab, John OTallon (wounded), Will- 


iam Luckett, Landon Carter, Robert Buntin, Jr., John Smith, 
Robert Sturges and James Harper. Capt. Toussaint Dubois' 
company of Spencer Guards. Captain, Toussaint Dubois; pri- 
vates, Silas McCuUoch, G. R. C. Sullivan, William Brown, Will- 
iam Polke, Pierre Andi-e, Ephriam Jourdan, William Shaw, 
(wounded), William Hogue, David Wilkins, John Hollingsworth, 
Thomas Sevins, Joe Harbin, Abe Decker, Samuel Jones, David 
Mills, Stewart Cunningham, B. Childress, and Thomas Jordan. 
Capt. Thomas Scott's company, commanded by Ludke Decker. 
Officers: John Purcell, first lieutenant; John Scott, ensign; John 
Walton, first sergeant; Francis Mellet, second sergeant; S. John- 
son, third sergeant; and Samuel Rignet fourth sergeant; John 
Moore, Abe Westfall, A. C. Duschene, and Charles Bono, corporals; 
privates, Jesse Wells, James McDonald, J. Hornback, Will- 
iam Denny, William Young, William Jones, John Collins, Jr., Will- 
iam Bailey, Charles Mehl, Richard Westhorp, Thomas McClain, 
Joe Risley, Henry O'Neal, Joe Alton, Boples Topar, Antoine 
Jerome (wounded), Michel Richardville, Charles Dudevan, John 
B. Bono, J. Bonchie, H. Mercean, Angel Lature, Louis Abaer, 
Charles Loudnett, Ambrose Dashney, Francis Beabo, Francis 
Bono (killed), Samuel Boulanger, Louis Loneau, Medal Caudnal, 
Antoine Chenniette, Francis Arpah, Joe Sansusee, Nicholas Vel- 
mare, Eustace Leveron, Joseph Rene, I. Denneau, Jac. Obie, John 
B. Cardinal, Antoine Rasellette, Antoine Comia, D. Page, Louis 
Boyeau, Joseph Beson, Pierre Delourea, Pierre Delourea, Jr., 
John Maninnee, Francis Boyeau, Louis Lovelet, Thomas McCoy 
(killed). Zebu] on Haynes, Andrew Westfall, William A. Clarke, 
William Welton (wounded), Walter Neal, Henry Lane, Abram 
Wood (killed), JohnCuUins, Sr., William Williams, Samuel Ris- 
ley, William Cullins (wounded), Charles Fisher, Robei-t Johnson, 
and H. A. Thorn. 

The Indian troubles ceased for a time, but on the 
outbreak of the war with Great Britain they were again re- 
newed. In the first part of the year 1812 Capt. Russell raised 
a company of fifty men, and later, Capts. Perry and Modrell each 
raised a company in the vicinity ; also Capt. Beckes commanded a 
small company of rangers or scouts. The history of the campaigns 
of Hull and Harrison in that war need not be recited here. The 


following were surviving in 1861 : Pierre Brouillette, J. B. Bono, 

D. Page, Jacob Pea, George Catt, W. N. Cowper, John Vankirk, 
William Paper, M. Richardville, John Moore, Thomas Johnson, 

E. G. McCluie, H. Decker, Franqois Bonchie, John PoUey, J. 
Maney, Henry Fox, Capt. J. Steffer, Ben Kobinson, David 
Eichey, Pierre Cabasie, Laurient Bouchie, Amabel Bouchie and 
Anthony Carey. 


The next struggle which affected materially the people of 
Knox County was the heroic struggle of Black Hawk and his band 
in their effort to avenge either real or fancied wrongs, and to 
check the progress of civilization. " For the protection of the 
frontier " a company of United States Rangers was enlisted at 
Vincennes in the summer and fall of 1832 by Capt. B. V. Beckes. 
These men camped at " Cantonment Johnson," on the river 
Deshee, in the winter of 1832-33. The following is the line of 
march as taken from Capt. Beckes' report: "I left Cantonment" 
Johnson by way of Carlisle, Merom,Terre Haute, Clinton, Danville, 
Iroquois, Beaver Creek, Rock Creek, Hickory Creek, DuPage, Fox 
River, 'Pop Pan' Grove, Dixon's Ferry, and encamped four miles 
west of Dixon's Ferry on my way to Fort Armstrong, with my com- 
pany in good order and fit for service." In October he says: "I 
marched my company fi-om near Fort Armstrong on the 22d of 
September, 1832, by Fort Clarke, Springfield, York River and 
Palestine, and reached my present place on the 2J:th of October, 
1832, and have built Cantonments. On the 31st I arrested four 
men belonging to Capt. Ford's company, and sent them to him 
under guard." In December, he says: "My command arrived 
at Cantonment Johnson and commenced building barracks, which 
have been completed some time, and the company regularly 
drilled since." 

The company was enlisted for one year, and was knq^vn as 
Company B, of Mounted Rangers, Army of the United States, 
commanded by Maj. Henry Dodge. The following is a roster of 
the men and officers, which is copied fi-om the muster roll for Sep- 
tember and October, 1832, the roll being the one returned by 
Capt. Beckes: Ben V. Beckes, captain; Samuel Smith, first lieut- 
enant; George Leach, second lieutenant; privates, Joseph Brat- 


ton, Fielding Johnson, Ben Turman, Joshua Highland, John 
Flint, John Stewart, Harrison Palmer, James Stout, A. N. F. 
Scott, William Kelty, John G. Garret, Joseph Crooks, Atkerson 
Thomas, Jacob Anderson, Pierre AncLre, Thomas Atkerson, J. W. 
L. H. Atkins, Jonathan Burrel, James Barr, Hugh Barr, James 
Buchanan, Alfz'ed Baker, Caleb Beokes, J. D. Booth, John Berlin, 
John Birdelo, Joseph Barrios, Toussaint Barrios, I. C. Browning, 
John Bacheler, Harrison Bruce, Christly Cooper, A. C. Conn, 
Michael Catt, John Catt, John Covil, Henry Collins, Elisha Col- 
lins, James Dooley, Jacob Dusher, John Edwards, James 
Edwards, Abraham Edwards, John Elsea, Ruben Francis, Solo- 
mon Frank. W. C. Flint, R. Fisher, Thomas Grissom, Robert Gil- 
more, John Garret, William Garret, John D. Gardner, John Gam- 
mon, William Green, Ferdinand Hollingsworth, Absalom Hurst, 
Richard Hathaway, John B. Huff, Parkerson House, J. E. Had- 
den, Wilson Honeycut, Joseph Joyeux, Alfred Kidwell, James 
Kirby, James Kelly, T. E. Kyle, Joseph Langdon, Allen McDon- 
ald, Alex McDonald, Francis Mahoney, Robert McBain, John 
W. Moore, Antoine Nominie, J. P. Martin, George Martin, John 
Mitchell, Allen May, J. Osman, Greeaberry Owens, Abraham 
Peck, William Perkins, John Pry, John Parker, J. W. Purcell, 
David Powers, Joseph Powers, Thomas Paine, Samuel Parsons, 
William Reeds, John Reel, John Reese, William Robinson, Jacob 
Reedy, Charles Russel, Robert Rainey, William Stout, William 
M. Smith, William Smith, Isaac Thorn, Thomas Truman, Thomp- 
son Harrison, Bailess Watley, Nathan White, William Woods, 
James Wilson, John Wheeler, Daniel Wykoff, Joseph Williams. 
The following died: Asa Thorn, Abraham Burtch, William 
Owens, William Parks, Risely Riley and John Wilson. The 
results of this war are too well known to need further description. 


From the foregoing it will be seen that in the latter part of 
the last century and the first part of the present, the inhabitants 
of Knox County were not unaccustomed to civil turmoils. Bred 
as they were amidst turmoils with the French, the Indians, or the 
British, they readily took to arms. A period of nearly a genera- 
tion of perfect peace had passed away when their troubles with 


Mexico occurred. In that very unequal and none too just a 
cause, tlie complement of Indiana was quickly filled; but no or- 
ganized body was furnished by Knox County. Capt. Samuel 
Ford in 1847 raised a few men in the county, and it is probable 
that a few entered the service in 1846 in various organizations. 


In the momentous forensic contest during the political cam- 
paign of 1860, the minds of the people were worked up to the 
intensest pitch. It was not only on account of the questions of 
political preferences, but from the tragic results that were to fol- 
low. The opinions of honest men differed as widely as to the 
policy to be pui-sued as was possible. In these struggles the 
political organs of the parties more or less reflect the opinions of 
the people. A rather extreme view is presented in the Sun of 
October 23, 1860. Commenting on the election of Mr. Lincoln 
the Sun said: "Freemen of America, there is danger. Let the 
contest in October be as a warning to rouse us to timely action. 
The black Republican party with its piratical flag is marching in 
dense columns over the face of our beloved country. Would we 
save this Union! Is there no hope? Shall the Black Repub- 
lican party, stalking like a thunderbolt, pin us to the rocks? 
God forbid." 

On November 16, 1860, after the election of Mr. Lincoln was 
known, the same paper said: " While we do not deny the right to 
peaceful secession, we think that the present emergency requires 
no such harsh measures as are foreshadowed. While we would 
be the first to condemn and oppose anything like coercion or 
force, while we would ever raise our voice against any extreme 
measure on the part of the administration in power by which a 
di'op of American blood should be spilt in civil war, nevertheless 
we believe our Southern friends should wait till an attempt is 
made to infringe upon their rights. But whatever shall befall 
us, let not one step be taken by the heads of Government to com- 
pel any of our sister States to remain in the Union if they think 
they have a sufficient reason for withdrawing — this is a government 
of opinion, not of force." On December 14, 1860, the same paper 
said: "Ten millions of Americans fighting for their homes can- 


not be conquered." On April 16, after the fall of Fort Sumter, 
the same paper gave expression to the following: "We need not 
repeat that we hold the Lincoln dynasty to a terrible account for 
this calamity; while we do not sympathize with the Lincoln 
dynasty in their conduct in regard to Fort Sumter; but if the 
South commit any overt act we will not be one to sustain her. A 
dissent from the policy of the administration does not release one 
from obligation to sustain the Government. We shall ever pro- 
test, however, against force being used against our Southern 

Sometimes party prejudice almost led to the abandonment of 
principle. On January 12, 1861, after the firing on the " Star of 
the West," the Crazeffe asked: "Now, will our Government pass 
this insult silently by? If it does not send down enough troops 
and Vessels to storm and take Charleston, the people should rise 
up and put down the present administration, and put Gen. Scott 
or some other competent man at the head of affairs. It is time 
for action; 'action' should be the rallying cry." On April 20, 
1861, the same paper, in commenting on the duties of citizens in 
regard to the Government, said: "Oar country, right or wrong." 
These quotations but illustrate the divided sentiment of the peo- 
ple. Happily the firing on Fort Sumter and Lincoln's call for 
75,000 volunteers compelled men either to take sides with the 
Government or with its enemies. 

Judge Law, who was not in sympathy with the administration, 
said: "If we have a Government, and I think we have, it is our 
duty to sustain it." Union meetings were held in almost every 
precinct in the county. One was called at Market Place, in Vin- 
cennes, of which Clark Willis was chosen president, and Pierre 
Brouillette, Thomas Beckes, Dr. Joseph Somer, and Dr. Hiram 
Decker were made vice-presidents, and John Baker secretary. 
The following was the committee on resolutions: Hon. W. E. 
Niblack, C. T. Coons, Laz Noble, A. L. Conoyer, William E. 
McCord, and J. N. Conway. They adopted patriotic resolutions, 
and adjourned after appointing a " committee of safety " for each 
township: Vincennes, William Burtch, N. Smith, and J. Eose; 
Washington, Andrew Davis; Widner, E. W. Eobertson; Bus- 
seron, Andrew Fullerton; Vigo, Dr. Benjamin Keith; Steen, 


Samuel Dunn; Palmyi-a, Eobert MoCord; Harrison, Hugh Ed- 
wards; Jolinson, Edward Mooney; Decker, N. B. Edwards. A 
Union meeting was held at the Patterson Schoolhouse on Thurs- 
day evening, April 25, 1861, with Capt. Abe Smith, chairman. 
It was resolved, among other things, "that he who is not for us 
is against us, and that we will stand -by them who stand by the 


Vincennes and Knox County were rapidly putting on a warlike 
appearance. On April 27, 1861, a company of Home Guards 
was organized in Vincennes. The officers were J. H. Massey, 
captain; P. E. Laplante, J. T. Coleman, J. C. Denny, lieutenants; 
J. S. Lander, S. C. Whiting, H. V. Sanders and J. K Case, ser- 
geants; J. D. Green, J. C. Turner, W. H. Bishop and O. F. Baker, 
corporals. On the 19th an enthusiastic meeting was held at Ed- 
wardsport, composed of Republicans, Democrats and Bell men, 
which passed patriotic resolutions. Among the active partici- 
pants in the meeting were D. J. Trout, F. H. Roe, J. T. Freeland, 
J. L. Culbertson and E. E. Evans. On May 25, 1861, a meet- 
ing was held at Spaldingville, at which William Junkins and 
Lewis Reel presided, and a company of home guards was organ- 
ized, sixty-five in number. The officers chosen were Asa Thorne, 
captain; H. A. Wease, J. H. Myers and Benjamin McCoy, lieu- 
tenants; C. A. Spaulding, S. H. Stuckey and J. Small, sergeants; 
J. Junkins, Samuel Reel, John Patterson, corporals. The follow- 
ing resolution was passed, which created some comment at the 
time: " Resolved, That the object of this organization is peace 
at home, not destruction abroad — not an aggressive war but a de- 
fensive peace — not for subjugation or coercion, but to arrest tur- 
moil and to maintain the law." It is but justice to these men to 
say that a large portion soon after entered the regular service. 
Two large companies of home guards were organized at Bruce- 
ville. The officers of the first were A. Dunn, captain ; F. Hol- 
lingsworth, B. Thompson, J.W. Benifield. lieutenants; J. H. Bruce, 
O. S. and A. A. Bruce, ensigns. The officers of the other com- 
pany were J. P. Martin, captain ; J. W. Haley, J. C. Bruce and 
C. Hill, lieutenants ; J. T. Willis, orderly sergeant. A full com- 
pany of men was also organized at Vincennes, called the German 


Home Guards. The " Old Post Guards" and the Knox County 
" Invincibles" were the first to offer their services as companies. 
They were furnished an elegant dinner by the ladies of Viilcennes 
before starting for Camp Vigo, and in return three times three 
cheers were given for the ladies, and a vote of thanks was ten- 
dered by the soldiers. The Invincibles left for Terre Haute on 
May 10, 1861. Before leaving they were presented with a beau- 
tiful silk flag by the ladies of Vincennes. The presentation took 
place at the residence of Capt. Denny. The flag was presented 
in behalf of the ladies by Mrs. Carrie L. Stallard. Her speech 
was most beautiful and touching, and was responded to most 
happily by Capt. Harrow. 

The following is the speech of Mrs. Stallard: "Sir, with 
mingled feelings of pain and pleasure we look upon your noble 
company; pain, when we look upon the distracted condition of our 
once happy country; pleasure, when we remember that we have 
such a gallant band willing to leave home and friends and go 
forth at their country's call. History will write of the great Ee- 
bellion of the nineteenth century, and of those who laid down their 
lives when their country was in danger. May your names be en- 
rolled among the Union's brave sons. In behalf of tlie ladies of 
Vincennes I present you with the American flag. Should the 
star spangled banner wave o'er the battle field, as your eyes rest 
upon it, think of home and country. Our best wishes and prayers 
will attend you, while our sympathies and feelings will be with 
your loved ones at home. We need not charge you to be true to 
the stars and stripes. We believe the bravest and best blood 
would be poured out in defense of the flag under which our 
fathers, with George Washington as their leader, fought and 
won such glorious victories. Our heavenly Father was with them. 
He will be with you. Death to the traitor that would dare to 
trail that flag through the dust of shame. All honest hearts in 
this will share and follow it to death or fame." 

Capt. Harrow responded as follows: "Ladies — My companions 
in arms, self included, tender you our heartfelt acknowledgments 
for this emblem of our country's greatness and glory. We beg 
of you to look to the time when we shall return, and be again re- 
united with you as we have been in the past. We now bid you fare- 


well, trusting to youi- prayers and the justice of our cause for 
speedy and safe deliverance, and until we meet again commend to 
your care and protection the loved ones at home. Once more, 
farewell !" 


These men enlisted under the call of the State for six regi- 
ments of twelve months' men, but almost immediately entered the 
United States service for three years. These two companies be- 
came Companies B and G, of the celebrated Fourteenth In- 
diana. They were enlisted in the three year^' service under the 
July call for 500,000 men. The following were the officers of 
Company B: Jonathan Wood, captain. May 7, 1861, Mathew 
N. Green, December 21, 1861, and William Donaldson, Septem- 
ber 15, 1862; first lieutenants, L. M. Terrell, commissioned May 
7, 1861, M. N. Green, September 15, 1861, William Donaldson, 
December 20, 1861, T. C. Bailey, September 19, 1862, and A. S. 
Andrews, October 28, 1862 ; second lieutenants, William D. Lewis, 
commissioned May 17, 1861, William Donaldson, September 15, 

1861, A. S. Andrews, September 19, 1862, John A. Stannis, 
October 28, 1862. Officers of Company G were : captains, John 
Coons, April 24, 1861; William H. Patterson, August 11, 1862; 
first lieutenants, W. K Denny, April 24, 1861 ; William H. Pat- 
terson, February 10, 1862; A. M. Van Dyke, August 11, 1862; 
second lieutenants, William H. Patterson, June 11, 1861; A. M. 
Van Dyke, February 10, 1862; W. D. F. Landon, August 11, 

1862. This regiment was the first to enter the United States 
service fi-om Indiana. It was mustered into service at Terre 
Haute, June 7, 1861. It went to Indianapolis on June 24, where 
it remained till July 5, when it started for the seat of war in West 
Virginia, under command of Col. Nathan Kimball, the whole num- 
bering 1,134 men. 

The regiment was in the reserve line at the battle of Eich 
Mountain, and on the 12th of September it took an active part in 
the battle of Cheat Mountain, losing 3 killed, 11 wounded and 2 
prisoners. The regiment fought at Green Brier on October 3, 
and lost 5 killed and 11 wounded. The regiment did guard 
and other duty at Huttonsville, Philippi, Green Spring Run, 
Eomney and Paw Paw Tunnel till March 4, 1862. It marched 


to Martinsburg, and tlience to Winchester, where it began skir- 
mishing with Stonewall Jackson on the 22d, and on the 23d 
when it was in the decisive battle of Winchester Heights, 
losing 5 killed and 58 wounded. Gen. Shields having been 
wounded on the 22d, the command of the army devolved on Col. 
Kimball, and the regiment on Lieut. -Col. Harrow. The regi- 
ment marched and coiintermarched. It passed to Fredericks- 
burg, Manassas Gap, Front Boyal, Lui-ay, Bristow Station and 
Alexandria ; thence by water to Turkey Bend on the James. On 
the 13th of Aiigust it passed with the army from Harrison's Land- 
ing to Newport News, thence to Alexandria again, then to Centre- 
ville, on the 30th to Frederick City and South Mountain on the 
12th, aod on the 17th of September took part in the terrific bat- 
tle of Antietam, being a part of Kimball's brigade of French's 
division. For its gallantry in the engagement, it was called by 
Gen. French the " Gibraltar Brigade." It was the only portion 
of the line that did not at some time give way. The ground was 
strewn with the killed and wounded of the enemy in front of the 
Fourteenth. It was engaged four hours within sixty yards of the 
enemy, and when its sixty rounds of ammunition was exhausted it 
supplied itself from its own dead and wounded companions. It 
went into the fight with 320 men, and lost 31 killed and 151 
wounded. Among the killed were 3 officers, and among the 
wounded were 7. The regiment moved next to Harper's 
Ferry ; thence to Warrenton ; afterward to Falmouth, and on the 
13th of December led the charge on Fredericksburg. The works 
being impregnable^the regiment lay partially sheltered till 
sundown, when the army was withdrawn with a loss to the Four- 
teenth of i killed, 17 wounded, and 8 missing. The regi- 
ment again fell back to its old quarters at Falmouth, where it 
remained till April 28, 1862, when it crossed the river at United 
States Ford to take part in the battle of Chancellorsville on May 
1 and 2, but being in reserve, did not become engaged till the 3d. 
On that day the regiment lost 7 killed, 51 wounded and 2 
missing. The Fourteenth followed the army of Meade to Get- 
tysburg, where it did good service on the second day of the bat- 
tle. On the afternoon of the third day the regiment was a part 
of the second corps, that bore the brunt of Longstreet's desperate 


charge. In the battle of Gettysburg the regiment lost 123 men 
and officers killed and wounded. In August the regiment was 
sent to New York to help quell the riots there. The regiment 
was again assigned to its place in the army, fighting and skir- 
mishing with the enemy till May 4th, when the whole army ad- 
vanced under Gen. Grant. The Fourteenth was a part of Han- 
cock's second corps, and took part in all the bloody battles till 
after Cold Harbor. At Spottsylvania Col. Coons was killed while 
bravely leading a charge. On the 6th of June, 1864, those of the 
regiment who had not re-enlisted were ordered to report to Indian- 
apolis, where they arrived on the 12th, and were mustered out on 
the 20th. A portion of these veterans re-enlisted on the 24th of 
December, 1863, and they were on the 1st of August, 1864, con- 
solidated with the Thirtieth. They remained with the Second 
Corps till close of the war, and were mustered out of service at 
Louisville, Ky., July 14, 1865. 


The next regiment represented from Knox County was the 
Twenty-first (heavy artillery). Quite a number from the vicinity 
of Oaktown joined Comjjany D, which was made up from Sullivan 
and Carlisle. Company G, Capt. Edward McLaflin's company, 
was made up from Vincennes a:nd vicinity. On the promotion of 
Capt. McLaflin, First Lieut. B. S. Harrison was made captain. 
First lieutenants of this company were George Wood, B. S. Harri- 
son, J. M. Adams, W. H. H. Turner, and Thomas Seibert. Second 
lieutenants, B. S. Harrison, J. M. Adams, W. H. H. Turner, Robert 
Fuller, and John Erbert. This company originally consisted of a 
complement of officers, and ninety-nine enlisted men, and afterward 
received 167 recruits. The Twenty-first was mustered into the 
service as an infantry regiment on the 24th of July, 1861, under 
command of Col. J. W. McMillan. The regiment immediately left 
for the East. It reached Baltimore the 3d of August, and remained 
till February 19, 1862. The regiment did service on the eastern 
shore of Virginia. The regiment left Baltimore for Newport 
News, and thence sailed on the "Constitution," with Butler's ex- 
pedition against New Orleans. On the 18th of April, 1862, on 
board the "Great Republic," the regiment sailed for the mouth of 


the Mississippi, where it lay till the 29th. During the bombard- 
ment of Forts Jackson and St. Phillip, a portion of the regiment 
was landed, and the remainder went up Pass L' Outre to New 
Orleans on May 1, and was the first to touch the wharf, the reg- 
imental band playing " Picayune Butler 's coming, coming." The 
regiment did good service against the blockade runners and for- 
aging till the 5th of August, when it participated in the battle of 
Baton Kouge, fighting firmly for three and a half hours, and losing 
126 men, killed and wounded. On the 8th of September the reg- 
iment surprised Waller's Texas Rangers, at Des Allemarde, kill- 
ing twelve, and capturing thirty or forty prisoners. The regiment 
did good service in that vicinity till February, 18G3, when it was 
changed to heavy artillery service, and was called the First Heavy 
Artillery. This regiment took part in the siege of Port Hudson, 
and during a siege of forty-two days and nights the regiment lost 
twenty-eight men. After skirmishing till the winter of 1863-64, 
the greater part of the Twenty-first re-enlisted as veterans. The 
regiment returned to Indiana, and a grand reception was given it 
at Metropolitan Hall, Indianapolis, February 19th, 186-4. Ad- 
di'esses were made by Gov. Morton, Maj. Craven, Gen. Hovey 
and Cols. Slack and Keith. On its return a portion of the regi- 
ment took part in Banks' Bed Biver expedition. Six batteries of 
the regiment took part in the reduction of Forts Morgan, Gaines, 
and Spanish Fort, and the capture of Mobile. From this time 
the regiment did guard duty at Forts Morgan, Gaines, and Bar- 
ancas. Baton Bouge and at Mobile till the close of the war, when 
it was mustered out of the service. A few men from Knox were 
in the Twenty-second, a part of the band of the Twenty-fourth ; 
also parts of Companies C and K, neither of which was properly 
credited to Knox County, Vanderburg having got the credit for 
C. For a sketch of the Twenty-fourth see History of Daviess 
County, of this A'olume. 


The next full company from this county was Capt. Hargis' com- 
pany, B, which was made up at Edwardsport, Bruceville and 
Freelandsville. The ofiicers of this company were — captains, 
Benjamin Hargis, B. F. Bradeu, Benjamin McMurray, J. M. Rob- 


ertson and D. W. Robertson; first lieutenants, C. Greenfield, 
T. B. Couchman, B. McMurray, J. M. Robertson, D. "W. Robert- 
son and T. J. Keith; second lieutenants, T. B. Couchman, B. 
McMurray, J. M. Robertson, D. W. Robertson, T. J. Keith and 
S. T. Chambers. The company (104 men in all) assembled at Ed- 
wardsport, and, accompanied by 500 or 600 of their friends, pro- 
ceeded by carriages and on horseback to Oaktown, where they took 
the train for Indianapolis on August 1, 1861. The Twenty-sixth 
was mustered into the seryiee under Col. William M. Wheatley 
August 31, 1861. On the 7th of September the regiment left 
for the field in Missoui-i. 

It took part in Fremont's campaign to Springfield, and then 
returned to Sedalia to do guard duty till July, 1862. It was 
actively engaged in the field till May, 1863. It took part in the 
battle of Newtonia, Mo., Prairie Grove and VanBuren. At Prai- 
rie Grove the regiment siiffered severely. After the battle at 
Van Bm-en, the regiment did guard duty till June, 1863, when the 
regiment joined Grant's army, in the rear of Vicksbm-g and 
remained with that army till the fall of Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson. September 29, at Camp Sterling, near Morganza, the 
regiment was defeated, and about half of its men and ofiicers- 
were captured. The regiment went to Brazos, Santiago, thence ta 
Brownsville, where, on February 1, it re-enlisted, and returned to 
Indiana on a visit, after which it returned to the field again in 
June. February 18, 1865, a portion of the Sixtieth was con- 
solidated with the Twenty-sixth, which still retained its organiza- 
tion. In the campaign against Mobile, the Twenty-sixth was a 
part of Gen. A. J. Smith's sixteenth corps, and participated in the 
assault upon Spanish Fort. After the capture of Mobile, the 
regiment did guard duty for a time, then was marched, by way of 
Montgomery and Selma, Ala., to Meridian, Miss., thence to Macon, 
Miss. The -strength of the regiment in October, including re- 
cruits, was 375 men. The regiment was soon afterward mustered 
out of the service. Those who clid not re-enlist were mustered 
out in September before. 


The next regular company was Capt. John T. Freeland's Com- 


pany B, of the Thirty -third, drawn mainly from Freelandsville 
and upper parts of the county. However nearly half of Company 
D, of the Twenty-ninth was from Knox County. The officers of 
the company were — Captains, John T. Freeland, J. L. Banks, W. 
W. HoUingsworth and B. H. Freeland ; first lieutenants were An- 
drew Fullerton, James L. Banks, W. W. HoUingsworth, B. H. 
Freeland, Henry H. Jetter and Israel M. Adams ; second lieuten- 
ants; E. M. Adams, J. L. Banks, W. W. HoUingsworth, B. H. 
Freeland, W. S. Eeed, I. M. Adams and John F. Gillis. This 
company first went into camp at Camp Knox August 15, 1861, 
this camp for recruits and instruction having been previously es- 
tablished. The Thirty-third was mustered into the service under 
Col. John M. Coburn September IGth, at Indianapolis, and on 
the 28th left for Louisville and encamped at Camp Dick Robin- 
son. It joined Gen. Thomas October 2 ; on the 13th it marched 
to Crab Orchard, thence to Camp Wildcat, where on the 21st it 
assisted in the defeat of ZoUicoffer. The regiment marched and 
countermarched in Kentucky till June 18, when Cumberland Gap 
was taken, the same kind of work was done in East Tennessee 
till the evacuation of the Gap September 18, 1862, when the 
regiment fell back into Kentucky for the defense of Cincinnati 
and Louisville. The regiment passed to Nashville, thence to Frank- 
lin and Columbia, when on March 1 it fought with Van Dorn, 
and on the 5th at Thompson's Station the regiment lost about 100 
men killed and wounded and 400 captured. 

These were soon afterward exchanged and rejoined the regi- 
ment, which did various guard duties till January and February, 
1864, when 450 veterans returned home on furlough. The regi- 
ment returned to Tennessee and was assigned to the second corps 
of Sherman's army. It took part in the battles of Resaca, Cass- 
ville. New Hope Church, Golgotha Church, Culp's Farm, Kene- 
saw, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, Turner's Ferry, and Septem- 
ber 2 its colonel received the surrender of Atlanta. In these en- 
gagements the regiment lost over 300 men. November 13 this 
regiment, with the army, began the "march to the sea." Itwas in the 
left wing under Slocum. The Thirty-third passed with Sherman's 
army to Savannah, thence up through the Carolinas. It took part 
in the engagements at Averysboro and Bentonville, and reached 


Goldsboro March 23, and on April 13 entered Raleigh. On 
May 1 it began its homeward march hj way of Richmond, which 
it reached on the 11th, and on the 12th resumed its march for 
Washington City, where it arrived on the 21st. It remained in 
Washington till the last of June, when it was sent to Louisville, 
Ky., and was mustered out on the 21st of July, 1865. 


The next soldiers fi-om Knox County, with the exception of a 
few drafted men sent to the Forty-second, Forty-fourth and Fif- 
tieth were Companies E and H, of the Fifty-fii-st. All the officers 
of Company E, both commissioned and non-commissioned, were 
from Vincennes, while the enlisted men were drawn largely from 
Washington, Harrison and some of the other townships. Com- 
pany H was mainly made up at Bruceville ; there were, however, 
some fi-om Steen, some fi-om Vigo and some from Busseron. The 
former mustered at Vincennes, the latter at Bruceville. The com- 
missioned officers of Company E, were — Captains, William Denny, 
William N. Denny, D. L. Wright and Ellis House; first lieu- 
tenants were Daniel Trent, David Wright, D. A. Denny, Ellis 
House, A. E. Harris and H. C. Byers; second lieutenants were 
J. A. Welton, A. E. Harris and N. P. Scott. The commissioned 
officers of Company H, were: Captains, Clark Willis (afterward 
promoted to major), T. F. Chambers, Alfi-ed Gude and W. P. 
McClure ; fii-st lieutenants were J. W. Haley, A. Gude, William 
Willis, William P. McClure and W. H. Dunn; second lieuten- 
ants were J. W. Haley, A. Gude, William Willis, Hiram Mallory 
and J. W. Manning. The latter company left Bruceville on Tues- 
day, October 22, 1861, for Emison Station, where it embarked for 
Indianapolis. There was a ti'ain of 157 wagons and 175 jjersons 
on horseback accompanying them to the train, where a crowd es- 
timated at 2,000 had ' assembled. While waiting the assembly 
listened to speeches by Capt. Freeland, Revs. Jones and Moore, 
and others. The Fifty-first was mustered into the United States 
service December 14, 1861, under Col. A. D. Streight. The 
regiment proceeded fi-om Indianapolis to Bardstown, Ky., thence 
in February with Buell's army to Nashville and thence to Shiloh, 
arriving too late to take part in that bloody battle, but assisted in 


the siege of Corinth. After the fall of Corinth it passed through 
northern Alabama to Stevenson; thence with Buell's army in 
their retreat to Louisville; thence back to Nashville and to 
Stone's River, where it took part in that battle December 31, 
1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863, losing 5 killed, 86 wound- 
ed and 8 missing — 49 in all. The regiment lay at Murfrees- 
boro till April, when it formed a part of a brigade under Col. 
Streight, intended to capture Rome, Ga., and cut off Bragg's 
supplies, his army then being at Tullahoma, Tenu. The brigade 
consisted of about 1,700 men, about half of whom were mount- 
ed. The body started from Eastport, Miss., April 21, and fought 
Forrest on the 29th and 30tli at Day's Gap near Sand Mountain, 
losing 31 men but driving off the enemy. It fought again 
May 1 at Crooked Creek, and on the 2d at Blunt' s farm and on 
the 3d it was overtaken near Gaylesburg, Ala., and compelled to 

These men suffered the horrors of a rebel prison for some 
time, but at length the enlisted men were released on parole. 
Col. Streight made his escape fi-om Libby prison by tunneling 
February 9, 1864. In November, 1863, the regiment was ex- 
changed and did guard duty in various parts of Tennessee till 
January and February, 1864, when most of the men re-enlisted, 
and returned to Indiana on thirty days' furlough. It again 
returned to service in April. The regiment did duty at Chatta- 
nooga till the fall of Atlanta, when it moved with the Fourth 
Corps by way of Pulaski, Columbia, Franklin, to Nashville. On 
the 14th of December the non-veterans were mustered out and 
sent home, and on the 15th the regiment took part in the battle 
of Nashville, and defeat and pursuit of Hood to Huntsville, 
Ala. Here it remained till March, 1865, then moved to east 
Tennessee, then in May again to Nashville, where the remnant 
of the Seventy-ninth was attached to the Fifty-first. In June the 
regiment was sent to New Orleans with the Fourth Corps, and 
later into western Texas, where it remained till called home to be 
mustered out. 


Under the July call of 1862 for 300,000 men, the Sixty-fifth 


was organized. Comjiany C and a part of G were made up from 
Knox County. The officers of C were — Captains Isaac Mass and 
J. H. Averill, Capt. Mass having served a short time before ; first 
lieutenants were N. Miller, J. T. Coleman, J. H. Averill, J. A. 
Smith, and L. Mallory; second lieutenants were J. T. Coleman 
and C. C. Burnett. The Sixty-fifth first went into camp at Camp 
Gibson, Princeton, Ind., under Col. John W. Foster. For a 
sketch of this regiment see History of Daviess in this volume. 

Companies C, G, and I, of the Eightieth Indiana, were also 
from Knox County. Company C was made up almost entirely at 
Edwardsport in September, 1862. Its officers were: Captains, J. 
L. Culbertson, promoted to major, and John T. Cochran; first 
lieutenants were Thomas Chambers, W. C. Chambers, and Eli 
P. Bicknell; second lieutenants were W. C. Chambers and E. 
P. Bicknell. Company G was made up from various jDarts of the 
county. Its commissioned officers were: Captains, W. H. "Watson, 
J. C. Gladdish, promoted to major, and J. F. Cantwell; first 
lieutenants were S. E. Smith, J. C. Gladdish, W. T. Dunn, and 
W. H. Clements; second lieutenants were Porter Clarkson, W. 
T. Dunn, and "W. H. Clements. I was mainly from Vin- 
cennes. Its commissioned officers were: Captains, W. D. Lewis, 
W. S. Emery, mortally wounded at Eesaca, andE. W. Slack; first 
lieutenants, T. J. Walker, E. W. Slack, and C. L. Sellers, L. C. 
Turbett, accidentally killed, and W. S. Emery. This regiment 
went into camp at Princeton in August and September. On 
September 8 the regiment left Camp Gibson for the seat of war 
in Kentucky. It went by way of Indianapolis to Louisville, 
thence to Perryville, where it took a conspicuous part in that 
engagement just one month after leaving Camp Gibson. In this 
engagement it lost 150 officers and men in killed, wounded, and 

The regiment engaged in skirmishing and chasing John Mor- 
gan till July 5, 1863. On August 11th the regiment with Burn- 
side's command entered East Tennessee, occupying Kingston, 
Knoxville, and other places. It fought at Kingston, Massey 
Creek, and took a prominent part in the defense of Knoxville 
against Longstreet. In the spring of 1864 it was attached to the 
Twenty-third Army Corps, under command of Gen. Scofield. 


On May 9 it began the forward movement with Sherman's army 
toward Atlanta. It began fighting at Dalton, and was almost 
continually engaged till the fall of Atlanta. It suffered terribly 
at Resaca, and considerably at Peach Tree Creek. In the At- 
lanta campaign it suffered a total loss of 175 men. After the fall 
of Atlanta the regiment joined in the piirsuit of Hood till that 
was abandoned; it was then detached and formed a part of 
Thomas' army for the defense of Nashville, It fell back by way 
of Puluski, Columbia, Spring Hill, Franklin, to Nashville. On 
November 30, with parts of Twenty-third and Fourth Corps 
under Scofield, it succeeded in giving Hood that very bloody 
repulse at Franklin, thus saving the army train, and again on the 
15th and 16th of December it assisted very materially in the de- 
struction of Hood's army. After the piirsuit of Hood's army to 
the Tennessee this regiment, with the Twenty-third Corps, was 
transferred (in January, 1860) by water and rail to Alexandria; 
thence by steamer to North Carolina. It took part in the attack 
on Fort Anderson near Wilmington, Kingston, Goldsboro, and 
Ealeigh, and all the movements till the surrender of Johnston. 
After the surrender the regiment jiroceeded to Indianapolis, 
where a grand reception was tendered them and other returned 
soldiers. Addresses of welcome were made by Gov. Morton and 
others. There were but 320 men and officers of the regiment re- 
turned for discharge. During its term of service the regiment 
lost 327 men killed, wounded, and prisoners, and traveled 7,2-45 


On demand of the General Government for eleven new regi- 
ments, in the fall of 1863, two companies, G and F, were raised 
in Knox County for the One Hundred and Twentieth Eegiment. 
Company F was made from different counties, but largely from 
Knox, while G was almost wholly fi-om this county. Its ofiicers 
were : Captain, Henry Gilham ; fii'st lieutenants, H. Gilham and 
A. Cantwell; second lieutenants were W. H. Greeg and J. H. 
Simpson. The regiments of which the One Hundred and Twen- 
tieth was one, were formed into a division under command of Gen. 
Hovey. The regiment left for Nashville in April, 1864, and was 
assigned to the Twenty-third Army Corps, operating in east 


Tennessee. The regiment was mustered into the service on the 
1st of March, 18(34:, under command of Col. K. F. Barter. On 
May 2, a part of the Twenty -third Corps began its advance upon 
Atlanta. On May 6 it was near Red Clay, close to Dalton, and 
a demonstration was made against Rocky Face ; the column passed 
through Snake Creek Gap, and on the loth of May fought the 
enemy at Eesaca. On June 15 it was at Lost Mountain, and on 
the 27th in the charge upon Kenesaw ; on the 22d of Julj' it took 
part in the desperate battle of Peach Tree Creek, which resulted 
in the defeat of the enemy. After the fall of Atlanta the regi- 
ment was in the fruitless chase of Hood, and was desperately as- 
saulted by the enemy at Allatoona. On October 30 the corps was 
detached from Sherman's army and was ordered to join Thomas 
in the defense of Nashville. It fell back by way of Chattanooga, 
reached Columbia on November 21, on the 27th crossed Duck 
River and skirmished with the enemy two days. The division to 
which the regiment belonged was cut off at Spring Hill, but by 
making a detour of twenty-five miles in a night march the regi- 
ment reached Franklin on the 30th. Here it took part in that 
sanguinary contest, lasting from 4 o'clock till 10 at night, losing 
48 men killed and wounded; among the foi-mer was Maj. E. B. 
Brasher. The next day the regiment reached Nashville and took 
position on Thomas' left. In the battles of the 15th and 16th of 
December the regiment was again engaged, and then joined in the 
pursuit of Hood's routed army. On January 15 the regiment 
boarded a steamer at Clifton, passed down the Tennessee, thence 
up the Ohio to Cincinnati, thence by rail to Washington City. 
From Washington it was transferred by water to Newbern, N. C. 
March 6 the regiment left Newbern, going toward Kings- 
ton; on the 8th it encountered the enemy at Wise's Forks in 
a sharp skirmish, and on the 10th a severe engagement was fought 
with the enemy, in which the regiment lost 7 men killed and 
48 wounded; the enemy, however, was defeated. On the 11th the 
march toward Kingston was resumed, a union having been effect- 
ed with the forces of Gen. Cox. The force reached Goldsboro 
on March 20, thus uniting with the forces of Gen. Sherman. The 
forces passed to Smithfield, and on April 30 entered Raleigh, 
where Johnston surrendered, April 26. The regiment did guard 


duty at various places in North Carolina till ordered home in the 
fall to be mustered out of the service. 


Under the call of December 20, 1864, for eleven new regiments 
of one year's men from Indiana, two companies were raised in 
Knox County. Company B was first, commanded by Capt. J. H. 
Smith, who resigned in March and was succeeded by Capt. William 
Huffman on the promotion to a captaincy; J. P. Patterson was 
promoted to first lieutenant, and on his promotion O. F. Baker was 
made second lieutenant. The regiment to which they were as- 
signed was mustered into the service at Indianapolis on February ■ 
21, with John F. Gill as colonel. On the 24:th the regiment left 
for Nashville, thence to Murf reesboro, where it remained till May ; 
thence to Tullahoma. It was recalled to Nashville on the 26th of 
May and sent to Clarksville, from which place three companies 
were sent to garrison Fort Donelson. The regiment was again 
brought together and mustered out at Nashville, October 17, and 
the Nineteenth left for Indianapolis, where it arrived on the 21st 
with 30 officers and 691 men for discharge and to be paid off. 

Besides the troops already mentioned Capt. George raised a 
company in 1861, and it was attached to the Third Kentucky 
Cavalry. A company and a part of another, under Capt. S-(Yallen, 
belonged to the Seventh Light Artillery. Colored troops were not 
thought of in the early part of the war, and the first talk of arming 
the negroes met with most vehement and bitter opposition by 
those not fi-iendly toward the administration. The first colored 
troops fi-om the county went to the Fifty -fifth Massachusetts by 
permission from Gov. Morton. Later, Company O of the Thir- 
teenth United States Colored Eegiment, and Companies B and E 
of the Twenty-eighth were largely represented fi-om this county. 
Before the close of the war large numbers of these were employed, 
and added materially to the cause. Before the close of the war the 
Confederates began arming them. 


Preparatory to the draft of October 6, 1862, for 300,000 men, 
M. P. Gee was appointed draft commissioner for the county; O. 
B. Wetzell, marshal, and S. C. Whiting, surgeon. 


From the enrollment of the 19th of September, it is shown 
that Knox County had 2,519 militia, had furnished 1,322 volun- 
teers, had 519 unfit for military duty, and 1,970 subject to di-aft. 
Under this call Knox County's quota was 143, but this was filled 
by all the townships except Johnson, which was deficient 13. In 
the call of October 17, 1868, for 300,000, the quota for the State 
was 18,597, and of the county, 213; but this was filled without 
resorting to a draft. Under calls of February 1, March 14, and 
July 18, 1864, the quota of the county was 374. Tremendous 
efforts were made to raise the number without draft. Old sol- 
diers, veterans and officers were sent home to encourage volun- 
teers, but a sufficient number could not be procured. The quotas 
and deficiencies by townships were as follows: 

Quota. Credit. Deficiency. 

Vincennes..^ 153 96 57 

Steen 33 13 9 

Harrison 44 3 43 

Washington 30 33 8 

Widner 38 6 33 

Vigo 41 14 27 

Busseron 24 7 17 

Palmyra 41 41 

Decker 21 3 18 

Johnson .41 41 

Before the draft was made, Palmyra had reduced her quota 
to 40; Vincennes, to 36; Vigo, to 27; Harrison, to 22; Widner, 
to 27 } Decker, to 18, and Washington and Steen had filled theirs. 
Double the number of the above were drafts. 

The draft came off at the appointed time without serious 
trouble, but it was soon found that both the principals and the 
alternates were exhausted in Vincennes Township, and there was 
still a deficiency of eight men. Accordingly, on January 1, 1865, 
others were drawn to supply their place. 

Under the December call — the last call for 300,000 men — the 
quotas and credits were as follows: 

Enrollment. Quota. Credit. Surplus. 

Vincennes 858 90 103 12 

Steen 136 11 13 1 

Harrison 161 18 31 3 

Washington 161 18 19 1 

Widner 120 15 16 1 

Vigo 160 20 31 1 

Busseron 83 9 13 4 

Palmyra 67 30 31 1 

Decker 63 9 8 1* 

Johnson 71 16 17 1 




Soon after the opening of the war, Knox County became 
almost an entire camp of instruction. The school boys in many 
districts took up the martial spirit, and organized themselves into 
military companies to drill for pastime. Soldiers' aid societies 
were formed in every neighborhood. Of the county society Mrs. 
Caldwell was president ; Mrs. Hays, vice-president ; Mrs. Dr. Man- 
tle, treasurer, and Mrs. Culter, secretary. Nearly every lady in 
the county gave some luxury or delicacy to the soldiers, either as 
the thousands passed by on the trains or were encamped at Fort 
Knox, or boxes of supplies were sent to the field. Camp Knox 
was established as a camp of instruction and for recruits in July, 
1861. This was under command for a time of Gen. John A. 
Mann, and later under Col. George W. Gorman. The number of 
men there varied fi-om a mere squad to fifteen full companies. 
This was visited by thousands of persons. Ministers of the vari- 
ous denominations furnished spiritual aid; among those who 
preached there were Eevs. E. O'Flynn, Stallai-d and Hayes. 

soldiers' aid societies. 
According to the policy of Gov. Morton, Indiana soldiers were 
iDrought home for treatment and nursing. After the battle of 
Fort Donelson the Bishop of Vincennes tendered the use of the 
Catholic Seminary for the sick and wounded, and the assistance of 
the Sisters in caring for them. The city council of Vincennes, 
on the 26th of April, 1861, voted $3,000 in aid of the families of 
soldiers, but the commissioners failed to vote bounties to soldiers 
on the ground of inability of the people to stand further taxa- 
tion. The trustees, however, allowed to families from 40 to 75 
cents a week for each dependent individual of a soldier's fam- 
ily. The following exhibit, not including thousands given 
privately, will show the aid furnished by the county and by the 
township : 

Bounty. Relief. 

Knox County $132,750 $9,800 

Vigo 400 

Widner 800 500 

Busseron 960 275 

Washington 400 700 

Palmyra 250 


Vincennes 850 1,800 

Harrison ■•■• 220 

Johnson ■••■ 1^0 

Decker ■• • ■ ^^ 

Steen 800 225 

Vincennes (City) 850 940 

Totals 1137,410 |1.5,335 

Grand total 1153.745 


History of the County To-wn-s — Chifpecoke — Founding of Vin- 
cennes— Historical Objects of Interest— Character of the 
Early Inhabitants— Vincennes Made the Seat of Government- 
Additions— Incorporated Companies — Business Houses, Past 
AND Present— Incorporation and Officers- Secret Societies— 
Newspapers— Edwardsport— Monroe City — FEEELANDS^^LLE— 
BicKNELL — Bruceville — Oaktown — Sandborn — Wheatland— 
Deckerto WN — DicKSBURG— Richland— AVestphalia—Busseron— 

THE history of this to^vll, the "Heliopolis of the West," dates 
back into the past so far that history, neither sacred nor pro- 
fane, can measure the period by years. That there was a period 
when this place was the center of a busy and populous commun- 
ity, that here they toiled and struggled, and lived and died, 
cannot be questioned. The monuments, as enduring as time 
which they left, are pages upon which something was written of 
this very peculiar people, but the date was entirely omitted. 
Their origin, their fate, is a blank page; their peaceful habits, 
their busy life, their religious zeal, is judged firom the works they 
left; but further is wrapped in as much mystery and speculation 
as the great "Unknown." Following these Mound Builders came 
the race of "Fishermen," who left not here monuments of sacri- 
ficial altars overlooking the town, but near are extensive shell- 
heaps and bone-piles, where is found a slight index to their habits. 
That these people, whether the Mound Builders or the Fishermen, 
possessed intelligence, is evident from their selection of this place 
as a place of habitation and permanent residence, as was done 


later by the red men, and still later by the French and other Eu- 
ropean nations. After these Fishermen came the red men, for 
how long neither history nor tradition can tell, only this — when 
the white man came with the sword, the cross and fire-water, he 
found here a populous Indian village, Chip-pe-co-ke (Brush- 
wood), but this, too, soon passed away. The Fisherman are not 
spoken of here as a race, but that this place seems also to have 
been their central habitation. Evidences of these, a people en- 
tirely different from the others, are found in large areas of shell- 
heaps and bone-piles, where are intermingled sea-shells, fishes, 
bones of human beings and other animals. Vincennes seems to 
have been a favorite resort for both the Mound Builders and Fish- 
ermen, and appears to have been more a permanent place of hab- 
itation than is usual for nomadic races. After the departure of 
the Fishermen, or with their departure, came the red men. The 
interval between the Mound Builders and the Fishermen, or the 
Fishermen and the Indians, neither history nor tradition can tell, 
only this: When the white man came with tbe sword and the 
cross and fire-water, he found a village of some size called Chip- 
pe-co-ke, or by the whites it became Chip-pe-co-ke, the meaning 
being Brushwood. Brought in contact with what we call civil- 
ization, the red men soon passed away and left the Europeans 
masters of the field — first the French, then the continental Eng- 
lish, and afterward the American. The French are supposed to 
have made a permanent settlement here in 1702. 

From about 1664 to 1702 the Jesuit missionaries and French 
traders were pushing their way along lakes and rivers, and almost 
impenetrable forests. They soon opened routes from the great 
lakes to the Mississippi. The former were as zealous in the cause 
of souls for their Master and subjects for their king, as the latter 
were for barter with the savages. About the beginning of the last 
century the French monarch began the policy of pushing his set- 
tlements in North America along the great Mississippi basin, 
with a view of holding the same by means of a system of 
forts that were erected along the principal routes of travel. At 
the time above mentioned some French visited ^the Piankeshaw 
Indian village of Chip-pe-co-ke. Since the policy of the French 
was nearly always in a line of friendship and brotherhood with 


the Indian, they had little difficulty in gaining his confidence and 
friendship. The French colonial records of Quebec make 
mention of the river Ouabaehe (We-bo), a swiftly moving sum- 
mer cloud; also Kaskaskia, a post below St. Louis was known 
about the same date. For some cause it seems the Indians in 
passing to the lower countries, instead of going by way of the 
Wabash to its junction with the Ohio, usually took across the 
country of Illinois to St. Louis or Kaskaskia, thence down the 
Mississippi. From this cause the distinction between the Ohio 
and Wabash was for a long time unknown. 

Many authorities agree in making Vincennes a fort in the 
middle or early part of the last century. It is claimed that C. E. 
Juchereau, with about sixty French soldiers, was sent from Que- 
bec by authority of the governor of Canada or by the French 
king, to the old Piaukeshaw Indian village in the spring of 1702. 
Juchereau was a kind of military trader not uncommon at that 
time. Here he established a fort and here he remained till re- 
lieved by Pierre Leonardy in 1717, who remained as comman- 
dant till 1732. In the last named date Francis Morgan de Vin- 
senn(^ arrived and assumed the direction of authority. Morgan 
de Vinsenne had seen military service in Europe, having served 
in the regiment de Carrignan, or the regiment of Carrignan. He 
was both a military man and a zealous Catholic. In 1736 he was 
ordered by the French governor, D'Artagette, to join in a war of 
extermination against the Chickasaws and some kindi-ed tribes in 

His force was to act in conjunction with another body of men 
from New Orleans. By mistake the two forces did not succeed in 
acting in concert, when Vinsenn^ boldly attacked the Indians 
without his support and he and his companions were cut to pieces. 
He died exhorting his men to die true to their cause and their re- 
ligion. For his faith and gallantry he was sainted by the chui-ch, 
and what was before the Poste became Post St. Vincent or Au 
Poste du Vincenne, or about the middle of the present century 
became by a little change in orthography simply Vincennes. An- 
other proof offered for a very early date of settlement, made at 
Au Poste du Ouabaehe, is an act of sale made by Vinsennd and 
Madame Vinsenn^, daughter of Phillip Longprie, his father-in- 


law, dated January, 1735, and the will of Longprie of March 
10, 1735, in which among other things he orders 408 pounds of 
pork kept till the return of Vinsennd from the Ouabache, also the 
receipt of Vinsenne for 100 pistoles as a marriage dower. By- 
coming this near an easy sketch of the imagination reaches back 
to 1732. 

The date as early as 1710 to 1711 is fixed for the permanent 
settlement from the letter of Father Marest to Father Germon, 
dated Kaskaskia, November 9, 1712, in which he says the French 
have established a post^on the Wabash and want a priest, and that 
Father Mermet was sent to them. On April 8, 1772, " General 
Thomas Gage, commandant of his Majesty's (King George) 
forces in North America," sent an order stating that a great num- 
ber of persons had established themselves on the Ouabache where 
they led a wandering life, without government, without laws, in- 
terrupting free trade, destroying game, and causing infinite dis- 
turbance and considerable injury to the king ; and ordering those 
who had established themselves on the Ouabache, whether at St. 
Vincent or elsewhere, to quit the country instantly. In reply a 
letter was sent to Gen. Gage, signed by St. Marie and fifteen 
others, stating that they had a settlement of seventy years' stand- 
ing, and that they held their possession by sacred titles, and by 
the order and under the protection of " his most Christian Maj- 
esty." The nextcommander after Francis Morgan de Vinsenne was 
St. Ange who was relieved in 1766 by Lieut. Eanisey of the Forty- 
second Eegiment, who took possession of the place in the name of 
the king of Great Britain, according to the terms of the treaty of 
Paris in 1763. The tri-colored flag was hauled down and the 
cross of St. George erected in its place. Father Gibbault met 
Col. Clark at Kaskaskia, who explained to the Father the de- 
sire and aim of the Americans, and by Clark was sent on a mis- 
sion to test the feelings of the French inhabitants of Vincennes. 
They were assembled in the church and the object of Clark was 
explained, when the whole assembly arose en masse and took the 
oath of allegiance to the commonwealth of Virginia. This was 
in December, 1778, and for the first time the flag of the infant 
Republic floated over Vincennes. Capt. Helm was elected com- 
mandant of the post, but in a short time Gov. Hamilton arrived 


and retook the post again in the name of Great Britain. At the 
time of the recapture by Hamilton the garrison is said to have 
consisted only of Capt. Helm and one other man not named. 
In February, 1779, Col. Clarke, as fully told elsewhere, retook 
the place, since which time " the flag of the free " has ever been 
the emblem of mastery of the place. The early appearance 
of the village is variously described. Maj. Croghan, who 
arrived at Vinceunes June 15, 1765, says: "We came to 
the ' Ouabache,' where there was a village of eighty or ninety 
families of French settled upon the east bank of the river; a 
fine situation. The soil is fertile and grows wheat and finer to- 
bacco than Virginia or Maryland, The inhabitants are idle, lazy 
and indolent and are a parcel of renegades from Canada, and are 
much worse than Indians and seem to rejoice at our misfortunes, 
and were delighted at the sight of a little gold. At the same 
place is a village of the Piankeshaw Indians." 

Count Volney, who visited the place in 1796, says: "I arrived 
at Louisville, 350 miles from Gallipolis. Through the whole 
extent of country I saw only five infant villages and eight farms. 
Lewisville has about one hundred houses. I waited here eight 
hours for a caravan of five horsemen to carry us one hundred miles 
through a country so 'desart' as not to contain a single hut. 
After a journey of three days we arrived, August 2, 1796, at Vin- 
cennes on the Wabash. The eye is at first presented with an irregu- 
lar savannah eight miles in length and three in breadth, skirted by 
eternal forests and sprinkled with a few trees and an abundance 
of umbelliferous plants three or four feet high. Maize, tobacco, 
barley, wheat, squashes and some fruits grow in the fields around 
the village which contains about fifty houses, whose cheerful white 
relieves the eye after gazing upon the constant dark and green 
of the woods. The houses are placed along the left bank of 
the Wabash, which is about 200 feet wide, and falling so 
low as to be but a few feet wide below the 'scite' of the town. 
The bank is sloping toward the savannah which is a few feet low- 
er. Each house, as is customary in Canada, stands alone and is 
surrounded by a court and garden fenced with poles. I was 
delighted with the sight of peach trees loaded with fi-uit, but was 
sorry to see thorn apples, which are to be seen in all cultivated 


places from Gallipolis. Adjoining the village is a space inclosed 
by a ditch eight feet wide and sharpened stakes six feet high. 
This is called the fort and is a sufficient protection against the 
Indians. I had a letter of introduction to a principal man of the 
place, a Dutchman by birth, but who spoke good French. I was 
accommodated at his home in the kindest and most hospitable 
manner for ten days. 

"The day afier my arrival a court was held, to which I repaired 
to make my remarks on the scene. On entering I was surprised 
to observe the difference in the races of men. The first has a 
ruddy complexion, round face, and plump body, which indicates 
health and ease. This set we forcibly contrasted in strength with 
the emaciated form and meager and tawny visage of the other. I 
soon discovered that the former were settlers from the neighbor- 
ing States, whose lauds had been reclaimed for five or six years' 
standing in the district. The latter, with a few exceptions, knew 
nothing of English, while the former were almost as ignorant of 
the French. I had acquired in this country a sufficient knowledge 
of the English to converse with them, and was thus enabled to 
hear the tale of both. The French, in a querulous tone, recount- 
ed the losses and hardships they had suffered, especially since 
the Indian war in 1788. Before the peace of 1763, by which 
England obtained control of this territory and Spain Louisiana, 
they enjoyed tranquillity and happiness under the protection of 
Spain, in the heart of the wilderness, unmolested, sequestered, 
fifty leagues fi'om the nearest post on the Mississippi, without 
taxes, and in friendship with the Indians, they passed their lives 
in hunting and fishing, bartering in furs, and raising a little corn 
and a few esculents for their families. They probably number 300 
persons, and were fi-ee from all taxes, till they were visited in 
1788 by a detachment, which killed or drove away the greater 
part of their cattle, their chief source of wealth. They trade 
their land grants, 400 acres, to each family for 30 cents an acre, 
when it is worth $2, and this in goods at an exorbitant rate. 
They have nothing to live on except fruit, maize, and now and 
then a little game. They complain that they are cheated and 
robbed in the courts, in which there are five judges, who know 
little of the law, and three of them know nothing of the language. 


Their education was entirely neglected till the arrival of Abb R., 
a patriotic, well educated and liberal-minded man, who was exiled 
by the French Revolution. Out of nine of the French six only 
could read or write, while the English could do both. To my 
surprise they speak pretty good French, intermixed with some 
foreign phrases, mostly learned from the soldiers. 

"Notwithstanding I was at considerable trouble, I could not fix 
the settlement earlier than 1757, but by talk with old settlers it 
may have been as early as 1735. We must allow that they are a 
kind and hospitable set, but for idleness and ignorance they beat 
the Indians themselves. They know nothing at all of the arts or 
domestic affairs ; the women neither sew nor spin, nor make but- 
ter, but pass their time in gossip and tattle, while' at home all is 
dirt and disorder. The men do nothing but hunt, fish, wander 
about the woods or lie in the sun. They do not lay up stores for 
a rainy day as we do. They cannot cure pork or venison, or 
make sauer kraut, or spruce beer, or distil spirits from apples or 
rye, all necessary arts to the farmer. When they trade they try 
by extortion to make much out of little, and what they get they 
fool away in beads and baubles upon Indian girls, and spend their 
time in relating stories of insignificant personal adventures." 
Gen. Harrison, in his report to Congress, says it is nothing for the 
settlers to offer 1,000 acres of land for an insignificant horse or gun. 


Father Flaget, who arrived in Vincennes with Col. Clark, 
December 21, 1792, in speaking of the bad condition of the 
church, says the congregation was, if possible, in a more misera- 
ble condition than the church. " Out of nearly 700 souls, of 
whom it was composed, the minister could find but twelve to 
attend his spiritual duties, the inhabitants of Vincennes had lived 
so long among the Indians, with whom many had intermarried, 
that they had contracted many of their savage habits. Like them, 
they were erratic and improvident, living chiefly by the chase, and 
purchasing their clothing and other necessaries with peltries at 
the different trading posts." In a very humble petition to Con- 
gress in a letter dated Cahokia, May 16, 1790, Father Gibbault 
very humbly prays Congress to pay him the sum of 7,800 livres, 


$1,445, the amount of money he advanced Col. Clark to assist 
his men, and for which he was paid in Virginia paper dollars, 
which had never been redeemed, In consequence of his loss he 
was compelled to sell " two good slaves " who would have been the 
support of his old age. In reward for all his services Congress, 
on March 3, 1791, ordered, " That two lots of land, heretofore in 
the occupation of the priests of Cahokia, and situated near that 
village, be and the same is hereby granted in fee to P. Gibbault." 
It may be said in this connection that Col. Vigo received no bet- 
ter treatment, although he had become individually responsible 
for about $9,000. The first matter of recorded history taking 
place in the town was the record of the baptism of Marie Josette, 
daughter of Nicholas and Mary Clare Chaffard. She was bap- 
tized according to the rites of the Eoman Catholic Church July 
2, 1747. On June 25, 1749, was recorded the baptism of John 
Baptiste, son of Peter Liapichagane and Catherine McKieve — 
Francis Filatraux being godfather and Mary Mikitchenseire god- 
mother, and also there was recorded the marriage of Julien 
Trattier of Montreal, Canada, and Josette Marie, daughter of a 
Frenchman and an Indian woman, in April preceding, and in 
1750 is recorded the death of Madame Trattier and her burial in 
the church "under her pew on the Gospel side." There is a con- 
tinuous record of marriages, baptisms or burials kept by the 
priests or by Philibert dil Orleans, a notary public, who adminis- 
tered lay-baptism and recorded marriages during intervals when 
there were no priests. Previous to 1760 half of the records made 
were of " red or Indian slaves." The number of "red or Indian 
slaves " gradually grew less from that time, but did not cease till 
the beginning of what might properly be called the second period 
of its history, beginning with 1790. In 1781 there had been 
forty baptisms by Philibert, and in 1788 there had been fifty- 
three by Father Gibbault. From 1778 to the present the history of 
Vincennes is an open book. The following is claimed as the fii-st 
official land entry that has been preserved: 

" We Louis St. Ange, captain and commandant of the King 
at Port Vincennes, have granted to Marie Joseph Richard a cer- 
tain tract of land seven arpents front and forty arpents deep, sit- 
uate below the Little Rock, between two tracts not granted. The 


possession is granted in remembrance of the good services which 
he has rendered his Majesty in serving as Indian Interpreter of 
Monsieur Aubry. 

" Signed at the Post, the 17th of June, L759. 

" St. Ange." 
historical places. 

Perhaps two of the most historical places are the old church 
and Fort Sackville. The former stood not far from the present 
site of the cathedral. It is described as being built of logs placed 
on end in the ground of siifficient depth to stand, and the spaces 
between the logs chinked and daubed with mud and prairie grass. 
The building was about 40x60 feet, with a thatched roof. It is 
proven by the records to have been there in 1747 ; the Hon. O. F. 
Baker thinks it must have been there as early as 1732. From 
the fact that the French had held possession of the place from 
thirty years earlier than that date, and that there had been a 
priest called before 1712, and fi-om the well-known policy of the 
Catholics it would be no violent assumption to presume that it 
was built even earlier than the date fixed by Mr. Baker. In this 
knelt the pious priest, the early French settler, and his dusky com- 
panion, the Indian. Here too, Pierre Gibbault, in 1778, pictured 
the benefits of an alliance with the American cause, and adminis- 
tered the oath of that allegiance to the inhabitants. It was at 
"the church" that Col. Clark agreed to meet Mr. Hamilton to 
arrange terms of capitulation of Fort Sackville, on February 24, 
1779. This old church was soon after supplanted by a new one, 
as Father Gibbault in a letter to his^bishop, in May, 1785, says 
that a new log church had been built, 42x90 feet, and that the old 
church had been adapted for his use as a parsonage. This stood 
till 1828. The date of the erection of Fort Sackville is not known, 
and even its location is in doubt. Mr. A. B. McKee contends that 
old Fort Sackville stood between First Street and the bank of the 
Wabash, not far fi-om Buntin Street, and supports his theory on 
personal recollections, conversations with Col. Vigo, Capt. Robert 
Buntin, and the testimony of T. C. Buutin, Mary A. Lyons, E. G. 
Binford, H. Lasselle, Adeline Wolverton and Mary Bailey. 

Mr. O. F. Baker contends that the fort described by Mr. McKee 
was not Fort Sackville, but the fii'st Fort Knox, which was built in 


1793. Mr. Baker supports his theory by quoting documentary 
evidence — Bowman's journal, as given in Dillon's History of In- 
diana, and also Volney, as given in his description of Vincennes. 
It is claimed by the first party named that the fort as loented 
by the last named party was the second Fort Sackville, and that 
the first Fort Sackville was as described at first. AVhether the one 
or the other was Fort Sackville, the one stood not far from the 
river, near the foot of Buntin Street, and the other partly on the 
block on which the Laplante House now stands, and was about 
twenty or thirty yards from the river, with the south angle near 
the center of the square above mentioned, and the gate at the 
southeast corner of the fort. The fort is described as an irregular 
inclosure, being about sixty feet at the narrowest place and 200 
feet at the widest part, and containing from two to three acres. 
This was surrounded by a stockade from ten to twelve feet high, 
with block-houses at the corners or angles, as was usual in forts 
of that day. In the center was a block -house also, which served 
as quarters for the oificers, and underneath this was the magazine. 
On the river side were the barracks for the men. Small pieces 
of ordnance were at times in use for the defense of the fort and 
garrison. Fort Sackville was named in honor of Jean Sacque- 
ville, a French trader and soldier, who was employed by the 
Detroit French Fur Company. It is claimed to have been built 
as early as 1713. As the Piankeshaw Indians lived here and 
owned the land, it must have been built on ground obtained from 
them, possibly fi-om Tolac, their chief. A second fort was built 
in 1793, and owing to disturbances between the soldiers and citi- 
zens in 1807, this was abandoned, and Fort Knox, or the second 
Fort Knox, was built by order of Gen. Harrison. It was built 
from the walls of the old fort. 

It was from these walls that the flag blessed by Priest Gib- 
bault and made by Madame Goddare was unfurled to the beeeze. 
In 1778 it was over the gate that Capt. Helm stood at his gun 
when Gov. Hamilton with 400 men a few months after demanded 
the sui-render of the fort. The captain boldly demanded what 
terms would be granted; he was asked what he wanted and de- 
fiantly recalled, "The honors of war." Such was granted, and he 
and his companion surrendered. It was in front of the gate in the 


Main Street, says Maj. Bowman, that four Indians were toma- 
hawked and thrown into the river, these being the remnant of a 
scalping party of Indians who had been sm-prised and captured 
by Clark's men on their return to Vincennes, they not being 
aware of the change in masters of the place. It was from this 
fort that La Balm, in the fall of 1780, started with thirty men on 
his unfortunate filibustering expedition against Detroit. In 
1783 there was a total of 150 French families, and in addition 
eighty American families, all of whom are mentioned elsewhere. 


On Gen. Harrison's becoming governor of the Northwest 
Territory in ' 1800,' Vincennes became the seat of govern- 
ment for said Territory, and to that place Gen. Harrison moved, 
that he might exercise his gubernatorial duties. An abbreviated 
description of Vincennes as it appeared in 1805, is condensed 
from Hon. O. F. Baker's description of it: "St. Louis Street be- 
gan at the governor's plantation (Hart Sti-eet) and extended 
along the river down to Stony Ford, there to meet Market Sti-eet, 
which came down in an irregular, narrow way from Benjamin 
Keed's at the corner of St. Peter (Seventh) and Chapel (Church) 
Street. St. Jerome (Perry changed about the time of Perry's 
victory on Lake Erie) began at St. Loiiis and extended by the 
frame Indian trading house of the Lasselle Brothers, and ended 
where stood the tavern of Fred Graeter, marked by the residence 
of Capt. Mass. A short street led from the ferry, foot of Main, 
to the store of Col. Vigo, corner of Second and Busseron, 
and a similar street from Main to St. Peter's, or Broadway, 
by the stores of Bazadon; all else was open commons. 
The little village in 1805 contained sixty-two dwellings, one 
church, five stores, one saddle shop, two blacksmith shops, four 
taverns, one ox-mill, one wind-mill, one wheel-wi-ight. The pro- 
fessions were represented by three jihysicians and seven lawj-ers. 
The physicians were Drs. Kuykendall, McNamee and Samuel 
McKee. They were all men of note. The latter was a surgeon 
in the United States Army and died in 1809. The lawyers were 
Thomas Randolph, a near relative of President Jefferson; Benja- 
min Parke, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnson, John Rice Jones, 


John Johnson and Hemy Vanderburg. Nearly all of these men 
were closely identified with the civil business and military history 
of Vincennes for the first half of the present century. Coming 
down St. Louis Street, upon the right hand stood the residence 
of Judge Benjamin Parke, a frame cottage standing near the cen- 
ter of the grounds of John Wise. In this Capt. Zachary Taylor 
lived for a time, and here a daughter was born, who afterward be- 
came the wife of Jefferson Davis, President of the Southern Con- 
federacy. Few towns can boast of having been the home of two 
presidents, and the birth-place of the wife of a third. Upon each 
side of the street coming down St. Jerome, was the residence and 
wheelwright shop of John Blackford^ and three or four poteaux 
au terre, or French houses, described as composed of timber 
stood on end and the space filled with mud mixed with straw. At 
the corner of St. Jerome stood a little abode house in which 
' Nec-cau-bau,' or Hooded Nose, a Puan chief, used to live, if 
sleeping off a drunken stupor could be called life. Looking up 
St. Jerome Street, Lasselle's Indian trading house was indicated 
by a red flannel flag floating out in the street. Here were offered 
for sale blankets, knives, hatchets, flints, tomahawks, guns, beads, 
rings, broaches, bands, pots, pans, calico, flannel, salt, sugar and 
whisky. The three latter were in great demand among the In- 
dians. Sugar and whisky were sold to the negroes and Indians 
by measure, and by a custom well remembered by old settlers, 
the merchant was allowed to insert two fingers into the measure 
while filling for an Indian and three for a negro. At the head 
of St. Jerome Street stood Graeter's tavern, a two-story frame, 
with a long veranda in front ; on the outside hung a large triangle, 
from the sound of which the guests were summoned to their 

A Philadelphian who spent the summer of 1807 at this tav- 
ern, di'inking Madeira wine, in which Peruvian bark had been 
steeped, and eating bear meat, describes the bill of fare: "The 
bark was taken to ward off the ague, and the bear meat was the 
chief article of food." He says the thoughts of these sent a chill 
along his back and a bitter taste to his mouth. At the corner of 
St. Peter's and Second Streets were the stores of Laurient Baza- 
don. In his cellar or well, eighteen feet under ground, in the 


water, were stored many bottles of fine old wines, which the Span- 
ish filibusters of 1785, under John Rice Jones, conveyed into 
Sackville. Into this cellar a militia chief, in later years, was 
conveyed from general muster by his soldiers and left to snore ofp 
his potation, and was there kept a forgotten prisoner for two 
days. These houses were of hewed logs, two-stories high, the 
upper having port-holes for musketry, and projecting over the 
lower story after the manner of other block-houses, and were 
surrounded by pickets. There were also the houses of Col. 
Francis Yigo, which stood upon the lot now occupied by Green's 
Opera House. Back iipon St. Loiiis, upon the two squares be- 
friveen St. Jerome and St. Peter's, were three houses, one a two- 
story hewed-log house, painted red, another a long fi-ame and the 
third a poieaux an ierre. In. 1803 Capt. Walter Taylor's com- 
pany of rangers were quartered in these houses. The next upon. 
St. Peter's was the residence of John Rice Jones, built in 1794. 
Across the street was the mansion of Col. Vigo, a two-story frame, 
surrounded by a veranda, painted white, with green solid shut- 
ters. The builder of this house received twenty guineas for 
completing it in time for its hospitable owner to tender it to Gen. 
Harrison upon his arrival in 1801. The immense parlor which 
the General accepted, though he declined to occupy any other 
portion of the house, was paved with diamond-shaped blocks of 
black walnut alternated by ash. 

The remains of the elegaut parlor were burned in 1856. In 
the same block stood the two-story frame tavern of Peter Jones. 
Across the street, in a house pofeaux an ierre were the stores of 
George Wallace and Toussiant Dubois, and a little gun shop of 
John Small, the pioneer gunsmith of Vincennes. Adjoining the 
Jefferson House was the tannery and residence of Antoine Mar- 
chall and the fur house of Francis Bosseron, and across the 
street lived Jiidge Vanderburg. At the corner of Main and St. 
Louis was Thorn's saddle shop and Bruner's seed and dye house. 
Across St. Louis Street was Dunica's tavern, with a sign of a 
ferry-boat, and back of it was a part of Sackville, converted into 
a jail. Below Main was Barnet's tavern, at the sign of an Indian 
with bow and arrows. Then to the church was an open plain, 
upon which Fort Sackville stood, close to " Block House Square." 


On the corner of Main and Second was the old residence of An- 
toine Gamelin, the French noiaire, who held his commission from 
le (jrand monarch. The records of Gamelin and Pierre Quarez 
are still to be seen occasionally. 

At the corner of Third and Busseron stood the fi-ame cottage 
residence of Antoine Drouet de Eichardville, who was of royal 
descent, and some of whose descendants still live in the county. 
Near were the residences of John Johnson and Homer Johnson. 
Grouped about the church were the mud and straw-thatched cot- 
tages of the old French settlers. In the house on the south cor- 
ner of Broadway was the place of the meeting of the first Terri- 
torial Legislature in 1801. A little later, 1809, on the corner of 
Fchirth and Buntin, stood the first court house, and on the sepa- 
ration of Illinois Territory from Indiana, Vinceunes was made 
the dividing line, and that being so indefinite, the old court house, 
by common consent, was made the position of that line. At what 
was then the head of St. Louis Street was the mansion and plan- 
tation of Gov. W. H. Harrison. This house is of brick, and is 
in a good state of preservation, although it was begun in 1805 
and completed in 1806. It is said to have been the first house of 
burnt brick west of Chillicothe, or some say Pittsburgh. The 
doors, sash, mantels and stairs were made at the former place, 
but the brick were not shipped from Pittsburgh, as they were 
made a few miles east of town. The style, architecture and finish 
are creditable to this day. A considerable crack was made in 
the walls of thisi building in March, 1811, during a terrible earth- 
quake that occurred. Here Gov. Harbison entertained his 
numerous guests in royal style. It was here that Capt. Miller, 
who became famous at Lundy's Lane by " PU try, sir," was a 
guest at the time of the earthquake. Around the mansion, among 
the elms, catalfas, secret and stately oaks, were the servants' halls 
and quarters. 

Where nature had not furnished trees sufficient, the same had 
been supplied by artificial means. Beneath the family room was 
a powder magazine. It is said the General was determined, rather 
than fall into the hands of the savages, that he and his family 
would be blown into eternity by this means. These trees, lands 
and surroundings constituted "my plantation of Grouseland." 


This was the famous treaty ground between Harrison and the 
various Indian tribes of the Wabash. It was here that Harrison 
held his celebrated conference with the great Shawnee chief, 
Tecumseh, who when invited into the house threw himself upon 
the ground and exclaimed: "The sun is my father, the earth is 
my mother, and on her bosom will I repose." Whether the 
actual language' of the stern chief, it but illustrates his character; 
it was during a conference here that came so near resulting in a 
fearful tragedy. The haughty chief boldly told the Governor that 
he lied. The interpreter tried to soften the language some, when 
Tecumseh said, " No, tell him he lies." A dozen tomahawks were 
raised. Harrison and his few guards stood motionless, but ready. 
Capt. Parke's company of volunteer dragoons were drawn f^p 
some distance away, but not close enough to have saved the gov- 
ernor and his men, besides they were far inferior in number to 
the Indians. Cooler judgment at last prevailed, and the tragedy 
was averted. J. Scott Harrison, a son of the General, who was 
then a little boy, says that the Eev. Winans was standing in his 
father's doorway with gun ready for the fray. He further says 
that Winnemac, a friendly Pottawattomie chief, was near himself 
and only a short distance from Tecumseh, with bis eyes fii'mly 
fixed upon the chief and his hands upon his weapon, from whom 
he afterward learned that he intended to dispatch Tecumseh 
shoidd a blow be struck. 

The first theater was built at the corner of St. Louis and St. 
Peter's Streets by John Eice Jones. The fii-st company to play 
in this was in 1807, at which time Kobert M. Douglass was 
drowned while bathing in the river opposite Peter Jones' tavern, 
in company with some soldiers of the garrison. A strange coin- 
cidence of the occurrence was that the play for the evening was 
the one entitled " Drowning men catch at straws." In the same 
building Mr. McGowan taught school; he also sold meat, good 
beef, "to the citizens — Indians and negroes excepted." Vin- 
cennes, in the year 1806, gave entertainment and grace to that 
wonderful genius but unscrupulous character, Aaron Burr. Here 
he collected a body of men; here he received financial aid and 
encoui-agement from many leading citizens. It is doubtless due 
their credit to say that they were deceived as to the true import 


of his designs, as was the unfortunate Blennerhassett. The expe- 
dition fi-om this place, unlike Blennerhassett, never sailed, and 
Theodosia never became queen. An incident of 1813 was the 
duel between Parmenus Beckes, sheriff of Knox County, and 
Dr. Scull, who had been surgeon in Harrison's army of Tippe- 
canoe, in which pistols were used with fatal effect. The diffi- 
culty grew out of a social scandal. The duel was fought just 
across the river on the Illinois side, not far from the foot of a 
bridge. In the affray Beckes was killed. The scenes in a little 
over half a century have greatly changed. The old ox tread-mill 
and the wind-mill have given place to large steam flouring-mills 
that have a capacity of more than 1,000,000 bushels annually. 
The old common lands, covered with prairie grass, on which fed 
the ponies and stunted cattle, have given way to vast cultivated 
fields of timothy, clover, and other grasses and grains, on which 
are fed the finest blooded stock. The little old French cart, made 
entirely of wood, with its rawhide tire, its sleepy pony and unam- 
bitious driver, his cart loaded with a few sticks of wood, all these 
have given place to the well-fed horse of civilization, the elegant 
pleasure carriage, with its proud driver, or the grain wagon of 
the prosperous farmer, driving his ample supply of grain to 

Squaws, bearing deerskin sacks of corn or honey, are no 
longer seen, but the market basket or the delivery wagon in its 
stead. "While the stupid, drunken savage may not be seen, the 
di-unkenness of civilization still remains. And other things have 
changed. Notwithstanding" the ordinance of 1787, and the State 
constitution of 181(3, slavery existed here till about 1840. In 1808 
there were 123 slaves, and the census of the town of 1830 showed 
a slave population of twelve males and twenty females. When 
Harrison was governor he had quite a retinue of slaves about 
him. In files of the Sun, from 1808 to 1820, numerous adver- 
tisements of runaway slaves are seen. On the records are to be 
seen many contracts between indentured slaves and their masters. 
These were for some real or fancied debt, the consideration often 
being of a very trivial amount, but the term of service usually 
covered the entire term of the period of active life of the in- 
dentured slave ; in other words, it was slavery legalized under the 


As is well known the early French settlers intermarried in- 
discriminately with the Indians. Thence sprang a race of Creoles, 
whose descendants are scattered over the country, using the 
French language exclusively. The generation now growing up 
learn the English, but the older ones cling steadfastly to the 
French. The old two- wheeled carts, " caleches," made without 
the use of metal, were common as late as 1840. Even at that 
period, the creole population outnumbered the other, and con- 
trolled elections. They clung tenaciously to their old habits of 
unrestrained freedom in hunting, fishing, dancing, and raising a 
little corn and a few esculents. Since 1840 the city has been 
making much more rapid growth. 


The first ordinances for the government of Vincennes were 
passed in 1805, approved in 1807, and published in the Sim in 
1809. The act incorporating the place did not pass until Sep- 
tember 6, 1814, and was approved by the Territorial Legislature 
February 2, 1815. It embraced all the lands from the planta- 
tion of Gen. W. H. Harrison on the northeast to the church lands 
on the southwest, and from the Kiver St. Jerome (Wabash) to 
the commons, to be under the name and style of " the Borough of 
Vincennes." All freeholders and householders were allowed to 
vote for town trustees, and these were to choose their own chair- 
man and clerk. Ground for a market-house was purchased, and 
the town divided into three wards. In 1818 the commons lands 
(5,400 acres) were given to the town trustees for the purpose of 
draining the swamps and otherwise improving the town. This 
was divided into 200 five-acre lots, 100 ten-acre lots, and the 
remainder into twenty-acre lots. Bids for the survey of the town 
were advertised in the Western Sun, Indiana Herald, Louisville 
Journal and Western Sjjy. The contract for the survey was re- 
ceived by Homer Johnson and Samuel Emison. 

In 1819 the trustees were ordered to provide sis fii-e-hooks and 
six ladders thirty feet long; also, every family was ordered to 
provide itself -vvith two two-gallon leathern buckets, and when 
they had but one chimney, one two-gallon leathern bucket. Ordi- 
nances were now ordered printed in the Sun and Public Advertiser. 


The market master was ordered to enclose the market house by 
fence "made of scantling, with turn-stile at each corner;" to open 
the market on market-day at daylight, and close at 9 o'clock, and 
to announce the opening by the "blowing of a horn," to keep 
order, seal every weight and inspect the meat. In 1830 the fol- 
lowing board of health was appointed for the town : Drs. Wolver- 
tou, Somes and Davidson. An amendment was made to the charter 
of Vincennes on January 27, 1831 ; it was thereafter to be known 
by the name of the president and trustees of the borough of Vin- 
cennes. An act for granting a city charter also passed the General 
Assembly in 1831, and was submitted to a vote of the people on 
Saturday, June 4, 1831. The election board consisted of R. P. 
Price, judge ; John B. Martin and Joseph Roseman, clerks. There 
were but twenty-three votes " for" and twenty votes " against" the 
charter. The vote was not considered legal, and the city charter was 
not granted until the act of June 10, 1852. The same act was 
amended January 20, 1855. The remaining portion of the com- 
mons lands passed into the control of the city council in January, 

Harrison's Addition was made to the "Borough of Vincennes, 
Indiana Territory," in November, 1816. This was the first, and was 
surveyed by Robert Buntin. The following have been made since : 
G. W. Cochran's Addition to borough, August 20, 1853; McCord& 
Smith's Addition, May 26, 1858 ; W. W. Hilt, ten lots, March 10, 
1858 ; J. G. Bowman's Addition, July 27, 1858 ; W. M. Hitt's Addi- 
tion, March, 1860; Mantle & Noble's Addition, July 16, 1859; Wat- 
son & Noble's Addition, 1859; J. W. Hinkle's Addition, July 10, 
1863; C.W. Allen's Addition (upper survey), Feb. 12, 1866; Sam- 
uel Judah's Addition, September 25, 1866; McCord & Bayard's 
Addition, January 31, 1861; N. F. Malott's Addition, May 25, 
1868 ; Peck's Addition (Upper Prairie), February 28, 1874; Mass 
& Watson's Addition, December, 1870; R. B. Jessup's Addition, 
April 23, 1875; William Richardville's Addition, June 29, 1876; 
A. B. Daniels' subdivision lots. May 27, 1872; Ellen Hilt's Addi- 
tion, August 13, 1877 ; Charles Connoyer's Addition, September 
6, 1879; Bishop Chatard's Addition (Lower Prairie), February 
14, 1879; Government Subdivision, June 21, 1881; Frederick 
Bultman's Addition, January 3, 1882; Chatard's Subdivision of 
College Ground, August 28, 1884. 



A branch of the old Indiana Bank was established at Vincennes 
in 1817, of which Nathaniel Ewing was one of the principal di- 
rectors. After its failure in 1823-24, there was established a 
Stat6 Bank in 1834, and in 1853 the bank of the State. It is 
now the Vincennes Bank, and was established in 1865. Its cap- 
ital is $100,000, with $80,000 surplus. Its officers are W. M. 
Tyler, president, and H. A. Foulks, cashier. The First National 
Bank was established in 1874, with a capital stock of $100,000. 
The officers are J. H. Rabb, president, and J. L. Bayard, cashier. 

The fii-st gas light company was incorporated September 19, 
1859, by Charles P. McGrady, W. H. H. Terrell and associates, 
under the name of Vincennes Gas Light Company, charter to 
run twenty years. This proving inadequate for the growing city, 
the Citizens' Gas Light Company was incorporated January 20, 
1876. The following were the stockholders: L. L. Watson, M. D. 
Lacroix, J. PoUox, Laz. Noble, W. H. DeWolf, H. A. Foulks and 
G. G. Biley. The capital stock was put at 440 shares of $50 
each, with privilege of increasing to $75,000. The capital stock 
now stands at $50,000. The officers axe J. Eabb, president, and 
George G. Eamsdell, secretary and treasurer. The office is 16 
Second street. In 1881 their capacity for manufacturing gas was 
increased from 12,000,000 cubic feet to over 30,000,000 feet an- 
nually. They have seven miles of mains and consume 1,200 tons 
of coal. 

The Building and Saving Association, No. 1, was incorporated 
August 9, 1879, with a capital stock of $100,000 in shares of $100 
each. Old Post Building and Loan was incorporated January 7, 
1880, also with a capital stock of $100,000, in shares of $100 
each. The Knox Building and Loan Association was incorporated 
in 1883, with a capital stock of $500,000. Incalculable has been 
the benefit from these associations in building up the city. Noth- 
ing short of a detailed history would do them justice. 

The Vincennes Draw-bridge Company was incorporated Octo- 
ber 13, 1869, with a capital stock of $40,000 in shares of $50 
each; The company was allowed the privilege of increasing 
its stock to $75,000. In 1875 the city took $20,000 of this 
stock, and in 1877 increased its stock by. $25,000 additional. In 


1843 the Wabash Navigation Company was organized for the pur- 
pose of improving the navigation of the "Wabash so as to admit 
large steamers fi-om New Orleans. The undertaking was only 
partially successful. 

The Vincennes Coal Mining Company. was organized and in- 
corporated December 17, 1872, by J. K Mantle, A. Patton, J. H. 
Shepard, George Harris and H. A. Foulks ; capital stock, $100,000. 
The mines operated are at Edwardsport. 

The Spring Lake Ice Company was incorporated in 1882 with 
a capital stock of $30,000. This company does a prosperous busi- 
ness. N. F. Dalton is its president. 

The Yincennes Colorific Brick and Tile Company was incorpor- 
ated by F. Clark, J. E. Mantle, S. P. Euble, and T. Doyson. 
This has a capacity of 20,000 brick per day, and a vast quantity 
of tile. The quantity of brick manufactured at the three yards 
amounts to about 3,000,000 annually. 


The charter for the street railway was granted October 24, 
1881, to Charles Graeter, Frederick Graeter, their associates, suc- 
cessors or assigns, to organize themselves into a body corporate 
and politic under the laws of Indiana, under the name and style 
of the Vincennes Citizens' Street Railway Company. The char- 
ter calls for the route now taken, and requires the completion of 
the same within two years from date of charter, with the privilege 
of extending the same. It restricts the fare to 5 cents each way, 
and requires the running of cars every twenty minutes between 
the hours of 6 A. M. and 10 P. M. The capital stock is $15,000. 
Frederick Graeter is president of the company, and G. W. 
Graeter is secretary and superintendent. 


A vote was taken on the question of water works on July 25, 
1885, and the privilege of building the same passed the city 
council July 13, 1885. It was granted Samuel E. Bullock, "Will- 
iam S. Mercer, their associates, successors and assigns. The 
privilege was granted for twenty years, the city to pay an annual 
rental of $5,000, payable in quarterly installments, with legal rate 
of interest on deferred payments unless the city purchase the work 


On August 6, 1817, the great flouring-mill of Ewing, Hay, 
Parke & Co. was begun. A quantity of land twenty arpents front 
and forty arpents deep was purchased in the Upper Prairie surrey 
on which to erect the mill. The mill was both a saw and grist- 
mill, and was to have four saws to be driven by 200 horse-power 
engines, and capable of making 200 barrels of flour per day. The 
company issued bills of credit similar to bank notes, some of 
which are to be seen yet 'occasionally bearing the signatures of N. 
Ewing, J. D. Hay, W. Felton, C. Small, and Benjamin Parke. 
The enterprise proved rather disastrous to most of the stockhold- 


The principal business and professional men between 1810 and 
1840 were Peter Jones, John D. Hay, Samuel Hays, G. E. C. 
Sullivan, Elihu McNamee, Elkana Babbitt, Hem-y C. Mills, Will- 
iam Mieure, M. Brouillette, Samuel Thome, Frederick Watson, 
George Davis, M. Jones, Christian Graeter, Tomlinson & Eose, 
John E. Kiutz, H. D. Wheeler, Bui-tch & Heberd, J. & S. Wise, 
Smith & Carson, Eose & Harper, B. Shelmeire & Co., Francis 
Bayard, William G. Foulks, Brouillette & Vanderburg, M. Crom- 
alin, J. & W. Hay, William Lindsey, Samuel Brunner, David L. 
Brunner, C. Clark, Eose & Ewing, Thorn & Tracy, L. C. Lang- 
ton, G. Cruikshank & Co., Philander Fellows, Clark & Brown, 
Fifield & Bordalin, Wheeler & Bailey, Eobert Smith & Co., J. G. 
Crow, and J. W. Moore. Between 1850 and 1860 there were 
druggists, A. \V". Morris, Luck & Lauder; dry goods, Adam 
Gimbel, Worman & Koster, A. J. Wise & Co., M. D. Lacroix & 
Brother, Charles Graeter, M. L. Edson, John Caldwell, William 
Hays, J. W. Maddox, and Theodore Husselage; clothiers, Isaac 
Joseph, John H. Massey, and Moses Gimbel; grocers, J. B. 
Laplante & Brother, C. A. Wessert, Frederick Graeter, Garret 
Eeiter, L. B. Smith, James T. Cox, W. & E. Owens; attorneys, 
Allen, Usher & Palmer, Cauthorn & Wise, J. W. Booth, E. M. 
Curran, A. T. Ellis, Judah & Denny, W. A. Jones, John Law, 
and John Baker ; physicians. Dr. Batz, Hiram Decker, H. - M. 
Smith, J. E. Mantle, E. S. Coe, E. B. Jessup, W. W. & W. M. 
Hitt, J. S. Sawyer, and Joseph Somes ; fm'uitui'e dealers, Curry & 
Coons, Gardner & Sons; boots and shoes, Hoi-sting, and Henry 


Sweet; manufacturer of blankets, etc., H. D. Wheeler; stoves, N. 
Smith & Sons, Wilkins & Robinson; harness, saddles, etc., 
Pashia, Orr & Co., Thing & Potter, W. J. Heberd & Sons, and P. 
E. Bishop; clocks, jewelry, etc., "William Stalz; merchant tailor, 
H. P. Brokaw. 


Busi7iess of the Fifties. — Dry goods — W. J. Heberd & Son, 
J. B. La Plante (general store), B. Kuhn, J. S. Sawyer, A. Gim- 
bel, J. W. Maddox, L. Gimbel, E. Koster, Decker & Chadwick 
W. E. Brenne & Co., and Cass Graeter. Clothing — I. Joseph, B. 
Kuhn (wholesale and retail), Moses Gimbel, Frank Soudrilet, 
and H. T. Eoseman. Groceries — Henry Haeussey, J. S. Sawyer, 
Decker & Chadwick, W. E. Brenne & Co. (wholesale and retail) 
and J. T. Cox. Boots and shoes — D. H. Johnson, Frank Horst- 
ing and George Kerchoff & Co. Books and stationery — Harry 
Mason & Co. Artist — J. P. Elliott. Furniture — Joel Gresh. 
Wagons — J. E. Bishop and John Collins. Agricultural im- 
plements — S. W. Adams and William Bui-tch. Livery Stable — 
Emison & Green. Dentist — J. Flager. Physicians — Dr. J. E. 
Mandel, E. P. Jessup, J. S. Somes, Dr. Picquet and Hiram 
Decker. Attorneys — John Law, William Denny, John Baker 
and A. T. Ellis. 

Business of the Sixties. — Dry goods — J. W. Maddox, J. S. 
Sawyer (dry goods and groceries), James Gardner, A. Gimbel and 
P. Kuhn & Co. Grocers and produce dealers — M. D. Lacroix, 
John A. Louis, J. T. Eoseman, J. S. Sawyer, C. A. Weisert, 
Eethin & Bro., W. E. Meek and Fitzgerald & Denny. Clothiers 
and merchant tailors — H. P. Brokaw, William Huey and I. Jo- 
seph & Co. Bookstores — J. H. Shepard & Co., Will Watson 
and E. B. Eamsdell. Hardware — John H. Clark and N. Smith 
<fe Sons (also tinware). Artist — O. Thayer. Woolen factory — 
H. D. Wheeler. 

Business of the Last Decade and tlie Present. — Groceries — E. 
Bierhaus & Son (wholesale), A. Gimbel (wholesale), L. B. 
Smith (wholesale) ; other wholesale and retail or retail alone 
are: J. D. Lacroix, Moore & Harns, F. Twietmeyer, Wickel & 
Harter, J. Hall, Hall & Bro. William Busse, Samuel Morgen- 
stern, John Bui-ke, J. W. Cassell, John Farman, H. J. Hellert, 



J. H. Schultze, H. Shaffer, F. W. Eitterskamp, Vickery & Allen, 
E. Osweiller, John Hurmbolt, C. W. Schultz, John Hoffman, Be- 
mas & Becker, C. P. Porter & Bro., Lute Wile, J. C. Hautge, 
La Plante & Bro. and B. Knirihm. Dry goods — B. Kuhn & Co., 
A. Gimbel & Son, G. Weinstin & Co., L. A. Wise & Co., L Jo- 
seph & Son, E. Baker and M. Eiudskopp. ■' Clothing — H. Willough- 
by & Son, J. W. Leuenthal & Co., S. Blum & Co. (clothing and 
dry goods), B. Kuhn & Co., Isaac Gimbel, L H. Liebshutz and J. 
C. Conne (clothing and boots and shoes). Jewelers — J. & H. Tin- 
doph, Perry Tindoph, C. C. Azbell and Fred Harsch. Drug- 
gists — C. A. Smith, Charles S. Miller, Padget & Lee, Moore & 
Harris, H. J. Watjen, W. A. Markee, Hannah Reel, H. Duester- 
burg, Ed Busse and Theodore Bauer. Books and stationery — 
E. B. Ramsdell, William Davidson and F. Tieverman. Merchant 
tailors — J. Bernstein and M. Hogan. Photographers — J. Dunn, 
E. D. Conoyer, W. H. Grover, W. J. Eawlings and Eugene Popf. 
Furnishing goods — J. A. Breivogel. Notion store — V. Schoen- 
field. Bakers and confectioners — Joe Ohnemus, H. F. Thuis, 
Charles Hagemeir, A. B. Johnson, Joe Woodman, M. Harde- 
metz and E. Schoenfield. Livery stables — Fred Graeter, Myer & 
Tewalt and William Green. Paper hangers — Dawson & Bro., 
Frank Weisert and E. J. Loten. Marble works — Salyards & 
Burns, A. Schoenebaum and John Hartigan. Milliners and 
dress-makers — G. R. Harvey, J. J. Anderson, Misses Stalder & 
Jarrow, R. M. Glass, Mrs. E. Openheim, Mrs. Frank Eichey, 
Mrs. J. E. Eberwine, Mrs. J. E. Smith (hair dresser), Mrs. 
George Getchey, Miss L. Ostenhage, Mrs. Proctor and Mrs. M. 
Terhart. Grist-mills— J. & S. Emison, J. Rollick & Co., Bath 
Mills and Atlas Mills. Poultry, butter and eggs — J. E. Sullivan 
and C. R. Durham. Sewing machines — J. S. Thorn. Molding 
and fancy wood-work — J. P. Curry. Newspapers — Commercial, 
T. C. Adams; Vincennes Sun, Royal E. Purcell; Vincennes News, 
W. W. Bailey & Bro. Job office—A. V. Croth. Boot and shoe 
dealers — W. J. Nicholson, A. Kapps, George Klein, C. H. Blase 
and C. J. Lipe. Boot and shoe-makers — L. Moyes, J. P. Ed- 
wards. F. W. Weichel, J. E. Hartman, S. P. Brenn, J. S. Kitch- 
ell, C. Herdeni-eich, C. F. Shultz, C. Lane and H. Blome. Plan- 
ing-mills and lumber yards — Burnett & Eastham, Glover & Co., 


J. K. Plummer, Spiegle & Gardner and Barrett & Son. Stoves 
and tinware — N. Smith & Son, H. H. Dubois, P. R. McCarthy & 
Bro. and John Watson. Furniture and undertaking — S. R. Jack- 
man, Gardner & Son and Peter Ivey. Tobacco — George Fen- 
di-ich, Joseph Smidt, Werker & Hanger and Emil H. Bringham. 
Hides, leather, etc. — Fred Miller, William Baker and John 
Schwartz. Saddles and harness — B. Page, Jr., J. T. Orr and 
Frank A. Thuis. Hardware, agricultural implements and seeds — 
M. Tyler, Son & Co., Heberd & Miller, George C. Cross, William 
Heberd & Co., C. H. Debolt & Co. and H. H. Hackman (hard- 
ware and guns). Queensware — George Harris. Hats and caps — 
Ed Breivogel and G. E. Spitz. Gas fitting — Vincennes Steam 
Heating Co. Gun works — P. Elure. Machine shops — J. F. 
Sechler & Co. Meat markets — O'Donnell & Son, C. Hoffman, 
John Ulmer, A. Marone, Peter Mallet and J. K. Green. Bar- 
bers — Frank Wilson, Horace Graves, Union Depot shop, Andy 
Hill, Emil Gebhart, J. S. Marvin, Thomas Posey, Frank Kreck, 
Brenner & Bro. and William Perry. Coal and wood — Retters- 
kamp & Fuller. Hotels — La Plante House, J. H. Cockran ; Un- 
ion Depot Hotel, Mass & Watson, and Lahr House. Boarding 
houses and restaiirants — Sixth Ward House, Avenue Hotel, Illi- 
nois House, St. John's Hotel, Metropolitan Restaurant, Waller's 
Restaurant and H. M. Townsley's Restaurant. 

Professions. — Dentists — D. J. Phillips, J. B. Jerard and W. 
H. Henderson. Physicians, Smith & Harris, F. W. & S. C. 
Beard, Dr. Bright, Dr. Harris, E. P. Busse, Dr. Randolph, Dr. 
E. Boyer, W. H. Medcalf, S. C. Warren, Dr. Bever, W. H. Be- 
dell, J. A. Swartzel and W. H. Davenport. Attorneys — N. F. 
Malott, Niblack & Viehe, O. F. Baker, S. W. Williams, J. 8. 
Pritchett, J. Keith, Robinson & Johnson, Cobb & Cobb, Wilhelm 
CuUop, Shaw & Ressinger, J. P. L. Weems, B. M. Willoughby, 
Chambers & DeWolf and Cauthorn & Boyle. 


There are the saw-mills, manufacturing over 3,000,000 feet of 
lumber, and there are handled at the various yards over 11,000,000 
feet annually. Four large flouring-mills consume 1,000,000 
bushels of wheat, and handle in addition a vast quantity of corn. 


The two foundries, one built in 1861, and the other in 1880, give 
employment to a large number of men. The Vincennes Butler 
dish factory has a capacity of 200,000 dishes per day. The cradle 
and snath factory turn out about 3,000 cradles and snaths per 
year. The Eagle Brewery was built about 1860, by John Ebner. 
It had a capacity of 4,000 barrels per annum, but has since been 
increased to 18,000. The product of this brewery is shipped over 
a circuit of 100 miles around Vincennes. The pork packing es- 
tablishment of Bierhaus & Son pack from 12,000 to 20,000 hogs 
per annum. The following figures are furnished by the board of 
trade: The railroads forming a junction at Vincennes employ 
enough men for their pay-roll to amount to $31,000 per month. 
The repair shops of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad were located 
at Vincennes in 1862. The number of men employed at that 
time was about forty. In 1865 the number had increased to 
fifty -two. In 1883 the number of men employed amounted to 160, 
with a monthly pay-roll of |7,000. Fifty-two engineers, under 
the supervision of the master mechanic, reside here, and di-aw a 
monthly salary of $7,800; the same number of firemen draw 
$3,900, making the pay for mechanics $18,700. About forty 
conductors and eighty brakemen reside here, the former at a 
salary of $3,200, and the latter about the same. The shops have 
been largely increased within the last few years. Diiring the 
year 1882, 1,345,803 bushels of wheat were shipped from this 
point, requiring 3,315 cars to transport it. There were in all 
15,338 car loads of freight sent out, amounting to 192,000 tons, 
and there were received 20,037 cars, or 250,462 tons of freight. 
This does not include the merchandise shipped by river. 


Chcurme7i—Fved Graeter, 1815-17; Robert Buntin, 1817-18; 
A. Patterson, 1818-19; Robert Buntin, 1819-20; John Moore, 
1820-23 (OAven Reiley, 2^ro iem., in 1823) ; John Collins, 1823- 
26; G. W. Johnson, 1826-28; J. S. C. Harrison, 1828-37; Abner 
T.Ellis, 1837-56; John Myers, 1856-57; James Dick, 1857-59; 
W. A. Jones, 1859-60; R. M. Kennedy, 1860-62; H. V. Somes, 
1863-67; G. E. Green, 1867-69; W. B. Robinson, 1869-73; J. S. 
Pritchett, 1873-74 (Anton Kaff, jjro tew., 1873); W. H. Beeson, 


1874-77; W. B. Searight, 1877-83; J. H. Thuis, 1883-85; John 
Wilhelm, 1885-86. 

City Clerks— B. I. Harrison, 1816-17 ; G. E. C. Sullivan, 1818- 
23; E. Stout, 1823-33; Martin Robinson, 1833-37; Samuel Hill, 
1837-56; A. Montgomery, 1856-60; G. C. Mathesie, 1860-1)9; 
G. S. Turney, 1869-75; Emil Grill, 1875-79; C. Oripps, 1879- 
83; C. M. Allen, 1883-86, incumbent. 


Vincennes Lodge, No. 1, F. & A. M., was chartered by 
the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, September 1, 1808, and 
was organized March 13, 1809. This was the first lodge 
in Indiana Territory and the fifteenth of Kentucky. Agree- 
ably to the dispensation of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 
this lodge met, and was organized as follows: Present — Jona- 
than Taylor, of Abraham Lodge, No. 8; William Jones; Gen. 
Washington Johnson, late of Abraham Lodge; John Caldwell, 
M. M., late of Union Lodge, No. 92; Charles Fisher, M. M., late 
of Brownsville Lodge, No. 60; John Gibson, F. C, of Lancaster 
Lodge, and Henry Vanderburg, Army Traveling Lodge, New 
York. The officers were installed as follows by Jonathan Taylor: 
William Jones, W. M, ; Gen. W. Johnson, J. W. The lodge be- 
ing only temporarily organized they met March 14 with the fol- 
lowing result: William Jones, W. M. ; Gen. W. Johnson, J. W. ; 
John Caldwell, S. W., p?-o. tern.; Henry Vanderburg, Treasurer, 
pro. tern. ; Charles Fisher, Secretary and Tyler, pj'O. tern. ; John 
Gibson, F. C. ; visiting brother, Jonathan Taylor, P. M., of Abra- 
ham Lodge, No. 8. It was determined to adopt the by-laws of 
Abraham Lodge for the present. After conferring the degree of 
M. M. upon John Gibson the lodge adjourned. At the meet- 
ing, March 17, 1809, the degree of E. A. was conferred on Par- 
menas Beckes, William Prince, Hezekiah Bradley and John 
D. Hay ; also the degrees of F. C. and M. M. upon William 
Prince and Parmenas Beckes. On March 18 Peter Jones, 
Thomas Baudolph, John D. Hay and Hezekiah Bradley were 
made F. Cs. On April 3 Joshua Bond and Charles Smith were 
made E. As., and April 12 Thomas Randolph became an F. C. 
The following is the order of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, in- 


eluding the lodge in Vincennes: To all io whom ihese prescnis 
shall come, greeling: Whereas it hath been been duly represent- 
ed to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, that iu Vinc^nes, in the 
county of Knox and Territory of Indiana, there reside a number 
of brethren of the most ancient and honorable society of Free and 
Accepted Masons, who are desirous of being formed into a regular 
lodge; therefore know ye that we, John Allen, Grand Master 
Mason in the State of Kentucky, by and with the consent of 
Grand Lodge, do hereby constitute and appoint our triisty and 
well beloved brethren, George Wallace, M. ; William Jones, S. W. ; 
Gen. W. Johnson, J. W. ; together, with all such other true and 
lawful brethren as may be admitted to associate with them, to as- 
semble and work as a regularly constituted lodge of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons in the county of Knox and Territory of Indiana 
aforesaid by the name and title and designation of Vincennes Lodge, 
No. 1 5, hereby requiring and enjoining all regular lodges to hold, ac- 
knowledge and respect them as such, and we do hereby grant and 
covenant to the Master Wardens and brethren aforesaid, full power 
and authority to perform all works of the craft agreeably to the 
ancient customs and usages of Freemasons." 

December 2, 1811, it was iinanimously resolved "That the 
members of this lodge wear crape on their left arms for the space 
of one month, as a testimonial of the respect in which they held 
the High Worshipful Grand Master, Joseph Daviess, and the sin- 
cere regret they feel at the untimely but glorious fall of said Jo- 
seph H. Daviess, together with Brothers Thomas Kandolph and 
Isaac White, who fell in the battle (at Tippecanoe) with the sav- 
ages on the morning of November 7, 1811." January 1, 1816, 
it was "Ordered that refreshments out of the lodge be dispensed 
with, that Brother Steward inform Brother P. Jones thereof, and 
that the steward provide at the expense of the lodge, a pitcher, 
four tumblers and a half -gallon bottle of whisky, and a sufficiency 
of water on each stated night at the lodge-room." The lodge was 
regularly constituted by charter fi'om the Grand Lodge of Indi- 
ana, January 13, 1818, and was designated Vincennes Lodge No. 
1. The following were the officers: Elihu Stout, W. M. : JohnB. 
Biennen, S. W. ; John Decker, J. W. ; Henry Euble, Treasurer ; 
V. G. Bradley, Secretary ; Jacob Call, S. D. ; Henry Dubois, 
J. D. 


The present membership of the lodge is 109. The officers 
are Mason J. Niblack, W. M. ; John S. Downes, S. W. ; Edward 
M. Usher, J. W. ; W. M. Tyler, Treasurer; A. M. Willoughby, 
Secretary; John T. Goodman, S. D. ; B. M. Willoughby, J. D. ; 
C. T. Agnew, T. 

The Vincennes Chapter, No. 7, was instituted May 21, 1858. 
"The membership is sixty-five. The officers are E. P. Whallon, 
H. P. ; W. C. Niblack, K. ; Joseph Clark, S. ; J. S. Downes, P. S. ; 
J. C. Sever, E. A. C. ; M. J. Niblack, 3d V. ; W. C. Willimore, 2d 
V. ; C. E. Eamsdell, 1st V. ; C. T. Agnew, T. 

Vincennes Council, No. 9, was instituted May 20, 1857, and 
now has a membership of fifty-four, with the following officers : 
E. P. Whallon, I. M. ; W. M. Hindman, D. I. M. ; J. C. Bever, P. 

C. W. ; Frank Clarke, C. G. ; W. M. Tyler, Treasurer; A. M. Will- 
oughby, R., and C. T. Agnew, S. 

Vincennes Commandery, No. 20, was instituted February 8, 
1869, with the following charter members: Gardiner H. Plum- 
mer, Samuel R. -Dunn, John T. Freeland, John Kiger, Albert 
Haywood, William F. Pidgeon, James R. Baird, Charles W. Tem- 
ple and Andrew J. Colburn. Of these Dunn and Pidgeon are 
dead. The present membership is seventy-five. The following 
are the present officers: E. P. Whallon, E. C. ; J. Fred Harsch, 
G. ; W. M. Hindman, C. G. ; W. H. Grim, Prel. : Edward McN. 
Usher, S. W. ; Mason J. Niblack, J. W. ; Wilson M. Tyler, Treas- 
ni-er; George G. Ramsdell, E. ; Charles Ramsdell, S. B. ; Will- 
iam J. Heberd, S. W. ; Franklin Clarke, W., and John S. 
Downes, S. 

Wabash Lodge, No. 20, I. O. O. F., was instituted by dis- 
pensation February 5, 1845, and was regularly chartered October 
20, 1845. Tho charter bears the names of Grand Lodge of 
Indiana as follows: John H. Taylor, G. M. ; A. C. Critsfield, D. 
G. M. ; Thomas S. Taylor, G. W. ; Oliver Dufour, G. C. ; B. B. 
Taylor, G. C. ; James Gibson, P. D. G. M. ; William Monroe, D. 

D. G. M. ; Chris Bucher, P. G. M. ; George Brown, G. R. The 
charter members were William Newell, T. Lamp, A. C. Liston, 
Isaac L. Coleman, J. D ankle and J. A. Massey. The first lodge was 
opened by the Most Worthy' Grand Master, William Cross. The 
lollowing officers were chosen: Theophilus Lamp, P. G. ; Isaac L. 


Coleman, N. G. ; John N. Massey, V. G. ; William Newell, S. ; 
Jacob Dunkle, T. ; Aaron Foster, Warden. The first initiations 
were of S. W. Draper and J. W. Canan. The fii-st to die was 
Isaac L. Coleman. 

Old Post Lodge, No. 332, was instituted July 30, 1S69, by Will- 
iam H. DeWolf , Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Indiana. 
The following were the charter members: Lazarus Noble, Bern- 
hard Kuhn, Jr., George Parrott, Alfred Patton, William David- 
son, H. J. Watjen, John Latan, John H. Massey, William M. 
Stoddard, Benjamin F. Johnson and J. H. E. Sprinkle. The first 
ofiicers were Lazarus Noble, N. G. ; J. H. E. Sprinkle, V. G. ; H. 
J. Watjen, S. 

Leibig Lodge, No. i-il was instituted March 4, 181 i, by Charles 
Schaum, D. D. G. M. The following were the charter members: 
H. J. Watjen, B. Basnitz, C. F. Backer, Emil Grill, P. Schu- 
macher, Fred Hallert, J. A. Kasche, Chris Hoffman, H. Myers, 
W. Hassenger, John H. Piel, Gustav Weinstein, Moses Wile and 
John Osweiler. The officers were Moritz Baswitz, N. G. ; 
Charles F. Backer, V. G. ; Emil Grill, E. S. ; H. J. Watjen, P. S., 
and P. Schumacher, Treasurer. 

June 14, 1878, the Old Post Lodge, No. 332, consolidated with 
Wabash Lodge, and January 13, 1880, Leibig Lodge also united, 
the consolidated lodge taking the name of Wabash Lodge, No. 20. 

Mount Olive Encampment. No. 18, was established by the 
Wabash Lodge September 13, 1849, by Special Deputy Grand 
Patriach Jared C. Jocelyn. The charter was not issued by the 
Grand Lodge till January 9, 1850. The charter members were 
J. W. Canan, John Caldwell, J. P. Crickmau, Jedadiah Heberd, 
George B. Jocelyn, M. P. Gee and J. B. Laplante. 

The Jeff C. Davis Post, No. 16, was organized March 26, 1880, 
with the following charter members: W. A. Denny, J. C. Beeler, 
James Ostrander, J. E. Callender, Elder Cooper, G. S. Eeiley, 
Joseph Eoseman, B. Dofar, J. W. Nelson, George Eller, David 
Agnew, John Hack, W. D. Lewis, J. J. Cunningham, J. S. Little, 
E. W. Eker, J. H. Thornton, J. H. Smith and J. W. Clark. 

Old Post Assembly, No. 4058, K. of L., was organized August 
26, 1885, witli the following charter members : J. J. Lynch, 
Daniel M. Lynch, E. B. Dean, D. Sides, Frank Borne, Ed Thing,' 


Henry Klinkanse, Robert Capsadell, John Slawson, Ad Akin, 
John F. T. Dowens, Joseph Hans, Wyley Thorn, Ed Howard, 
Frank Weber, William O. Elwood, Joseph Striley, J. W. Asbury, 
Joseph Aulightner and Henry Esch. 

The W. W. Peabody Lodge, No. 165, Brotherhood of Eail- 
road Brakemen, was organized November 22, 1885, with the fol- 
lowing members : George W. Caruthers, Jeff Fresent, G. H. Smith, 
Oscar Gillingham, J. L. Crunk, G. E. Soudrient, G. A. Routt, J. 
D. Morris, J. H. Foster, Ira Stevens, H. M. Lent, A. McClure, J. 
R. Foster, H. Smith, E. E. Blackburn, D. A. Harvey, T. H. Badol- 
let, J. L. Adkins and William Leach. 

The organization of the K. of H. was instituted March 9, 1878, 
and chartered September 4, 1878, with the following members 
■ and officers : William Davidson, P. D. ; James H. Shouse, D. ; 
William Sachs, A. D. ; Joseph H. Berstein, B. D. ; S. W. Williams, 
Chap. ; O. C. Fairhurst, F. E. ; Charles Brocksmith, T. ; Charles 
J. Agnew, E. ; S. Schoenfield, G. ; J. Stokes, Gr. ; Samuel Lewis, 
S. ; others, Thomas Eastman, C. W. Jones, George Haynes, J. 
Weisenbach, John J. McBride and E. W. Miller. The present 
membership is 100. 

Review Lodge, No. 362, K. & L. of H., was instituted Septem- 
ber 27, 1880. The following were the first members: Samuel 
Louis, Hannah Louis, S. W. Williams, B. T. Tomlin, Louise 
Tomlin, Adolph S. Lane, A. M. Childs, Mamie Childs, Fred 
Miller, E. W. Miller, Mattie A. Miller, S. Teitelham, Sarah 
Teitelbam, Peter Pomil, William Davidson, Tette Schoenfeld, J. 
S. Carson, Solomon Schoenfeld, H. Heidenreich and W. F. Hinds. 
This lodge now numbers fifty members. 

A lodge of the K. of P. has been working some years and is 
now one of the most flourishing in the city. 


In 1803 Elihu Stout, who was a practical printer at work on 
the Kcniucky Gazette, determined to start a paper of his own at 
Vincennes, the capital of Indiana Territory. The material for 
the paper was purchased in Frankfort and shipped by water to 
Vincennes. Mr. Stout came through on hojseback along the old 
Indian " trace " from Louisville. He arrived in Vincennes in 


April, but the press not till in June. The initial number of his 
paper, Indiana Gazette, named in honor of his old paper, was 
issued July 4, 1804. In about eighteen months the entire es- 
tablishment was consumed by fire. There was no more paper un- 
til new material was procured from Kentucky. On the thirty- 
second anniversary of American Independence the Gazette again 
appeared under the name of the Wesiern Sun. On August 1, 
1807, George C. Smoot became a partner in the concern, but re- 
tired November 17 of the same, his place being taken by Mr. 
Jennins, who also retired December 23, 1807. Mr. Stout contin- 
ued the paper alone till December 6, 1817, when the name was 
changed to Western Snn and General Advertiser. On October 
2, 1819, John Washburn became a partner, but retired fi-om that 
position September 20, 1820. On January 19, 1839, Heniy Stout 
became a partner in the publication of the paper under the name 
of E. Stout & Son. On November 8, Mr. Stout having become 
postmaster at Vincennes, sold the Sun to John Rice Jones. In 
1847 Mr. Jones took his brother, WiUiam A. Jones, into partner- 
ship with himself. On Mr. Jones getting a position in one of 
the departments at Washington the paper was neglected and soon 
after suspended. Mr. Jones on his return to Vincennes started 
Jones'" Vincennes Sentinel. This paper soon suspended, and was 
followed by the Vincennes Indiana Patriot, published by James 
Mayes. This was started in February, 1853, but in about one 
year the Courant had been started by J. & M. A. McClaugherty. 
On October 6, 1853, both papers passed into the hands of the last 
named firm. The paper became the Courant and Patriot. This 
paper favored the election of Buchanan and bitterly opposed 
Know-Nothingism. It was suspended in 1856 or passed into 
the hands of George E. Greene, who renewed the old name West- 
ern Sun. Mr. Greene continued the publication of the Sun till 
his death in 1870. E. C. Kise was the next editor of the Sun. 
In January, 1871, A. J. Thomas became a partner in the manage- 
ment of the paper. On the death of Mr. Kise, in 1873, Alfred 
Patton took the stock owned by Mr. Kise, the fii-m being known 
as A. J. Thomas & Co. On November 1, 1876, Royal E. Purcell 
became the owner of the paper, and in 1879, in addition to the 
weekly, Mr.- Purcell began the publication of a daily. The paper 


is on a good financial basis, is well edited, has a large circulation, 
is considered the organ of the Democratic party and is the 
official paper of the county. 

With occasional intervals there has been some paper in oppo- 
sition to the Sun since 1818. The News of the Day was started 
February 27, 1854, by William H. Jackson and J. G. Hutchin- 
son. This was a Know-Nothing paper, and was supplanted by the 
Gazette, published by G. R. Harvey, James A. Mason and M. P. 
Gee. No. 1, Vol. XXVII appeared May 13, 1857, and May 28, 
1859, it passed into the hands of H. M. Smith and M. P. Gee. In 
July, 1861, William Denny became propi-ietor, and continued till 
January, 1862, when C M. Allen and H. M. Smith became own- 
ers. Republican newspapers at that time in Knox County seem to 
have had short lives. In a few months Charles I. Williams be- 
came proprietor, and C. M. Allen was retained as editor. John 
M. Wilson became proprietor in May, 1863, with T. C. Schuber 
as local editor. On January 3, 18t)9, W. H Jackson took the 
place of Schuber, and January 13, 1864, William H. Jackson and 
John M. Wilson. On January 24 it passed into the hands of 
William H. Jackson and J. M. Griffin, and October 14, 1865, 
John M. Griffin became sole proprietor. 

The Old Post Union was founded March 7, 1862, by J. S. 
Hutchinson. This was a good paper, and in a few years expired 
and was succeeded by the Vincennes Times. Vol. I, No. 1 of the 
Times appeared December 9, 1865. It was edited by R. B. Cad- 
dington and W. H. Jackson. Mr. Jackson retired from the Times 
and appeared on the Gazette. On December 6, 1873, Gen. Laz 
Noble became a partner on the Times with Caddington. The 
Times was sold to Malechi Krebs October 17, 1875, but Krebs 
failing to meet his contract the paper passed to J. J. Mayer, John 
Mallet and A. G. V. Crotts. Crotts retired fi-om the firm in 1879, 
and the paper was soon after discontinued. 

The Vincennes Commercial was established by S. F. HarroU, 
A. HarroU and N. Harroll March 13, 1877, under the firm name 
of S. F. Harroll & Sons. On February 15, 1881, it passed into 
the hands of the " Commercial Co." with T. H. C. Adams as edi- 
tor and manager. The Commercial is a well edited paper, and 
has a large circulation of both its weekly and daily editions. The 


Commercial is the organ of the Republican party of the county. 
The Netvs was established in September, 1877, by W. W. Bailey 
& Co., Warren Worth Bailey being the editor. The Neios is a 
weekly paper, but on special occasions daily editions are issued. 
The Neivs seems to be well established, and is a very spicy and 
well edited paper. Politically the Neus is Democratic, but it 
manifests sufficient independence to criticize the foibles of its 
party in no measured terms. 


This town is located in Section 1, Town 4 north. Range 8 west. 
It is on the Indianapolis & Vincennes Railroad, where it touches 
Whibe River. A portion of the town belonged to school trustees 
of Town 6 north, Range 9 west (Sullivan County). It was laid 
out, August 25, 1839, by George Calhoun. The town was named 
in honor of Edward Wilkins, the last part of the name having 
reference to the gateway of the river. A petition was presented 
to the commissioners, September 13, 1869, to have the place in- 
corporated; the prayer was granted, and an election held at the 
schoolhouse, Saturday, October 9, 1869. The vote was in favor 
of incorporation. The town then contained 342 inhabitants, and 
embraced 251 acres of ground. The charter was allowed to lapse 
in a few years. John Hopkins settled on the section where 
Edwardsport now is. He came there fi-om Kentucky and sat 
down as a "squatter." The improvements made by Hopkins were 
sold to a man named Edward Wilkins. He lived there before the 
laying out of the town, and was instrumental in doing that work. 
William Keith settled on Section 36, lying immediately north of 
the town. Mr. Keith is said to have built the first house after 
the town was laid. The house was of logs and two stories high, 
the first in that part of the county. He afterward went to Texas. 
It is thought that Jesse L. Davis was the first merchant in Ed- 
wardsport. His place of business was on Lot 36, on Water Street. 
The house was a small, double log building, the front being used 
for a store-room, the rear for a residence for the family. Martin 
Lucas kept a small stock of goods in a house where J. Freeman 
now resides. His goods were kept in the house where the family 
were. The house is said to have been built for a schoolhouse. 


Here he remained about one year, and then moved to the county 
with his stock. Palmer & Holliugsworth kept a store and saloon 
for a short time. Chambers, Robertson & Co. erected a saw and 
grist-mill on Lot 10, near the river. They also erected a frame 
store-house, said to have been the fii'st in the town. This firm 
failed. Abner Davis kept store for about one year in the place, 
and then moved to Washington. Other business men were 
Buckles & Buckles, Samuel Culbertson, James P. Creger, who 
had a tannery also. Charles Grates did business for a short time, 
and then moved to Vincennes. John E. Hadden was the first to 
make a business success at the j^lace. He began business in 
1843. Alfred Simonson was the next to make a financial success 
of business. He began March 3, 1846, on the lot where his resi- 
dence now stands. In 1847 he did business on the lot immediately 
west of that, and in 1857 he built the house immediately east of 
where he now is. This was a brick building, the fii-st brick busi- 
ness house in that place. In 1870 he erected the elegant house 
he now occupies. It was not occupied, however, till 1873. 

In November, 1876, "W. R. Mcintosh started a weekly Demo- 
cratic newspaper called the Edwardspori Journal. After an ex- 
istence of one year it was suspended, or moved away. In January, 
1878, T. H. Adams started the Ed/im,rdsport Record. This was 
a neutral paper politically, and was run only about one year. 


The Masonic Lodge, No. 429, at Edwardsport was organized 
May 23, 1871. Officers: Samuel H. Dunn, First Master; James 
G. Culbertson, S. W. ; Charles C. Azbell, J. W. ; Martin H. Eice, 
G. M. ; G. W. Porter, D. G. M. ; I. M. Stackhouse, S. G. W. ; 
Chris Fetta, J. G. W. ; John M. Bramwell, G. S. Charter 
members: S. H. Dunn, J. G. Culbertson, C. C. Atzbell, G. 
A. Clouss, A. Simonson, J. B. Tomey, William Holliugsworth, 
Coui-tney Montgomery, W. N. Hodges and J. T. Finley. White 
Eose Lodge, No. 280, I. O. O. F., was organized under dispensa- 
tion May 22, 1867, and the charter was granted June 27, 1867. 
The charter was granted on application by Charles Scudder, David 
Reeves, George Barber, M. B. Slawson and John Hargis. The 
first permanent officers were George Barber, N. G. ; Charles 


Scudcler, V. G. ; David Eeeves, E. S. ; M. B. Slawson, T. ; John 
Hargis, P. S. Present officers: George Hall, N. G. ; R. A. Trauter, 
V. G. ; James Curry, E. S. ; Thomas Bartlett, P. S. ; Michael 
Atkinson. Stores: Alfred Simonson since 1846, Thomas Bart- 
lett since 1863, William HoUingsworth since about 1860, and J. 
C. Toops. Drug stores — J. F. Scudder, eighteen years; Thomas 
Maddox. Flouring-mill — Waters & Montgomery. Saw-mill — W. 
S. Eeeve. Shoe shops — Eobert Froshke and Charles Freund. 
Harness sho][3 — David Eeeve. Furniture and undertaking — S. T. 
Eeeve. Livery stable- — Hugh Barr, Jr. Blacksmiths — W. T. 
Dunavant and M. B. Slawson. Coal mines — M. Atkinson & Co. 
The old block-house stood near where A. Simonson' s residence 
now stands. The father of James Polk commanded some French 
soldiers in this a short time during 1812. 


This place, situated in Donation 37, in Township 2 north, 
Eange 9 west, was laid out August 29, 1856, by W. C. Daven- 
port. The land was conveyed fi-om Monroe Alton and wife to 
Alexander Lesley. George Shouse's Addition was made to the 
town on October 20, 1856, being surveyed by Andrew Armstrong. 
Martin's Addition of twenty-iive lots was made April 11, 1871, 
James E. Baker being the surveyor. Monroe City, or Nashville 
or Lively Dale, as it is variously called, is surrounded by an ex- 
cellent farming country and is far away from other rival towns, 
in consequence of which it has made a steady and heathful growth. 
Dennis P. Coonrod, who was one of the first business men of the 
place, is still in business. Other early merchants were James 
Lee, who was in business a short time and sold to Albert Smith, 
and he to John Howell; other business men have been Joseph 
Summit, Emanuel Eeel, Dr. Trent, B. V. Alton, J. E. Snyder, 
A. Helderman, M. J. Stafford and Vankirk & Simpson. Physi- 
cians: N. M. Bonham, A. Harrington, Daniel Trent, W. T. Mar- 
tin, J. H. Barnett, N. Young, W. O. Barnett, N. B. Sparks, E. C. 
Vantrees, W. Ashton and Dr. Vankirk. At the September term 
of the commissioner's court, in 1874, a petition was presented to 
the commissioners by John N. Hart, W. J. Pry and John H. 
Barnett and signed by forty-two voters of the town, praying to 


have the town incorporated. The town was surveyed by James 
E. Baker, and a census taken by J. H. Barnett and the 
same sworn to before J. G. Soners, J. P., and placed in the 
postoffice for inspection twenty days before presenting to 
the commissioners. The prayer was granted and an election or- 
dered, in October following, at the office of Dr. J. H. Barnett. 
The election board consisted of William Madden, inspector; A. 
W. Sampson, clerk, J. G. Soners and A. P. Larkin, judges. 
The result of the votes were forty-seven "for incorporation" 
and one "against incorporation." Dry goods and general stores — 
Dr. P. Coonrod, David Vankirk, Washington Smith, Mallory & 
Snyder, Martin L. Vanada and Hebert Snyder. Grocery — Mar- 
tin Goldman. Drugs — Elijah Shouse & James West and Albert 
Falls. Shoemaker — formerly A. Heklerman, now Scott Pry. 
Blacksmiths — Mathias Berry and Gerrard Kobinson & Son. Har- 
ness — Franklin Myers. Undertaker — Albert Falls. Flouring mill 
— Baldwin & Snyder. Physicians — AVilliams, Sparks, Barnett, Van 
Trees, Trueblood, Hunt and Kensenger. Mom-oe City Lodge, 
No. 548, F. & A. M., was organized June 18, 1878. Charter 
members : Harvey Baldwin, H. A. Baldwin, John H. Barrett, D. 
P. Coonrod, A. C. Falls, J. N. Hart, William Madden, J. E. Sny- 
der, J. G. Soners and W. C. Wilmore. The officers were : W. C. 
Wilmore, W. M. ; J. N. Hart, S. W. ; William Madden, J. W. ; D. B. 
Vankirk, Treas. ; Harvey Baldwin, Sec; A. C. Falls, S. D., and 
J. H. Barnett, J. D. The present officers are E. N. Hart, M. ; 
M. A. Campbell, S. W., and Joe Belsher, J. W. Membership, 
thirty-five. Lovely Dale Lodge, No. 566, I. O. O. F., was in- 
stituted in February, 1869. E. N. Hall was N. G. ; J. J. Laswell, 
V. G.; D. B. Vankirk, Sec, and David Miller, Treas. 


The only town in Widner is Freelandsville, located in Section 
16, Township 5 north. Range 8 west. The town was named in 
honor of Dr. John T. Freeland, who was for many years a prom- 
inent physician of the place. The town was first surveyed by 
Samuel E. Smith for John Ritterskamp on July 31, 1866. This 
survey, however, was never legally acknowledged. Dr. John T. 
Freeland's Addition was made to the town in May, 1867. C. E. 


Baker's Addition was added January 3, 4 and 5, 1870. Henry 
Heithecker's, March IB, 1870; his second addition March 16, 
1872. John Kitterskamp's Addition was made November 14, 
1877. Chamber's Addition was made July 2, 1871, and the 
Christian Church Addition was made December 25, 1871, 
through its trustees, Herman L. Bergeman, Austin P. Cox and 
William Hooper. C. E. Baker and B. Bierhaus began busi- 
ness where the town now is in 1857 or 1858. The style of 
the firm wa? C. E. Baker & Co. and continued in business up till 
1868. John Eitterskamp began about 1860. George Krebs was 
in business for a short time. The mill was erected about 1864 
by Baker & Eitterskamp; afterward, about 1868, Nolting became 
owner. It is now owned by Dierman & Co. Hardware, Farming 
Implements, etc. — L. Bergeman. Dry goods — John Eitterskamp 
& Sons and C. E. Baker. Stoves, Hardware, etc. — French & Sons. 
Cooper shop — C. H. Weitzel. Drug stores — H. F. Albert and A. 
M. Berry. Steam mill — Dreiman,Merch & Co. The town has also 
a butcher shop, tailor shop, milliner shop, three blacksmith 
shops, two hotels. The physicians are Drs. McDowell, Geo. T. 
Martin, McGauchey and Myers. 

This place is situated near the western line of the southern 
part of Vigo Township, on the Indianapolis & Vincennes Eailroad. 
It is in Sections 21 and 16 of Town 4 north, Eange 8 west. The 
town was laid out for John Bicknell, for whom it was named, 
October 1, 1869. The first business house in the place was 
erected by George W. Fuller, who had purchased land there be- 
fore the town was laid out. Here he built a frame store and 
dwelling house near. About 1870 Bruce, Eeel & Mitchell began 
business on Lot 7, where they continued business for about six 
months, when Ihey were burned out. They rebuilt and soon after 
sold to Slater & Bicknell, who after a short time (1873) sold to 
William HoUingsworth, who moved to Edwardsport about 1875. 
In 1874 Chambers & Bros, sold goods; the house was soon 
closed. A drug store was opened in the same building by S. W. 
Slinkard, who sold to Jones & Denton. Hugh Barr sold goods 
for a time in the house where HoUingsworth had done business. 


He soon after sold to J. L. Cox & Sons, who continued in the old 
building till 1875, when they erected a new building. In 1876 
G. W. Fuller erected a new store building. In 1876 Samuel 
Slinkard began business again, but sold to Emanuel Freeman. 
The first blacksmith was Moses Beeves, who opened a shop in 
1872; the next was Henry Kixmiller. Among the physicians 
that have been are Emanuel Keel, James Moore, J. G. Martin, E. 
C. Vantrees, William Jones, James Wells, Isaac Wells, and J. W. 
Trueblood. A flouring-mill was built in 1873 by John Sholtz, 
who sold it to Slinkard & Co. in 18,73, and they to Wells & Win- 
ter in 1875. Present business of Bicknell: General stores — Joe 
Freeman, John Paul, and George Donaldson. Drug stores — W. S. 
McLinn and Samuel Bunting. Boots and shoes — Kixmiller & Bros. 
Grain and stock dealer — George W.Fuller. Livery stable — N.Alton. 
Hotel — Joseph Buckles,f ormerly J. L. Cox. Physicians — Drs. Dor- 
sey, Staley, and Huron. Secret societies — -Masonic Lodge, No. 535, 
was instituted in 1876; also I. O. O. F., No. 527, in the same year. 


Bruceville is located eight miles from Vinceunes on the In- 
dianapolis & Vincennes Railroad. It lies in Donation 184. The ^ 
land on which the town was built was owned by William Bruce, 
for whom the town was laid out on December 10, 1829. A 
"mapp of thirty-six lotts" was made and sworn to before A- G. 
Koberts, a justice of the peace. The original plat contained only 
Washington, Main Cross, and Poplar streets. To the old town 
John H. Bruce's Addition of seventeen lots was made to the south 
side on May 5, 1870. Although the town was not laid out till the 
above date, it was known as a town before 1820. As stated else- 
where, the house in which Mr. James Bruce now lives was begun 
in 1811 by Maj. William Bruce, the proprietor of the town site. 
Jacob Harper is said to have been the first blacksmith in the 
place ; William Hummer the first wagon-maker ; Peter Kuby the first 
carpenter ; Thomas Alton the first tanner ; J. T. Simpson the first 
merchant; Obed Macy the first physician, and John Green the 
first tavern-keeper. Henry Wheeler built the first wool carding 
machine in the county at Bruceville in about 1820. Other early 
businesses were a store by Bruce & McDonald ; an inn by William 


Bruce ; an oil mill for extracting the oil from tlie castor bean, John 
T. and George Simpson. Brnceville had an ox tread-mill, a small 
still-house, and a mill at a very early day. Late business houses: 
Barr & Willis, Barr, Willis & Koberts, and Steifey. Physicians 
— Drs. Dinwiddle, Macy, and Fairhurst. Present business of 
Bruceville: Dry goods and general stores — Roberts, Emison & 
Steffey, Willis & Barr, Hill Bros., and J. H. Scroggin. Black- 
smiths — Elias Kackley and John Slawson. Boots and shoes — 
William Martin. Physicians — Z. G. Martin, J. W. Milam, and 
James McDowell. Drug store — Milam & Alexander. 

The I. O. O. F. Lodge, No. 547, Bruceville, was instituted 
May 17, 1877, on application of L. C. Roberts, James Emison, 
G. W. Melton, Calvin Clark, Thomas Hollingsworth, Hiram 
Antibus, Thomas Winemiller and Alfred Green. The charter 
was granted by Leonidas Sexton, G. M., and B. F. Foster, G. S. 
The membership of the lodge is twelve. 


Oaktown is the principal place of business in Busseron Town- 
ship. It is situated in Section 17, Town 5 north. Range 9 west. 
It was laid out for George Bond by Samuel E. Smith, May 20, 
1867. To this was added Shepard's Enlargement, of fifty lots 
June 19, 1867. Adam and Watts Bond's Enlargement was made 
October 4, 1876. One of the business houses of Oaktown was 
the grist-mill of Bond & Co. This mill is still in operation. 
Dry goods and grocers — Sproatt & Son, Watts Bond, and C. L. 
Haughton, all substantial firms. Groceries and notions — George 
H. Bond. Hardware and agricultural implements — formerly Polk, 
but now Polk & Walker; also, George Shepard. Drug stores — 
William McGowen and Pifer & Reed. The town has its comple- 
ment of physicians, two hotels, two blacksmith shops, millinery 
shops, etc. The population of the place is estimated at 300. The 
business houses of the place are above the average for size and 
quality. Large quantities of produce are handled here. 

Secret Societies — The Oaktown Lodge, No. 474, was organized 
under dispensation May 26, 1874, and a charter granted October 
17, 1874. The following were charter members: T. T. Townsley, 
W. M. ; W. H. Wise, S. W. ; A. B. Pike, J. W. ; W. H. Bell, 


Treas. ; J. W. Pugh, Sec. ; Da^dd Williams, S. D. ; J. M. Shep- 
ard, J. D.; James Williams, Tyler; others, J. W. Burnett, John 
Wolf and J. T. P. Clark. The present officers are C. L. Haugh- 
ton, W. M. ; Frank Starner, S. W. ; John Brener, J. W. ; D. W. 
B. Grigsby, Sec. ; Alonzo Ashley, S. D. ; Elmore Scanlan, J. D., 
and A. Tewalt, T. Membership is about thirty. The Cald- 
Caldwell Lodge, No. 271, I. O. O. F., was granted November 21, 
1866, on petition of J. M. Shepard, J. H. E. Sprinkle, H. J. 
Smith, W. R. Miller and J. W. Benefield. The officers are J. 
E. Eeed, N. G. ; W. H. Blann, V. G. ; Alonzo Collen, Treasurer; 
J. N. Shepard, Sec. Membership about thirty. This lodge had 
the misfortune to lose by fire, within the last year, its hall and 

This town is located on the southeast quarter of southeast quar- 
ter of Section 4, Town 5 north, Eange 7 west. The town is on the 
Indianapolis & Vincennes Bailroad in the Northern part of Vigo 
Township, and was laid out by George Halstead, October 7, 1868. 
The place was named in honor of a civil engineer on the Indianap- 
olis & Vincennes Eailroad. It is in a good farming community, and 
large quantities of grain and stock are shipped from this point. An 
extensive business was done in the place, between 1865 and 1870, 
by Dewey, Crane & Co. Stores have been run at Sandborn by Alonzo 
Hays, Henry Houghland, Simon Kaufman, Bailey & Son, and Hill. 
Present business is represented by Hill and Lowdermild, each in 
dry goods and general stores; di'ug stores, Wiley McGinnis and 
John Beck; restaurant, William DeLay; blacksmith shop and 
gunsmith, C. Copper. The mill was owned by Eobinson for about 
twelve years, when it was sold. It is now owned by Hill & Hill, 
and is run as both a saw and grist-mill ; hotel, C. E. Crane. 

On May 11, 1878, Hayden Hayes had seven acres of land laid 
out almost adjacent to Sandborn. This lay mainly on the west 
side of the Indianapolis & Vincennes Eailroad, and the new town 
was to be called Banham. The town did not materialize. Addi- 
tions: Presley Anderson's Addition of six lots was made to Sand- 
born, December 20, 1871, and Isaac Cade's Addition of eight lots 
was made January 22, 1873. 



Wheatland is situated in Donation 107, near the central por- 
tion of Steen Township. It is on the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
road. It was laid out December 29, 1858, by A. Armstrong for 
William Long, guardian. The town is divided into three parts: 
North, South and East Wheatland. North Wheatland is the 
town proper. South Wheatland is E. E. Steen' s Addition, and 
consists of sixty-seven lots. It was surveyed by George Cal- 
houn, June 29, 1859. East Wheatland was surveyed by Sam- 
uel E. Smith, April 6, 1868, for R. E. Steen. It consists of 
thirteen acres of land. The town was named Wheatland fi-om the 
amount of good wheat land around the town. James Green was 
the first to do business in the place. He began before the town 
was laid out. He bought grain, wheat, corn, and all kinds of 
produce. His place of business was near where the postoffice 
now stands. He became dissipated, and closed about the be- 
ginning of the war. Thomas Brooks was the next in business. 
Horace Anderson, from Maysville, began business about 1859. 
William Wallace was in and out of business for several years. 
Others were Emison & Evans, Fay & Byers, Barber & Clemens, 
and Barber, alone. Present businesses: Diy goods — S. B. Nib- 
lack, M. E. Anderson & Son. Drug store — W. J. Nicholas & Co. 
Furnitui-e and undertaker — Jam es F. Woods ( twelve years ) . Shoe- 
maker — John W. Burrus, who has been in business for twenty 
years. Livery stable — Jacob Comer. In 1865 a mill was erected 
in the place by John W. Emison, of Bruceville, biit the machin- 
ery has recently been taken out, and the town is now very much 
in need of a mill. Dare & Sons are running a small machine 
shop and blacksmith shop. The following have been postmasters 
at Wheatland since the removal of the office to that place: Will- 
iam Wallace, George Barber, William Clemens, J. E. Smith, J. 
W. Burrus, W. J. Nicholson, Anderson Nicholson and Robert 


This place, usually known as Deckers, is almost on the line be- 
tween Johnson and Decker Townships, and lies on White River. 
It is in a fractional part of the southwest quarter of the north- 


east quarter of Section 16, Township 1 north, Range 10 west. 
The town was laid out by Isaac Decker in June, 1869. There 
are platted forty-two lots, eacli 145x75 feet. The streets running 
parallel with the railroad are numbered 1, 2 and 3, respectively. 
Those at right angles to the railroad are Main and Oak Streets. 
The first business house in the place was built by Hugh 
O'Neal. This was afterward sold to James Dick, but it again 
passed into the hands of O'Neal. Eobert McCracken and Jacob 
Kimmons started the next store in the place. The only dry goods 
store in the place now is owned by the Jourdon Bros. The mill 
was erected by Robert McCracken about 1874. It afterward 
passed into the hands of William Wallace. Drs. Littlepage, 
Bell and Morgan were the earliest physicians. The present are 
the Drs. Davis. The place is of some importance as a ship- 
ping point on the Evansville" & Terre Haute Railroad for John- 
son and Decker Townships. Albert C. Shreve's Addition was 
made to the town November 17, 1876, and William M. Anderson's, 
of twelve lots, was made April 27, 1875, and his second addition 
of 18 lots September 3, 1875. 


This now extinct town was located in Donations 6 and 7, lying 
immediately on White River below Deckertown. The land was 
conveyed by Thomas Dick to Andrew Purcell December 1, 
1836. The town site consisted of ninety-three lots, about half 
of which were never sold. The streets parallel with the river 
were numbered, First, Second and Third, in order. Those at 
right angles were named Purcell, Hill and Coddington, respect- 
ively. The owners of lots were James Patterson, James Orow, 
James and Joseph Kimmons, Landers Bilderback, James Ed- 
wards, James Youngman, Henry Fisher, Isaac Purcell, Hiram 
Minor, John Anthis, Henry Martin, Thomas Johnson and a man 
named Coddington. The place was long known as rather a 
"hard place," being the resort for the rougher class. Tilts at 
fisticuff and cocking mains were common pastime. The place 
has long since gone down, and a great portion of the land where 
the town stood has been washed away by the river. 



This place was laid out March 31, 1839, on land owned by 
Purcell, in Donation 54, in Palmyra Township, on the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad. The plat contained thirty-nine lots, and 
the streets were given city names. The only thing that now 
marks the place is a side track on the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
road. The town plat embraced twelve acres of land. The place 
took its name from the character of the soil around it. 


This place was laid out and surveyed by R. P. Mayfield for 
Frederick Pohlmeir, in December, 1881. It is on the Indianap- 
olis & Vincennes Railroad, in Town 5 north. Range 7 west. The 
lots were laid out 75x150, and the streets 75 wide. As a town it 
never had existence in reality. Near the place is a large Lutheran 
Church, to which the. majority of the community belong. The 
place was named from Westphalia in Europe. A little south of 
this place, on the railroad, is a station called Wagner's Station. 
The commiyiity of this section is largely German. 


This place is located near the middle of Busseron Township, 
when measured from north to south. It was laid out May 30, 
1854, and is on the Evansville & Terre Haute Railroad, twelve 
and one-half miles from Vincennes. The town is located in Sec- 
tions 29 and 30, Township 5 north, Range 9 west. It was sur- 
veyed by George Calhoun for W. W. Harper, J. A. McClure and 
T. P. Emison, as proprietors. The town contains twenty lots, 
each 100 feet square. The town now is one only in name, being 
simply a station on the railroad. 


The town site of Emison was laid out by C. S. Kabler for 
Samuel A. Emison, in May, 1867. The town site contains twenty- 
six lots, the full size being 120 feet square. It is in Donation 
207, Town 4 north. Range 9 west. The place was of some im- 
portance as a lumber market. Some grain and other produce are 
shipped from this point over the Evansville & Terre Haute 



Educational History of Knox County — A Connected Account of 
THE Progress of Education from the Earliest Time to the 
Present, Together with a Review of the Various Systems un- 
der WHICH the Present High Schools have been Brought to 
Such a High State of Perfection, etc., etc. 

BY an act of Congress in 1804 a township of land was set 
apart for a seminary of learning in Indiana Territory. 
Vincennes, then being the capital, was chosen for the said seat 
of learning. The lands selected lay south of White Eiver, in 
what is now Gibson County. By an act of the Territorial Legis- 
lature, in 1806, the following board of trustees was chosen: 
William Henry Harrison, John Gibson, John T. Davis, Henry 
Vanderbui-g, Walter Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James 
Johnson, John Badolette, John E,ice Jones, George Wallace, 
William E. Bullit, Elias McNamee, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. John- 
son, Francis Yigo, Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel 
Ewing, George Leach, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathney and John 
Johnson. At the first meeting, June, 1806, Gen. Harrison was 
chosen chairman. Four thousand acres of the land was offered 
for sale, and the remainder was to be leased. The board was 
also allowed the privilege of running a lottery, for accumulating 
a fund rapidly. It was intended to save $20,000 by this means. 
Instructions were to be given in Latin, Greek, French, English, an- 
cient and modern history, moral philosophy, logic, rhetoric and the 
"laws of nature and nations." All the various departments of 
the university were to be provided for. 

Indian children were to be maintained and educated free, also 
the school was to be free to all others as soon as the funds would 
allow. Five of the board at the first meeting were chosen to 
conduct the lottery. Tickets were put on sale in Washington 
City, in the States of Tennessee and Kentucky. The first steps 
toward a building were taken on February 6, 1807, when a deed 
was made to the trustees of " Henry Vanderburg and Fran9ois, his 


wife," to " six arpents in superfices," and bounded on the south- 
west by the late Benjamin Reed, on the northeast by Gen. Harri- 
son, northwest by Col. Vigo and on the southeast by Antoine 
Marechal. A building committee, consisting of Vigo, Vanderburg 
and McNamee, decided to build a fi-ame house, two and one-half 
stories high, 60x40 feet. The sale of lands was slow and money 
was scarce. In 1807 the board ordered the sale of the lottery 
tickets stopped. From failure in finances the building was not 
ready for occupancy till 1811, and teachers were compelled to 
rely upon tuition for support. On January 11, 1811, a com- 
mittee was appointed to ascertain the annual cost of maintaining 
a school in the English, French and Latin languages, also math- 
ematics and geography, the niimber of students that might 
attend, the amount of tuition that might be received, and the pro- 
priety of placing the common school then taught by the Eev. 
Samuel T. Scott under control of the ti'ustees. The report was 
to the effect that the cost of maintaining the school was $500; 
that the number of students did not exceed ten ; that the amount 
of tuition would not exceed $150 to $200; that the charter was 
for a university, and the last difficulty could be obviated by open- 
ing a collegiate and a primary department. A code of rules was 
formulated, and the schools placed under charge of Mr. Scott. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Olds in July, 1818. In 1823 the build- 
ing had become so dilapidated that it was unfit for school pur- 
poses, and the main room was given over to Rev. Mr. Shaw in 
which to hold Episcopal services. He was to repair the building 
to the amount of $400, and he or his successors were to superin- 
tend the university under control of the trustees. In 1818 an 
act passed the General Assembly allowing the trustees of the 
borough of Vincennes to sell 5,400 acres, the commons lands, 
and apply the means to the drainage of the Big Swamp, and 
what surplus there might be to the university. The university 
received no benefits fi-om this source. An act passed the General 
Assembly in 1822 for the sale of the' university lands, and the 
money to be applied to the State University at Bloomington, and 
at the same time declared that the board of trustees of the uni- 
versity had ceased to exist. In 1824, when the law for county 
seminaries passed, it was the intention to substitute the county 
seminary for the university. 


On October 24, 1839, the old university building was sold for 
debt, and was purchased by Rev. John A. Vabret, a catholic 
priest, for |6,500, and the school became St. Rose Academy for 
girls. On August 17, 1841, it was again- sold to Peter Bellier 
for " $1 and other considerations," and became St. Gabriel Col- 
lege. In 1840 the trustees, having some funds on hand, pur- 
chased the present site of the university £i-om Dr. Hiram Decker 
and wife for $500. This lot was afterward sold (1849) to the 
county commissioners for a county seminary. A mortgage was 
held by the trustees on this property, which was afterward fore- 
closed and the property bought back. The trustees, through 
their attorney, Samuel P. Judah, brought suit for the lands do- 
nated by Congress for the university, which the State had declared 
forfeited. After a long and tedious trial, in which the Supreme 
Coiu-t of the United States was invoked, the case was decided 
against the State, and judgment rendered for $66,583, for which 
the State issued its bonds at 6 per cent interest. A suit then 
arose between Mr. Judah and the trustees as to his fees. The 
trustees received $41,583 from the State, and something over 
$1,000 from Mr. Judah. In 1856 a female department was added, 
and continued in successful operation till 1870, when both schools 
were united, and the same teachers instructed both sexes. In 
1878 the buildings were found to be inadequate, and preparations 
were made for the erection of a new building. The old seminary 
building was torn away, and the corner-stone of the present ele- 
gant structure was laid, with appropriate ceremonies. May 14, 
1878. The building is about 57x60 feet and three stories high, 
and has a tower 103 feet in height. The building contains ample 
recitation rooms, library, laboratory and a public hall 40x58 feet 
and 18 feet in height. The building is constructed of pressed 
brick, and was erected at a cost of $10,890. There is in the 
hands of the trustees the sum of $48,000 for the maintenance of 
the university. The faculty consists of E. A. Bryan, president; 
Charles Harris, Ada Butler, Carrie Spring, Mrs. McGrada and 
Maggie Roseman. The trustees are R. G. Moore, president; 
Smiley Chambers, secretary, and Hiram Foulks, treasurer. 


The first step toward popular education in Indiana was the 


act of Congress in 1804 establishing a seminary of learning in 
Indiana Territory. The pioneers were not so negligent in regard 
to popular education as is generally supposed. The university 
was the fii-st school in the county outside of a few indifferent pri- 
vate schools and the Catholic Church school. Soon after the or- 
ganization of the State an act passed the General Assembly es- 
tablishing county seminaries, for the support of which certain 
fines and penalties were turned over to the board of trustees of 
said institutions. The income from these sources was very slow, 
amounting to but a few dollars for the fii'st few years. On the open- 
ing of the university in 1811 an effort was made to have it supply 
the place of the seminary proper. The Rev. Scott, who was the 
first president of the university, became also the superintendent 
of the seminary, so-called. At the September term of the com- 
missioners' coui't in 1825, James McClui-e offered the following 
resolution before the board: '■'Resolved, That the university of 
Vincennes has been adopted as a county seminary in Knox 
County, and by an act entitled an act supplemented to an act es- 
tablishing a county seminary in Knox County, we enjoy the same 
privileges as are enjoyed by the citizens of other counties in sim- 
ilar institutions ; and whereas parties fail to make return to us of 
moneys belonging to the seminary fund, and that it becomes the 
duty of the board through the prosecuting attorney to inquire by 
what authority the Rev. S. J. Scott returned to Mr. Harrison, 
trustee, $300 in paper which is now worth nothing, and why the 
board does not receive the seminary fund." 

At the same term John Stork, Daniel Judkins and John Stan- 
ford were appointed school superintendents for Harrison Town- 
ship, William Raper for Palmyi-a, A. Gr. Roberts for Washington, 
Samuel Chambers for Widner, J. S. Mays for Johnson, James 
Dick for Decker, and Samuel McClui-e for Busseron Township. 
The seminary trustees October 3, 1828, consisted of D. L. Bow- 
man, J. O. Holland, Hiram Decker, Ancb-ew Burnside, Andrew 
Armstrong, J. C. S. Harrison, G. W. Johnson and David Kuy- 
kendall. Of these Armstrong was president, Harrison treasurer, 
and Johnson secretary of the board. The total school fund, for 
1829-30 and 1831 amounted only to $217.72. The available 
school fund in 1844 amounted to $10.46. According to the re- 


port for 1849 the congressional school fund amounted to $4,- 
389.66; of this $4,021.93 was considered good, $285.42 doubtful, 
and $82.71 bad. In 1849 $2,050 was expended in building a new 
seminary. Under the new constitution, instead of school superin- 
tendents for each township, there were three for the county. 
The first of these were W. M. Sitzer, Levi Stowell and H. S. Cau- 
thorn. In 1857 A. W. Jones was chosen school examiner, a po- 
sition which he held, except a short interval, from 1867 to 
1873. For the year 1857 there were expended for public school 
purposes $7,002 in the county. For the year 1864-65 the enu- 
meration for the county outside of Vincennes was 4,931, the 
emoluments was 3.583, and the average attendance was 2,151. 
The value of school property was $65,825, the amount ex- 
pended in tuition $2,000, and the pay of school ofiicers was $564. 
The enumeration for 1868 in the townships was 5,555, the enroll- 
ment was 4,029, the attendance 2,402, the value of school prop- 
erty was $61,150, the amount expended for tuition was $3,805, 
and the expenses of school officers was $849.95. The enumera- 
tion for 1871 in the county was 6,215, the enrollment was 4,475, 
the average attendance was 2,732, the value of school property 
was estimated at $53,725, the amount paid for tuition was $3,286, 
and the expense of school officers was $600. 

In 1876 the enumeration was 6,786, the enrollment was 5,078, 
the average attendance was 2,859, the value of school property for 
the same year was $43,000, the amount paid in tuition was $4,000, 
and the pay of the trustees amounted to $1,668. The enrollment 
for 1884 in all the townships was 4,868, the attendance 2,985, 
the value of school property was $81,05, the amount of tuition 
paid was $6,300, the amount paid to trustees was $2,016. The 
number admitted into the schools for the year 1885-86 was 5,948, 
the average attendance for the same year was 3,979, the value of 
school property was $87,105, the cost of running schools, salaries 
of trustees only, was $2,291. The cost of special and local tax 
was $20,380. 


From Supt. Pennington's last report it is learned that Busseron 
Township has 1 brick and 5 frame schoolhouses, the value of 
which, with apparatus, is $9,900; that there are 7 male, 5 female, 


white, and 1 colored female teacher employed; that the average 
wages of male teachers is §2.23, of females $1.96, and the amount 
paid the trustee is $220 per annum, and that the length of school 
term is 120 days. In Decker Township there is 1 brick and 5 
frame houses, and the total value of school property is $2,575; 
that there are employed 6 male teachers at an average of $2.16, 
and that the amount paid the trustee is $100, and the length o£ 
school term is 105 days. Harrison Township has 19 frame 
houses and school property amounting to $10,000; that there are 
employed 11 male, 7 female white teachers and 1 colored male 
teacher; that the average cost of male teachers is $2.01, and fe- 
male teachers, $1.86; that the trustees receive $150, and the 
school term is 120 days. Johnson has 10 frame schoolhouses and 
school property worth $7,800, and employs 5 male and 6 female 
teachers, the cost of the former being $2.18, and the latter $2.27 
per day; the trustee receives $160, and the school term is 150 
days. Palmyra has 11 frame schoolhouses, the total value of 
which is $4,730. It has 6 male and 5 female teachers, the former 
averaging $2.31 and the latter $1.96; the trustee receives $125, 
and the school term is 100 days. Steen has 9 frame school- 
houses and school property worth $3,600, and employs 6 male and 
4 female teachers; the wages of the former are $2.17, and the lat- 
ter $1.29; the trustee's salary is $114, and school term 120 
days. Vigo has 9 brick and 6 frame schoolhouses, valued at 
$15,400. There are employed 7 male and 17 female teachers, the 
wages of the former being $2.31 and the latter $2.01; the salary 
of the trustee is $422, and school term, 115 days. Vincennes 
Township has 2 brick and 9 frame schoolhouses, the value of 
which is $12,800. There are employed 2 male and 8 female teach- 
ers, the wages of the males being $2.12, and the latter $2.02; the 
salary of the trustee is $300, and school term 160 days. Wash- 
ington has 5 brick and 6 frame buildings, valued at $12,200, and 
employs 10 male and 3 female teachers; the wages of the males 
is $2.37, of the females, $2.08; trustee's salary, $225, and school 
term, 120 days. Widner Township has 7 brick and 3 frame 
houses, worth $8,100. There are 5 male and 7 female teachers; 
the wages of the males is $2.49, of the females, $2.11; salary of 
the trustee is $75, and the school term is 106 days. Monroe 


City lias 3 teachers — 1 male aud 2 female ; the male teacher gets 
$2.62 per day, and the female §2.45. The number of graduates 
for the year 1883 was 71; for 1884, 49; for 1885 it was 66, aud 
for the year 1886 it is estimated at 50. 


Schools for the first half of the present century were either 
private or parochial schools except what accommodations were 
afforded at the university or seminary. The free school system 
was inaugurated in Viucennes in 1853. At that time George D. 
Hay, John W. Canan, and Lambert Barrios were chosen trustees. 
"Want of funds prevented them from making the schools very 
efficient. In 1855 the schools were only three months in length, 
and three teachers were required to do all the teaching at salaries 
ranging from $40 to $50 per month. The schools in 1857 had 
increased to five months. From that time till 1861 A. W. Jones 
held the position of principal at a salary of $50 per month. In 
1860 the Seventh Street school building was erected at a cost of 
$18,949.49 by the trustees, Messrs. Lander, Williams, and Duester- 
burg. Prof. H. P. Hall was chosen superintendent, and A. W. 
Jones assistant ; also there were three other teachers. The school 
term in 1860 was increased to ten months, and has been main- 
tained at about that length since. A. W. Jones was again made 
superintendent in 1863, and held the position till his death in 
1873. The Frenchtown school building was erected in 1878 at a 
cost of $7,275. 

The North Vincennes school building was erected during the 
summer of 1885. This building is an elegant structure, and cost 
about $10,000. In 1853 the number of teachers employed was 
only 3 ; in 1861 it was 5 ; in 1863 it was 6, and now the number, 
not including the superintendent, is 21. The course of study 
embraces twelve years' work, foijr of which are in the high 
school. There is both an English and a Latin course. The 
school being a chartered institution, its graduates are entitled to 
enter either of the State institutions without examination. The 
high school is equipped with chemical, philosophical, and astro- 
nomical apparatus. There is also a good library of reference 
accessible to all pupils. Promotions to the different grades are 


made semi-annually. There are special teachers for mnsic and 
German. Since the adoption of a regular course of study for the 
city schools there have been about 150 graduated from the high 
school. The numbei; of children enumerated in Vincennes in 
1864 was 1,394, the enrollment was 710, the average attend- 
ance was 365, and the value of school property was estimated at 
$3,000, and the cost of the schools was about 81,500. In 1868 the 
enumeration was 1,834, the enrollment 690, the attendance 345, 
the amount paid in tuition was $1,669.61; the pay of the board 
was $300. The enumeration for 1871 was 2,118, the enrollment 
was 699, the attendance 458, and cost of tuition, $5,685. In 
1876 the enumeration was 3,392, the enrollment 1,010, the at- 
tendance 580, and the cost of tuition $7,630. The enrollment for 
1884 was 947, the attendance, 817. The enrollment for 1885 was 
999, the attendance was 827. The enrollment for 1886 was about 
1,050, with an estimated attendance of 800. The high school 
was brought to the standard of a high school under Prof. S. J. 
Charlton, who began work at Vincennes in 1873. He was suc- 
ceeded by Prof. Townsend in 1879, and he by Prof. Edward Tay- 
lor in 1881, who is still superintendent, under whose manage- 
ment the schools have been eminently successful. The principals 
under him are Miss Joe Crotts, Sixth Ward; Miss Annie Flynn, 
Frenchtown; Miss Amabel Fleming, high school; Miss Mag- 
gie Holland, assistant, and J. F. Lewis, principal of the colored 


The schools of this township were first taught in neglected 
residences, barns or hastily improved buildings. Many of the 
settlers were accommodated with schools in the lower part of the 
township at Old Indiana Church, and those in the upper part of 
the township at Mana Creek, near Emison's mill. The ministers 
of these churches not unfrequently taught to increase their 
scanty salaries. Eev. Eichard Posey, a pioneer Methodist minis- 
ter, was also a teacher. Others were Johnson, Willard, Thomp- 
son and Montgomery. William and Horace Shepard were also 
widely known as teachers. A man named Mendenhall taught at 
Emison's mill, also in other parts of the township. James Polk 
was also a prominent teacher of this township. The people of 


this township are now well supplied with schools, there being 
eleven houses outside of Bruceville, of these houses five are 
brick, and six frame. The public schools of this township are 
six months in length. 

Schools have been taught in Bruceville and vicinity since 
1820. It is only within the last decade that the schools of this 
place have grown in such favor. The present building was 
erected in 1873, at a cost of $6,000. The building is a handsome 
two-story brick, and is well provided with apparatus. One very 
encouraging feature of this is that the work of furnishing the 
house is due largely to the teacher and pupils, by means of liter- 
ary and other entertainments. The schools enroll between 150 
and 200 pupils ; of these about sixty are in the high school de- 
partment. The course embraces a full common school course. 
The schools are under the management of 0. M. Carpenter, prin- 
cipal; O. C. Hill, assistant principal; Flora Kessinger, interme- 
diate, and Jessie Gude, primary. In addition to the public schools 
a normal school has been maintained at Bruceville since March, 
1878. This school was organized in 1878 by John W. Milam, at 
Edwardsport, assisted by E. B. Milam, at that time county super- 
intendent, and W. H. Pennington, the present county superintend- 
ent, and Miss Currie, of Vincennes. The number enrolled for the 
first term was ninety-four. In the spring of 1879 the school was 
opened by Messrs. Milam, Pennington and W. A. CuUop. The 
last named gentleman having been chosen for a position in the 
Vincennes University, his place was filled by Jonathan Keith. In 
1880 the school was opened at Bruceville, as being a more desira- 
ble place on account of its central location. The term for 1880 
had forty-six pupils enrolled; for 1881, sixty -two, and in 1882 
there were seventy-six. Successful terms were taught in 1883 
by S. P. McCrea and B. F. Wharton, and in 1884 by W. H. John- 
son and C. B. Kessinger. The normal for 1885 was under the 
management of C. M. Carpenter and W. H. Johnson, the enroll- 
ment reaching eighty-five. Again, in 1886, the school opened 
under C. B. Carpenter and assistants with flattering prospects. 
The normal seems to be a permanent institution. 


As this township was mainly of Harrison and Palmyra Town- 


ships the schools were closely identified with these townships. 
Nancy Steen has the honor of being the pioneer schoolmistress 
of Steen Township. She taught for a number of years in the vi- 
cinity of where Wheatland now stands. Harrell Warther taught 
a term of school at a very early day in a house in John Steen' s 
yard. A very prominent teacher of the time was James I. Prather. 
Other teachers followed these whose names are not now recalled. 
Steen Township now has nine schoolhouses, and a school term 
of six months. 


The first schools in the northern part of Vigo were taught in 
the Slinkard neighborhood, between Black Creek and the river. 
These schools were in the regulation log house, with dirt floor, mud 
chimney, clapboard door and paper windows. One of the first 
teachers in this neighborhood was M. Johnson, and another was 
John Clark. Very few even of the old pupils are alive who at- 
tended these schools. Anna EoUin was the pioneer female 
teacher. In this group also should be mentioned James Frost, 
Samuel Anderson and a man named Golden. At these schools 
the families of Andersons, Scomps and Slinkards attended. In 
the lower part of the township schools were taught by John A. 
Lemon, John Robinson, an eccentric Irishman named Donahue 
(who was a good scholar but only a fair teacher), Amasa Has- 
kell, John Donaldson, D. P. Telf and a Mr. McMillan. The lat- 
ter taught about the year 1834. 

James Polk, still living, was one of the fii'st teachers in Ed- 
wardsport. The first schoolhouse in Edwardsport was a log 
building and was blown dovm in a storm in 1834 or 1835. In this 
house Martin Lucas kept store for a time. The next house in the 
place was built in 1859, which is still in use. As an effort was 
being made at this time for the creation of a new county to be 
called Logan, an erroneous idea had for a long time prevailed 
that this house was intended for a court house for the new county. 
Its peculiar appearance doubtless tended to confirm that idea. 
The building was erected through the influence mainly of Alfred 
Simonson, Dr. Hilburn, J. B. Irving, David Killian and Thomas 
Curry. The building contains three large and a number of 
smaller rooms now used for recitation rooms. Five teachers are 



employed in these schools, the length of the term being seven 
months. The teachers for 1885-86 were C Cockrum, principal; 
Emily Keith, assistant and teacher in the high school; Emily 
Culbertson, grammar grade ; Emily HoUowell, intermediate, and 
Lida Smith, primary. 

The school building at Saudborn was erected soon after the 
laying out of the town. The building is a two-story brick and 
contains three schoolrooms. The course is the same as others 
of the county. The enrollment of the school is about 125 pupils. 
Mr. Elmore Shirtz is principal of the schools, and J. M. Pickel 
teacher in the intermediate department, and Miss Threlkeld in 
the primary. 

The present school building of Bicknell was erected in 1883 
at a cost of $5,500. This is a beautiful brick building of two 
stories high and elegant finish. The schools are well patronized 
and since their organization have been well managed. Prof. 
Johnson is principal of the schools, Mrs. Mamie Breton 
teacher in the intermediate department, and John Buck in the 
primary grade. Since all the schools of Bicknell, Sandborn and 
Edwardsport are under the control of the township trustees they 
are of the same lengtli and have the same course. 


One of the fii-st schools in this township was in a house built 
near the line between Palmyi-a and Harrison Townships. This 
was built after the pioneer plan. Among the early teachers in 
this part of the county were John Black, G. Brewster and 
William Gambel, all of whom have long since passed away. The 
families of Adams, Williams, Seltzers and Weltons attended this 
school. To the children in the west and northwest part of the 
township schools were held at Indiana Church. A schoolhouse 
was built, or a house used for school purposes, on the farm of 
Samuel Langdon, where Mr. Langdon himself taught for a time. 
Eoyal Oak, near the northeast part of the township, was another 
favorite place for schools. John Donaldson, a very good teacher, 
was one of the first teachers at this place. L. Paddock, a native 
of New York, taught at the same place for a time. James 
Mundy, a good teacher, and Eobert Jordan, a very indifferent 


one, were employed at a later date. Houses were built also on 
the farms of Snyder and Roberts. There are now eleven schools 
in the township with an average length of five months. 


Except in a small area Decker Township has always been 
sparsely settled, for the reason it has labored under disadvan- 
tages in the way of schools. What few schools there were, were 
either taught in old private houses that had been abandoned, or 
temporarily improved buildings. The fii'st teacher in the town- 
ship is said to have been Samuel Goodwin. He was an excellent 
teacher for that day. Another excellent teacher of Decker was 
Thomas Jones; he was fi-om the East. James Simms and John 
Small were teachers at a later date. Among the attendants at 
these schools were the families of Deckers, Dicks, Authises, 
Jacobuses. Nearly all of these have passed away. The rapid 
increase of school funds and development of the waste lands of 
the township have enabled the people to provide more liberal 
means of education. There being no towns or villages in the 
place, schools are confined wholly to the country. The township 
now supports six schools, one brick house and four frame houses, 
and has a school term of between five and six months. 


The schools of Busseron (formerly spelled Bosseron) Town- 
ship were among the earliest in the county. The well-known 
Shaker settlement at what was called Shakertown, was the seat of 
learning for that peculiar people, as far as education went with 
them, as early as 1810. The rudiments of an education and the 
peculiar tenets of their doctrine were taught the children there 
were among them with zealous care. One of the fii-st school- 
houses built in this township was on the farm of Sproatt, who was 
one of the first settlers in the township. This house was erected 
about the year 1825. Another house was built on the farm of 
John Ochiltree, some distance fi-om the Shaker settlement. The 
families of settlers mentioned in the chapter on settlements at- 
tended these schools. Another schoolhouse was erected a little 
later at Hogg's Hill. Among the early teachers in this township 


were Judge Latshaw, who taught about the year 1830. Another 
was Charles Shaw, who was a fine scholar, but a very eccentric 
Yankee. James Carnahan was both a teacher and a preacher. 
James Polk, the talented octogenarian, was also an early teacher. 
Many others might be mentioned, but their names only are re- 
membered, though their characters were enstamped upon the 
hearts of the young of that day. A peculiarity of the Shaker 
school was that the sexes were taught in different apartments; 
the boys were taught by male teachers, and the girls by females. 
The rapid increase in wealth and population, as well as an in- 
crease in culture, has led to the establishment of a sufficient 
number of commodious houses for the accommodation of the 
children of the township. Good brick or frame houses have 
taken the place of the old log house, and teachers of training 
have taken the place of uncouth pioneer teachers. The schools 
have been managed with ability by Dr. Pugh for the last four 
years, and there are now nine buildings outside of Oaktown, with • 
an average length of six months. 

Schools have been taught in Oaktown since the laying out of 
the town. The present building is an elegant brick structure, 
erected at a cost of about $6,000. The house is built in a beau- 
tiful spot surrounded by a grove, and capable of accommodating 
about 200 pupils. This, the graded school, has three depart- 
ments — primary, intermediate and high school. Of the first, 
Mrs. Susie Sullenger is teacher. Miss Hattie Polk of the second, 
and B. F. Templeton is princijDal of the high school. The school 
is well supplied with school books and school apparatus, and in- 
struction is given in the high school in some of the higher 
in addition to the common school course. 


The first schoolhouse in Harrison Township is said to have 
been at Nelson Creek, on the land of James Junkins. This house 
was of the regulation size, about 16x20 feet, with dirt floor and 
stick and mud chimney. A log was cut out on one side for a win- 
dow, and closed by greased paper. Benjamin Duty tauglit at this 
place for $10 a year per scholar. He was a good scholar for the 
time, but was considered tyrannical. Daniel Webb and Stephen 


"Webb were also early teachers of that section. Of those who 
attended these schools Samuel Snyder, William Hoffman, Mrs. 
Kice (sister of ex-Gov. Williams) and Eobert'McCoy are beliered 
to be the only ones living. At a later date a schoolhouse was 
built on old man Like's land, also one in the Myers settlement. 
Many schools were taught in private houses or barns. Among 
other early teachers were Isaac Thorn, James Stoat, McClure 
and Barnett. Dr. Adams, of Petersburg, taught school as late 
as 1845. After the adoption of the new constitution school- 
houses began to become more numerous. The fii-st were gener- 
ally log houses, built partly by the State and partly by the assist- 
ance of the community where they were located. Within the 
last two decades these old log buildings have been replaced by 
handsome frame structures. The township now has sixteen 
schoolhouses outside of Monroe City, and a school term of at 
least six months in the year. Until the incorporation of Monroe 
City the schools were under the control of the township trustee, 
but since the incorporation they have been under the control of 
the school board. The present school building is a two-story 
frame, erected in 1864. It is insufficient for the wants and com- 
forts of the growing town of Mom-oe City. The school terms of 
Monroe have a length of about eight months. The schools are 
under the management of Allen Campbell, who is principal of 
the high school. The assistants are Mrs. Lucy Milam, of the 
intermediate department, and Cora Welton, of the primary. The 
school board consists of A. C. Falls, J. B. R. Snyder and Harvey 


The first school ever taught in Widner Township was taught 
by Joseph Helt at the house of John Widner in 1808. As each 
house was then almost a fort in itself it would now be a strange 
sight to see children gathering at such a place. Schools were 
taught at Maria Creek Chiu'ch, the pioneer of that region, the first 
being in 1809. Titus B. Willard, who was an excellent teacher, 
taiight as early as 1816. John Leman was also a favorite teacher 
of that region. His schools, or some of them, were held in some 
of the old forts of which the coiintry "did abound." James Gray, 
another pioneer, was engaged in the work of teaching as early as 


1818-20. Numerous home and itinerant teachers filled the space 
between the date last given, and the putting into full operation of 
our present excellent system of public schools. The township out- 
side of Freelandsville has seven brick and three fi'ame school- 
houses, and a school term of five months. 

The first school building in Freelandsville was built about 
1850. This was before the town was laid out. The rapidly increas- 
ing population soon required additional school room. The present 
building was erected in 187-4, and is a substantial two-story brick 
structure of three school rooms. Since its erection excellent 
schools have been maintained in it. The present corps of teachers 
are J. A. French, principal ; B. F. Shepard, intermediate; Hattie 
Keith, primary. The schools of Freelandsville are among the best 
in the county. They are under the management of the township 
trustee and are subject to the same restrictions as the country 
schools. An excellent private or normal class is usually taught 
after the close of the public schools. 


The first schoolhouse in Johnson was the old "Township 
House of Learning and Worship," built in 1820. This stood on 
the land then belonging to St. Clair Minor. The patrons of this 
school were the Catts, Peas, Minors, Mails, Glasses, Edwardses, 
Purcells and others. This house was used until a comparatively 
recent date for the purpose indicated in its name. The earlier 
teachers were Rev. Benjamin Hall and a Mr. Martin. Hall had 
a wide reputation both as teacher and minister, and his death was 
of comparatively recent date. The teachers following these were 
Mace Wallace, a well-known teacher. Garret Cochran, two of the 
Wheelers and a man named Webb. The names of others have 
passed with the individuals. Though not the first to take advan- 
tage of the school system, it is believed the schools of Johnson 
equal any in the county as there are now eleven schoolhouses 
in the township, and twelve teachers are employed with an average 
length of term of nearly eight months. Deckertown in this 
township has a graded school. The building was erected in 1877 
and is a two-story frame structure of three rooms. Only two of ' 
the school rooms have been occujsied heretofore, but in the future 
the three will be required. 



Religious History of the County— A Connected Accoitnt of the 
Various Church Organizations; theirOrigin, Members, Minis- 
ters, Buildings, Revivals, Camp-meetings, and General Prog- 
ress, Together with Much Other Matter of Public Interest. 


THE history of the Catholic Church of Vincennes, in the early 
years of its existence, . is almost a history of Vincennes itself. 
The history really begins with Father Marquette and other Jesuit 
missionaries, who went forth with wonderful zeal for their relig- 
ion and fidelity for their king. Since 1748 the history is a mat- 
ter of record, yet some very authentic history exists before that 
date. Father Marest, in a letter dated Kaskaskia, November 9, 
1712, says: "The French having lately established a post on the 
Wabash, demanded a missionary, and Father Mermet was sent 
them." True to the instincts of his teaching he labored zeal- 
ously with the French and their neighbors, the Indians. His 
efforts were particularly directed to the Mascoutins in trying to 
teach them the worship of the true Manitou. Father Mermet died 
at Kaskaskia. It is supposed that Father Seuat was pastor at Vin- 
cennes about 1736. He accompanied an expedition under Francis 
Morgan de Vinsenne and Dartaquette against the Chickasaws, 
and perished along with his companions. The second record 
bears date April 21, 1749, and is signed by the Jesuit Father, 
Sabastian Louis Meurin, and records the marriage of Julien Trat- 
tier. of Montreal, Canada, and Josette Marie, the daughter of a 
Frenchman and an Indian woman. The following record of bap- 
tism is made on June 25, 1749: 

I baptised John Baptiste, son of Peter Siapicliagane and of Catharine 
Mekieve; Francis Filatraux was god-father, and Mary Mikitchenseire was god- 
mother. Sabast. Lou. Meurin. 

The certificates are also signed by M. de St. Ange, "Lieuten- 
ant of Marines and Commandant for the King at Post Vincennes. " 


In December, Madame Trattier, whose marriage was before men- 
tioned, died and was buried in the church "under her pew on the 
Gospel side." The last recorded official act of Father Meurin was 
the burial of the wife of a corporal in the garrison, March 17, 1753. 
Father Meurin was called to a broader field, and was succeeded at 
Vincennes by the Jesuit Father, Louis Vivier, from 1753-56. 
His first record was a marriage, May 20, 1753, and on the 24th the 
burial of Pierre Leonardy, lieutenant of the garrison; his last 
was August 28, 1750. Half of the records are of "red or In- 
dian slaves " belonging to the commandant and to the inhabitants. 
The last Jesuit missionary at Vincennes was Father Julien Du 
Vernay, from 1756-63. In the interval from 1763-70, Phili- 
bert dit Orleans, a notary public, kept the records. In 1770 
the Very Rev. Pierre Gibbault arrived in Vincennes, whereThe re- 
mained at intervals till 1770. On his arrival at Vincennes he es- 
timated the population g,t 700 or 800. Col. Clark met Father 
Gibbault at Kaskaskia and explained his intention of capturing 
Vincennes, and sent him back to use his influence with the French 
for the American cause. The people were assembled in the church 
and the matter explained by Father Gibbault, when they, en masse, 
took the oath of allegiance to Virginia and chose Capt. Helm com- 
mandant of the post, from which the cross of St. George was 
hauled down and the stars and stripes unfurled to the breeze. Gov. 
Hamilton took possession again in a short time in the name of the 
British king, but it was again retaken by Clark's heroic band Feb- 
ruary 25, 1779. During the interval from 1775-84 Philibert 
again performed the duties as done heretofore. In 1784 Father 
Gibbault again visited Vincennes, accompanied by Eev. M. Paget, 
who invalidated the work done by Philibert. In May Gibbault 
again took up his residence in Vincennes. A church was in ex- 
istence at Vincennes as early as 1750, as Father Meurin records 
the burial of Madame Trattier in that year, in the church, "under 
her pew on the Gospel side." Father Gibbault says, in 1784, a 
new church had been built, 90x42 feet, and he had adopted the old 
one as a parsonage. At this time English names appear on 
the register. In July, 1786, for the first time a man was 
buried who had been murdered by the Indians. In 1789, 
Father Gibbault installed Pierre Mallet, a layman, as guardian 


of the church until the arrival of Eey. M. Flaget, in 1792. 
Father Flaget found the church in Vincennes in a sad con- 
dition. The building was poor, open and neglected; the altar, a 
temporary structure, was of boards, and badly put together. He 
found the congregation in a worse fix even than the church. Out 
of nearly 700 but twelve could be induced to approach holy com- 
munion during Christmas festivities. He labored zealously among 
the French, who, he says, were intermarried with the Indians, 
and had contracted many of their savage habits, and were more 
careless than the Indians. Rev. Flaget, after a brief interval, 
was succeeded by Father Levadoux, sent at the request of Col. 
Vigo; was succeeded by Rev. John Francis Rivet. 

He was particularly zealous among the Indians. Many mar- 
riages and baptisms among the Indians were recorded by him, 
the greater number being among the Pottawattomies. There 
were also many among the tribes of Miamis, Shawanees, Charaguis, 
Piankeshaws, Weas, Sioux and Kaskaskias. The first record was 
the marriage of a Pottawattomie to a Shawnee. He mentions 
with praise " the old praying man," Louis, a converted chief, 
who died at their encampment on White River. Father Rivet 
died January 31, 1804, the only one of thirty up to 1834 who 
died at that place. The tenth in order was Rev. Donatian Olivier, 
in 1805, who was succeeded in 1806 by Father Nerinckz for a 
short time, and he by Father Urban Guillet, a monk, in 1808 ; in 
1809 he was succeeded by Father Olivier. In 1810 came Father 
Etienne Theodore Badin; in 1813 Father Olivier, and in 1814 
Bishop Flaget paid two visits to Vincennes, and the same year 
Rev. G. J. Chabat had charge. In 1817 Father Rosati was 
called: in 1818 Rev. Father Acquaroni, and in the same year 
Rev. Anthony Blanc, followed by Father Jeaujean. In 1819 Rev. 
A. Ferrari; 1820, Rev. M. Dakman; 1821, Rev. Richard; 1828, 
Rev. Father Champomier; 182(3, Father Durbin; 1827, Father 
Abell, Father Fouche; 1830, Father Timon; 1831, Fathers Picot 
and Reynolds; 1833, Rev. S. P. Lalumire and Father Petit; 1884, 
Bishop Bute. In 1886, Rev. G. de la Harlandiere till 1889 ; Rev. 
Aug. Martin until 1843 ; Rev. T. Courjault until 1846, and Rev. 
Ernest Audran until 1870. Rev. John Contin had charge till 
1876, when Rev. John Gueguen succeeded him, who had for his as- 


sistants Kevs. Mousset and Oster respectively. Eev. Hugh Peyth- 
ien was the next in order, assisted by Rev. Oster at first, and after- 
ward by Rev. Thomas McLaughlin. This congregation numbers 
aboiit 250 families. On its grounds are the church, library and 
episcopal residence. Faux Chenal and St. Rose are attended 
from Vincennes. A large brick schoolhoiise stands near the ca- 
thedral, which is used as a boys' school, and is taught by the 
Brothers of the Holy Cross. The girls have been taught by the 
Sisters of Providence since their arrival in the diocese. The 
attendance of the two schools is about 200. 

The see of Vincennes was erected in 1834, and the Rt. Rev. 
Simon G. W. Bunti was made its first bishop, and performed 
the work of that office faithfully until his death in June, 1839. 
Rt. Rev. Celestine Rene Lawrence Guynemer de la Hailandiere 
became the second bishop of the diocese of Vincennes in 1839, 
and remained in that ofiice till his resignation in 1847. John 
Stephen Bazin was consecrated bishop of Vincennes October 24, 
1847, but died April 23, 1848. Rt. Rev. James M. Maurice de 
Long d'Aussac de St. Palais was administrator of the diocese from 
the death of Bishop Bazin, April 23, 1848, till his consecration 
January 14, 1849. His death occurred June 28, 1877. Rt. 
Rev. Francis Silas Chatard was duly installed bishop August 
11, 1878. Since his installation the residence of the bishop has 
been at Indianapolis instead of Vincennes. 


Previous to 1851 the German Catholics worshiped at the 
cathedral, with occasional services in German. In 1846 Rev. 
Charles Oppermann attended them, and in 1847 Rev. Conrad 
Schneiderjans, with their residence at the cathedral. In 1851 
Rev. Nicholas Stauber built the first church, a portion of the 
present church, of brick, 80x40 feet. After Stauber came Rev. 
Leonard Brandt, who had charge till 1856. The first resident 
priest was William Engeln, who remained till 1853. The first 
pastor. Rev. Aegidius Joseph Merz, took charge in September 
1863. In 1866 he removed the sanctuary and enlarged the build- 


ing in the form of a cross. It is now 154x40 feet, and has a 
transept 80x40 feet. The congregation numbers about 350 
families. The grounds and buildings are considered among the 
finest in the diocese. Their erection and completion are largely 
due to the present pastor, Eev. Merz. The first school was opened 
in 1851, and taught in private houses for several years. In 1856 
a small one-story brick house was erected on the present church 
property. In 1873 Father Merz had this removed, and erected in 
its stead the jM-eseut spacious two-story building. The school is 
taught by a layman and four Sisters of Providence. The attend- 
ance is about 300 children. 


This chiirch was organized by Eev. Samuel B. Eobertson, of 
Kentucky, in 1806, a short distance in the country. The Eev. 
Samuel T. Scott was the first pastor. He began his work in 1807. 
Preaching in Vincennes was either in private houses or in the old 
court house at the corner of Third and Buntin Sti-eets. Member- 
ship was held either with the upper or lower congregation until 
1833, when the number of members in Vincennes was deemed 
sufficient for a separate organization. To the Eev. Scott is due 
the credit of establishing the Presbyterian Church in Vincennes 
and Knox County. Eev. Scott continued his work with the church 
till his death in 1827, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Eev. 
S. E. Alexander, who continued to preach in Indiana until within 
a few years past. Eev. Scott was an intimate friend of Gen. 
Harrison and Col. Vigo, the wife of the latter being a member of 
the church. On January 5, 1833, the following persons were or- 
ganized into a church at Vincennes: John Buner, Samuel Harris, 
Lydia Harris, Samuel Smith, James Kuykendall, Sarah Hay, 
Patsey Hill, Elizabeth Decker, Mrs. Shaddock, John McGriffin, 
Elizabeth Wyant, Minerva Eoseman, Andrew Graham, Mrs. Gra- 
ham, Elizabeth Graham, Jane Suler, Mrs. Driatt, Francis Bruner, 
Joseph Maddox, Mary Small, Elizabeth Smith, Catherine Kuy- 
kendall, J. D. Hay, E. Dooley, Elizabeth McCall, William E, Mc- 
Call, John C. Holland, Elias Budle, Hannah Wise, Mrs. Lucree 
and Mrs. Nycewonger. A considerable amount of funds was 
raised in the East for the erection of the new church. This was 


done through the influence of Eevs. Alexander and Hawley. A 
brick church was erected at the corner of Fifth and Busseron 
Streets, 40x60 feet. The first pastor of this church was Rev. W. 
W. Martin, who remained from January, 1833, till 1885 ; others 
have been John McNarr, 1835-36; Thomas Alexander, 1836- 
47; John F. Smith, 1817-56; John W. Blythe, 1856-58; 
J. F. Jennison, 1859-60; Eli B. Smith, 1861-66; John F. 
Hendy, 1868-72. On Ajwil 20, 1872, there occurred a division 
in the church, and eighty-seven members withdrew and organized 
themselves into the Second Presbyterian Church. For a time 
they worshiped in the old frame building used as the university, 
but soon erected the large brick church near the corner of Main 
and Sixth Streets at a cost of $9,000; each also erected parsonages 
for their pastors. On April 8, 1873, the First Presbyterian 
Church being without a pastor, the two united on Rev. Joseph 
Yance. The two churches are now united. There were debts 
overhanging both parsonages, and by agreement the First was 
sold to pay the debts of both; the church on Main Street was 
taken for jJi'eaching services, and the other for Sunday-school, 
prayer meeting, etc. In 1884 a new and elegant church was 
erected on Sixth Street, opposite the university. This church is 
the most handsome in the city, and cost about $14,000. Rev. E. 
P. Whallon became pastor of this church August 13, 1878, and 
has served acceptably ever since. The present membership of 
the church is about 300. 


This church was organized in 1803 by Rev. William Winans. 
Rev. Winans was an intimate friend of Gen. Harrison, and was 
a frequent guest at his house. Mr. Winans' first appointment 
was "in a small room in Post St. Vincent. The appointment was at 
night, and tallow candles were used to give light for the occa- 
sion. Gov. Harrison held one of the candles while the minister 
read his text and his hymn. The government oflicers, a few En- 
glish and French settlers, and two or three Indians made up the 
congregation." The Rev. Winans was succeeded in the pastorate 
in 1810 by John M. Baker, and he by Thomas Stilwell in 1811. 
In 1812 came James Turner, and Rev. Richard Richardson in 


1813. Zachariali Chitten was pastor in 1814, and John Shrader 
in 1815. The last named did as much, or more, perhaps, than 
any other man to buikl up Methodism in southern Indiana. The 
nest was Thomas Davis, in 1816; James McCord, in 1817, and a 
part of the time Charles Slocum; and in 1818 John McCord. 
The appointments then extended over Knox, Daviess, Martin and 
Greene Counties. Steps were taken April 18, 1828, for the erec- 
tion of a church. For $50 Lot 132, the same "being on the cor- 
ner of Buntm Street and the third street parallel with the Wa- 
bash Eiver," was procured. The deed was made to David S. 
Bonner, Eichard Posey and Thomas Collins, of Lawrence County, 
III, and their successors in office forever, by John Cleves and 
Symmes Harrison, attorney-in-fact for Gen. Harrison, of North 
Bend, Hamilton Co., Ohio. It was to be used for the erection 
thereon of a Methodist Episcopal Church. The church was for 
the preachers of the Methodist Episcopal Church to expound 
"God's Holy Word," and "for all other denominations of rep- 
utable standing when not in use by the Methodists, subject, 
however, to the wish of a majority of the trustees." The present 
church stands on the same lot, the house having been twice re- 
modeled. This church now numbers about 350 members, and 
maintains a Sabbath-school of about 200. The church owns its 
house and parsonage, and is out of debt. The present pastor is 
Rev. W. H. Grim. 


The Christian Chui-ch in Vincennes was organized on the 
third Sabbath in June, 1833. Among the first members were 
H. D. Wheeler and wife. Other old members were Mr. and Mrs. 
Wheeler, Mrs. Harriet Judah, Dr. John E. Mantle and Stephen 
Burnet. The congregation worshiped in private houses, the 
court house, and in the town hall till 1846, when a brick house 
was erected on the corner of Buntin and Perry Streets. The 
trustees at that time were Dr. John E. Mantle, Alpheus Draper 
and H. D. Wheeler. In 1878 this house was repaired and re- 
modeled at a cost of $3,600. The congregation has had the fol- 
lowing pastors: Elijah Goodwin, one of the pioneers of the 
State; P. K. Dibble, J. M. Mathews, Dr. Eccles, O. A. Bartholo- 
mew, T. T. Holton, W. H. Tiller and Thomas J. Clark, who has 


been serving this congregation for the last thirteen years. The 
church, according to its custom, maintains a Sabbath-school, 
which now numbers about 125. The membership of the chui'ch 
is about 200. 


The organization of the Baptist Church in Vincennes is due 
mainly to the exertion of Mrs. Heberd, who began to make efforts 
to secure a pastor and have a church organized in 1860. The 
Eev. J. S. Gillespie came to Vincennes in September, 1861, and 
held a series'of meetings in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He returned again in February, 1862. The Eev. Gillespie re- 
signed a prosperous church at Greencastle and refused a tempting 
offer at Terre Haute and came to Vincennes, where he had not 
even a chui-ch organization. Meetings were held in the city hall 
at first, and prayer meetings at the house of the Eev. Gillespie, 
at the corner of Sixth and Cherry Streets. The church was or- 
ganized at the Eev. Gillespie's May 1, 1862, with the follow- 
ing members: Mrs. Heberd, Mrs. Buck, Mrs. Flora, Mrs. Gus 
Wise, Miss L. Duree, Miss M. Gillespie, Mrs. L. Gillespie, 
Eev. J. S. Gillespie and Christian Ealler. Sunday-school was 
organized in the city hall with eighteen members. The erection 
of a house was begun under very discouraging circumstances. A 
lot was procured from J. C. Denny for $1,200, and a house 
erected at a cost of $4,600. This, with the lot and improvements, 
made a total cost of about $6,000. The bell and furnishing of 
the church were added in 1868. Mrs. Gus Wise and the Eev. 
Gillespie were particularly prominent in the erection of the 
church. After having completed the church and established it 
on a good basis the Eev. Gillespie resigned in 1867, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Eev. L. D. Eobinson, who remained two years. B. 
F. Cavens became pastor in 1871, and continued in that office two 
years; Dr. Stinson, of Terre Haute, from March to July, 1873. 
On July 1, 1875, Eev. J. Brandenburg accepted the pastorate 
and remained six years. On February, 4, 1883, Eev. J. H. But- 
ler became pastor. During the last few years the church has 
had great prosperity, having had over 100 accessions, and all 
of the church paid off. 



The parish of St. James of Vincennes was organized by Et. 
Kev. Jackson Kemper, October 27, 1839. The following were 
elected vestrymen: George Davis, George Cruikshank, John 
Cruikshank, James W. Greenhow, Samuel Langdon, A. T. Ellis 
and Joseph Somes. George W. Davis and James W. Greenhow 
were chosen wardens ; Joseph Somes, treasm-er, and G. W. Eath- 
bone, clerk of the vestry. The use of the large room in the town 
hall was obtained and fitted up at a cost of §117.21. Sei-vices 
were held there from February 5, 1840, till the consecration of 
the chiirch in August, 1843. St. James has always had talented 
rectors and its membership embraces some of the most wealthy 
and refined people in iihe city. 

ST. John's evangelical luthekan chuech. 
This was originally the St. John's Evangelical Church. 
The first building stood on the corner of Eighth and Scott Streets. 
Services were originally held in the Vincennes Market House. 
The first church was 3(5x60 feet. In 1859 a division of the 
church took place, and the Lutherans remained in possession of 
the church by paying those who withdrew the sum of $400. The 
present organization took place August 29, 1859, under the 
ministrations of the Eev. Peter Seuel, who continued pastor of 
this church till 1866, when he was siicceeded by J. D. F. Myer, 
and he in 1873 by J. W. Mueller. The old chiu-ch was torn 
down in 1876 and a new brick church erected in its place at a 
cost of about $9,000. The building is 40x70 feet. This denom-' 
ination has a large Sunday and day school. 

ST. John's evangelical chukch. 
This church was organized on the separation of the St. John's 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in August,1859, by Eev. C. Hoff- 
meister. The leading members at that time were John Haman, 
Frederick, William and Peter Eitterskamp, Jacob Brenhaus, Louis 
Bonsil and August Kitcher. A frame building was erected in 
1862, on the corner of Fifth and Hart Streets, at a cost of $1,000, 
size 24x50 feet. In 1866, a fi-ame parsonage was built at a cost of 
$1,200. The following have been pastors: Eev. C. Hoffmeister, 


F. Darlitz, William Jung, N. Burkart, P. Weber and Albert Schey. 
The church maintains a Sunday-school, also a parochial school. 


This church was organized by Eev. W. P. Quinn. Among 
the first members were Samuel Clark, Cornelius Sims, A. Me- 
gill, James Brunswick, William Johnson, Mary Johnson, Henry 
Eider, Anna Eider, T. Perry and H. H. Stewart. Services were 
held at the residences of members until the erection of a frame 
building 35x50 feet, at the corner of Tenth and Buntin Streets. 
Extensive repairs were made on this church in 1850. In 1875 
a new brick church 35x50 feet was erected on the site of the old 
church, at a cost of over $5,000. The following have been pas- 
tors of this congregation: Eevs. Daniel Winslow, G. W. Johnson, 
Eobert Johnson, James Curtis, Eobbin Jones, W. E. Eevels, 
Benjamin Hills, Emanuel Wilkerson, John Turner, B. L. Brooks, 
Levi W. Bass, Thomas Strotter, H. C. Nelson, Madison Patison, 

G. N. Black, William Jackson, H. B. Smith, J. H. Alexander, I. S. 
'Lewis, Jesse Bass, H. H. Wilson, J. E. Ferguson and Jason Bun - 

dy. The church is out of debt and has a membership of about 


The lower settlement of Washington attended church at old 
Indiana Church, and as churches were few and settlements scat- 
tering, people went long distances to church. The people living 
in the northern and western parts of the township were accommo- 
dated at Maria Creek. In the vicinity of Bruceville services 
were held at the residence of Maj. Bruce, also at the Eev. Eichard 
Posey's. The first ministers to labor in Washington were Isaac 
McCoy, Moses Tremble, Albert P. Shaw, John Harrison, Eichard 
Posey, William Hargrave (a son-in-law of Posey), William Brat- 
ton, J. Miller and Solomon Teverbaugh, an exhorter. Preaching 
was held by the Methodists in Bruceville as early as 1820, but no 
class was organized by them until 1832. The house of worship 
belonging to the Methodists was not erected till 1840. This de- 
nomination now has a new and elegant house and a membership 
of 100. The Presbyterian Church was organized in 1840 and 
the house erected in 1845. The membership of this denomina- 


tion is not large. The Christian Chxirch was organized in 1841, 
and the house erected in 1843. This people have also an excel- 
lent house and a membership of over 100. The Christians here, 
as elsewhere, maintain an excellent Sabbath-school. 


Marie Creek Baptist Church is beyond question the pioneer 
Baptist Church of Indiana. It bears the same rank among Bap- 
tist Chiirches that Indiana does among Presbyterians. Marie 
Creek was organized May 20, 1809, by Elder James McQuaid, 
with thirteen members, ten of whom lived in the vicinity of Marie 
Creek and three in Illinois. The members were A. Polk, Will- 
iam Polk and Sally, his wife, John Lemon and Polly Lemon, 
Charles Polk and Margaret Polk, William Bruce and Sally 
Bruce, and Charles Polk, Sr. ; Samuel Ellison and wife Phebe, 
and a colored man, William Morris, were from Illinois. Isaac 
McCoy and wife joined soon after. Mr. McCoy became pastor of 
the chui'ch. He was a man of remarkable merit and was a lion in 
the cause. A log meeting-house about twenty feet square was 
erected in 1810. This old house was used as a temporary residence 
by G. S. Cox, who came to the township in 1821. A schism arose 
in the church which caused a division in 1824. Marie was rebuilt 
in 1837 and now stands on Location 238, but a short distance from 
where the old church stood, and bears the date, 1809, in the cor- 
ner-stone. Marie Creek Church is a kind of Mecca for the old 
pioneers, and it brings to their minds many fond recollections of 
the past. A Methodist class was organized at Miller's residence 
in 1818. The first members of this class were A. Miller, wife, 
and two sons, Samuel and John, and Hugh Boss and wife. Soon 
after the families of John Scanling, Jacob Miller, J. Baker and 
Mr. Mclntire became members of this class. This organization 
still exists, but no house was erected till some time between 1840- 
50. It is now called Morris Chapel. A class was also organized 
in Freelandsville in 1875. The members consisted of G. W. Staf- 
ford, Anna Freeland, L. Patterson, E. D. Patterson, S. Johnson, 
John Johnson, E. Johnson, Mrs. C. Johnson and a few others. 
Their first house of worship was the old schoolhouse, which was 
purchased by them and refitted in comfortable style in 1875. 


Their ministers in order have been Eevs. Stafford, Lester, St. 
Clair, Culmes, Gaskins and G. D. "Wolf. The United Brethren 
Church was organized at Freelandsville October 15, 1878, by- 
Elder Jacob Ernst. The members were twelve in number. Among 
them were Adolf and Wilhelmina Dresman, William and Louisa 
Droste, Henry and Catharine Lane, H. A. and Agnes Albert, John 
and Caroline Gogum. These people used the houses of one or the 
churches till 1879, when they erected a house of their own at a 
cost of $2,150. This house was consecrated December 21, 1879. 
The present membership of this church is about fifty. The 
Christian Church at this place was organized December 23, 1869, 
by J. W. Wolfe and J. A. Chowing. They numbered at that time 
thirty-two members. Among that number were H. L. Bergeman, 
A. P. Cox, H. C. Cox, Joseph Conley, Jacob Faught and others. 
A house of worship, 32x52 feet was erected in 1872. This house 
was built by Henry Heithecker at a cost of $2,300. The member- 
ship of this church is now quite strong. Adjacent to the church 
is a church cemetery. About one mile east of Freelandsville is 
a large Lutheran Church. To this the majority of the families 
of the community belong. A parochial school is also maintained 
in connection with this church. 


The first preaching in this township was by Eev. John 
Schrader, a prominent minister. He was a German by birth 
and began jM'eaching "in the pocket" at a very early age, and 
continued till his death but a few years ago. He was followed 
later by Eevs. McBratten, Eeed, Stone and Stamer. All the 
churches in this township now belong to the Wheatland Circuit. 
Eeel's Chapel, is on the road leading horn Monroe City to 
Petersburg. This church was organized and a house built over 
forty years ago. Among the charter members were Abram Eeel, 
E. Palmer, and a Mr. Perry and Stibbins. The membership of 
this class now is thirty-seven. A class was organized by Mr. 
Aultleir, since known as Aultleir class. The members of this 
class were Charles Aultleir, G. W. Owens, the Coonrads, Ballards 
and Weltons. Hamelin Chapel was built about 1880. Its first 
members were Solomon Teverbaugh and daughter, Mrs. Stuckey, 


Simpson, Henry Thorn, J. H. Anderson and the Snyder family. 
Preaching was first held at Teverbaugh's residence. He was a 
man of strong convictions, rough fexterior and of prodigious 
strength, and was one of the first settlers in the county. The 
membership of this class now is 123. 

Walnut Grove was built about 1836, both for a church and a 
schoolhouse. This was the favorite child of Governor Will- 
iam. The first members of tliis class were Jacob Teverbaugh and 
the Collins family. The membership of this class now is twenty- 
two. This was a favorite spot for camp-meetings in the early 
history of the Methodist Church in Knox County. Revs. 
John Shrader and Starnes here poured forth the gospel with 
apostolic zeal. Welton Chapel, near the Palmyra line, belongs 
also to this circuit. The membership at this place is thirty-seven. 
There is also a class and a chiirch of the Methodist denomination 
at Monroe City. Preaching is supplied fi-om Wheatland. The 
class numbers nearly 100. The church has a good house of 
worship, built in 1860-61, and maintains a Sabbath-school. The 
Presbyterian Church at Monroe was built in 1860. The mem- 
bershijD of this church is not large, but embraces some of the 
best families in the place. 


The Christian Church at Edwardsport was organized by Elder 
Morris Tremble, July 26, 1840. The house was erected in 
1849. The church was organized at the time of great religious 
changes in that vicinity growing out of local differences. The 
class at the time numbered about 100 members. Among them 
were Nancy Hoover, Jane Hulen, Mary Azbell, A. J. Azbell, 
James Clark, Lucinda Culbertson, H. Hulen, L. Reeves and Re- 
becca Reeves. The first elders were S. S. Prince, A. Azbell and 
David Ruble. The most distinguished ministers that have been 
connected with this church were Elders Tremble, Stansil, Frakes 
and Fields. The membership is still about 100. The Christian 
Chui'ch at Sandborn, the only one in the place, was built in 1884 
on Lot No. 60, formerly owned by Anna and C. E. Crane. The 
house is a frame building, 85x54 feet, and was built at a cost 
of about $2,000. The following are the trustees: C. Copper, S. 


W. Bailey and Samuel McGinnis. The Christian Church at 
Bicknell was organized in 1874, with about fifty members. The 
majority had held membership elsewhere, but were attached to 
Bicknell as a matter of convenience. Their house of worship was 
erected in 1875, and their membership is now about the same 
as it was at the time of organization. The Baptist Church at 
Edwardsport was organized June 3, 1858. A good house of 
worship was erected in 1859. The following families were mem- 
bers of the church at the time of its organization: McCrea, 
Eeeves, Hargis, Keith, Carmichael, Rowen, Harrington, Green- 
field, Ashley, Miller and Chambers. This is now one of the 
leading churches of Edwardsport. A Baptist Church was or- 
ganized in Bicknell about 1869. A house of worship was erected 
in 1870-71. This was built on land obtained from John and 
Eliza Ann Bicknell. The deed calls for Lots No. 55 and 57, and 
is dated September 7, 1879. The pioneer Methodist visited this 
township at an early day, when church services were in danger of 
being interrupted by Indians, and not unfi-equently people went 
to church armed with gun and hunting-knife. The Methodist 
Church in Edwardsport was built about 1865. It is a neat 
frame building and stands near the railroad. 


Meetings in Johnson Township were first held in private 
houses, but the increasing population soon made this inconvenient 
and steps were taken to erect a church. What is known as Salem 
Meeting-house was the fii-st that was built in the township. This 
was built as a Union Church and erected without regard to de- 
nominational aifinities. The land upon which it was erected was 
deeded by St. Clair Minor and wife, Matilda, to George Catt, 
Jacob Pea and Phillip Catt, as trustees, and their successors in 
office forever. The transaction took place on February 28, 1828. 
The house was called the "Township House of Learning and 
Worship." The grounds contained two acres and were used for 
church and burial purposes. For many years this was the only 
house of worship in the township. This was the place of worship 
for the Catts, Peas, Mehls, Edwardses and Purcells. Early 
ministers who preached at this place were Samuel Alexander, 


Benjamin Hall and the Kev. Martin. Recently an additional 
churcli not far from Salem near the residence of Mr. Purcell was 
commenced, but owing to financial embarrassment it was never 


The first classes in this township were attached to what was 
called Blue Eiver Circuit. This was in 1820. A little later the 
name of the circuit or mission was called White River. In 1859 
the name of the circuit was changed to Delectable Hill, and soon 
after it became the Spauldingville Circuit, then Knox Cir- 
cuit. In 1862 it was changed to the Bruceville Circuit, but 
is now called the Wheatland Circiiit. The fiixst house of 
worship built was Smyrna, near the edge of Wheatland. 
Since that time a good house of worship and parsonage have 
been built in Wheatland. The fii'st members of this class were 
Richard Merrill, A. Nicholson, S. Stuckey, Mrs. Sanders, Nixon, 
Palmer and McKinney. The ministers from 1863-76 were 
Alexander, Brocks, O'Flynn, Martin Heavenridge, Lee Buck, 
Lester and Willis. The present pastor is the Rev. Broving. The 
membership of the church now is quite large. The Presby- 
terians formerly worshiped at Smyrna with the Methodists, but 
recently they have erected a good house of worship in Wheatland. 
Royal Oak, a Presbyterian Church, is near the line of Palmyra. 
This is one of the oldest in the community. It was built as a 
union church and schoolhouse. A good house now stands near 
where the old log house stood. 


The first and only church ever built in Decker was erected 
there the last year. It was built as a Union Chiirch by Baptists, 
Methodists and Presbyterians. The house is a large frame 
building 60x40 feet, and stands on ground owned by Henry 
Decker. There never has been a resident minister in this town- 
ship, only itinerants attend them, when occasionally some local 
exhorter takes up his residence in that township. Before the 
erection of the present building the people worshiped in school- 
houses or private residences. 



Highland was formerly the seat of the diocesan seminary, but 
is now the Orphan Asylum for boys. The grounds were purchased 
in 1846, and a large frame building erected in 1847. Worship 
was usually held in the chapel of the seminary. Since 1853 
Highland has had seven pastors. These pastors also attend the 
church at St. Thomas, another Catholic Church. St. Ann's Asy- 
lum was projected by Bishop Bazin, but his death put a stop to 
its progress for a time. This was again started by Bishop de 
St. Palais. It was opened in a building near the cathedi-al 
August 28, 1849. Maggie Dill's name first appears on the roll 
of inmates. The Orphans' Home remained in this building till 
1863, when it was removed to the college building, now St: Rose 
Academy. It then took the name of St. Ann's Asylum, which 
was before called the Girls' Orphans' Asylum. In 1878 this asy- 
lum was removed to Terre Haute. St. Vincent's Asylum for boys 
was soon after located at Highland. This had been attempted in 
July, 1850, but the enterprise failed. In April this institution 
was opened in the college building at Vincennes, but in 1860 it 
was permanently located at Highland about three miles from 
Vincennes. In 1862 began the erection of new and substantial 
buildings, which were completed in 1864. There is a farm 
in connection with the asylum which is used in training boys in 
various kinds of work. Since the foundation of these two insti- 
tutions 2,218 orphans have been cared for in these asylums. St. 
Thomas' Church, a short distance from Highland, is one of the 
oldest in the county, as aboiit sixteen square arpents were 
granted to the members of that church in 1790. 


Indiana Church, a Presbyterian, was organized about two 
miles east of Vincennes in 1806 by Samuel B. Robertson in Col. 
Small's barn. Robertson was sent by the Transylvania Presby- 
tery of Kentucky. This is said to have been the first organized 
north of the Ohio River and west of Ohio. In 1807 Samuel 
Scott, who was pastor of Mount Pleasant and Indian Creek 
Churches in Kentucky, was sent by the General Assembly as a 
missionary. On October 10, 1808, the West Lexington Presby- 


tery sent him as a stationed minister to Indiana Church. From 
that time till May, 1815, he was the only stationed Presbyterian 
minister in the State. At that time John M. Dickey went to 
Washington, Daviess County, to take charge of a chiirch organ- 
ized by Scott at that place. In 1814 the congregation was di- 
vided, and there were made three preaching points: one at Yin- 
cennes, one about six miles northeast, and one six miles southeast 
of Vincennes. At the two last named places log houses were 
erected. At Vincennes preaching was held in the court house for 
many year-s. On May 18, 1815, Daniel McClure deeded to^Sam- 
uel Thompson, John McDonald, George McCliu-e, Joe Williams 
and Jacob Kuykendall a small tract of land in Donation 72 " for 
the encouragement of Presbyterian religion." At the fii-st Presby- 
tery there were fifty-four communicants present. The Eev. Scott 
died December 30, 1827, and in May, 1828, the Rev. S. K 
Alexander was sent to take charge of the churches, where he con- 
tinued his labors till his death in 1857. The two county 
churches were known to the public as Upper and Lower Indiana 
till 1841, In 1836 Upper Indiana built a new brick church in 
Donation 20, near the Palmyra and Vincennes line. This house 
is still in use, with some repairs recently made, and still presents 
a good appearance. Connected with the church building is a 
cemetery, which was deeded to the trustees of the church. On 
July 1, 1815, Patrick Simpson deeded 100 acres of land in Dona- 
tion 4 "for the encouragement and propagation of Presbyterian 
religion." The land was deeded to Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel 
Thompson, John McDonald, George McCliu-e and Joseph Will- 
iams as trustees. In case the chiu-ch should fail to maintain a 
minister the benefits should go to the poor of the chui-ch. There 
were two places of worship, one in the neighborhood of William 
Purcell's and one near Ephraim Jourden's. Until there was a di- 
vision the benefits should go to both, but he thought that there 
would soon be two churches, and after that the property should go 
to the support of the church in the neighborhood of Jourden's. 
The parsonage of the church was built in 1860. The member- 
ship of Upper Indiana is about 80, that of Indiana 152. 



JOHN C. ADAMS, attorney at law in Vincennes, Ind., was 
born on a farm, eleven miles fi-om Terre_ Haute, IncL, April 30, 
1850. He is a son of J. P. and Frances (Ivey) Adams. John 
C. was a bound boy from six to thirteen years of age. He con- 
tinued farm work until about nineteen years old, and then entered 
the Ascension Seminary at Farmersburg, Sullivan Co., Ind., and 
remained there three years, when he went to Pittsburgh, Penn., 
and took a business course in the Iron City Commercial College, 
during the winter of 1872-73, and later taught school in the Sul- 
livan public schools. In the summer of 1873 he began reading 
law in the office of Buff & Buff, of Sullivan, but taught school 
more or less until 1877. In the spring of that year he was ad- 
mitted to the Knox County bar. In 1881 he took charge of the 
Vincennes Commercial, but is now engaged in the practice of his 
profession. He was married, in 1875, to Sarah, daughter of Col. 
J. L. Culbertson. She was born in Knox County in 1853, and 
has borne her husband these four children : Eloise, Reily, Emily 
and George. Mr. Adams is a Republican in politics, and is a 
worthy citizen of the town and county. 

THEO. P. AGNEW, grocer, of Vincennes, Ind., was born in 
Coshocton County, Ohio, February 16, 1842, son of Martin and 
Frances (Phillips) Agnew, natives of New York and Ohio re- 
spectively. The family came to Knox County in 1844, and 
located on a farm in Decker Township, and later removed to the 
city, where the father followed bookkeeping a number of years, 
and later engaged in the dairy business, which he followed until 
his death in 1867. Theo. P. was reared in this city, and obtained 


a very good education in the pubKc schools. In 1862 he started 
out in the steamboat business, and engaged in the same rather 
extensively on the Wabash, Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland and 
Mississippi Rivers for twenty-four years. In 1870 he became 
financially interested in the line of steamboats on the Wabash 
River, which enterprise he conducted successfully until 1885. 
Among the boats he built and managed were the " Belgrade," 
"Vigo" and others. In November, 1885, Mr. Agnew quit the 
river, and engaged in the grocery business in this city, in which 
he is meeting with good success. In 1875 he married Ella Green, 
a native of Knox County. They have three children: William, 
George and Ray. He is a Republican and a K. of P., and is 
justly recognized as among the enterprising and successfid busi- 
ness men of Vincennes. 

CYRUS Mccracken ALLEN, of vincennes, was born in 
Clark County, Ky., April 22, 1815, son of Thomas Allen, one of 
the early and highly-respected pioneers of Indiana. Cyrus M. 
secured such education as could be procured at that early day. 
He followed mercantile pursuits a few years after attaining his 
majority, but soon dropped that and began the study of law, with 
the view to making it a profession, reading in Winchester, and 
later attending a course of lectures in the law department of the 
old Transylvania University, of Lexington, Ky. About this time 
he married Mary Lander, and in 1840 removed to Indiana and 
embarked in his profession at Paoli, Ind., but the following year 
located at Petersburg, where he practiced law four years, remov- 
ing to Vincennes in 1844, where his legal ability soon placed 
him in the front rank of his profession. He took an active part 
in the political affairs of the county, and in 1859 was elected 
to the State Legislature by the old Whig party, and here his 
legislative ability was as marked as his knowledge of the law, 
gaining him a State reputation. Later he resumed the practice 
of law, and also engaged as contractor, and assisted in the con- 
struction of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad (eastern division), 
and also built part of the Indianapolis & Vincennes Railroad, 
also Cairo & Vincennes and Illinois River Railroads. He was a 
great admirer of Lincoln, and was one of the first to present 
his name for the nomination to the presidency. In 1860 he was 


elected by tlie Republican party to the State Legislature, serving 
as speaker in that memorable session. He broke a quorum by 
leaving the capitol, thus thwarting the plans of the Democracy, 
who were leaguing against Gov. Morton and the Union. In 1863 
he was candidate for Congress against W. E. Niblack, but was 
defeated, owing to the hopeless minority of his party. From 
that on he retired from public life, and devoted his attention to 
legal pursuits until he was disabled by disease and was com- 
pelled to retire from active work. His death, resulting from 
paralysis, occurred November 2, 1883. His first wife died, and 
he took for his second wife her sister, Sallie Lander, who still 
survives him, also C M. Allen, Jr., by his first wife. Mr. Allen 
had a State, if not a national reputation, as an eminent judge 
of law, a statesman of broad views, a public-spirited citizen, a 
man of marked literary ability, and in his death Knox County 
and the State suffered a loss not easy to replace. 

JOHN ALLEN, grocer of Vincennes, Ind., is a native of 
Evansville, Ind., born June 1(3, 1863. His parents are John and 
Ellen (Vickery) Allen, natives, respectively, of England and Ire- 
land, and are now residents of Fort Branch, Gibson Co., Ind" 
John was raised in Evansville and attended the public schools of 
that city. In 1879 he came to this city and engaged as clerk in 
the grocery store of his uncle, John Vickery. In 1883 he piir- 
chased a one-half interest in the business, which he held until 
his uncle's death in August, 1885. Since that time he has as- 
sumed complete management and control of the business. He 
has an excellent stock of goods and is doing well financially. De- 
cember 11, 1884, he wedded Sarah Callender, a native of Parke 
County, Ind., who died October 9, 1885; had one child, also de- 
ceased. In politics he is a Republican and a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and although a young man is rec- 
ognized as one among the successful business men of this city. 

DR. GEORGE R. ALSOP, clerk of the Knox County Courts, 
was born in Sperryville, Rappahannock Co., Va., December 19, 
1851; son of Dr. William S. and Lavinia H. (Amiss) Alsop, 
who were natives of Virginia, where they lived and died. George 
R. was reared in his native State and secured an ordinary educa- 
tion in the common branches. At the age of seventeen he left 


home, and in the summpr of 1869 located in Sullivan County, 
Ind., where he worked at manual labor during the summer months 
and taught school during the winter seasons until April, 1873, 
when he began the study of medicine at New Lebanon, Ind., and 
afterward attended the Indiana Medical College at Indianapolis 
during 1873-74. He then spent the summer of 1874 reading 
medicine in Yazoo County, Miss., and attended the medical de- 
partment of the University at Louisville, Ky., graduating March 
1, 1875. He practiced his profession about six months in Sulli- 
van County, Ind., when he came to Knox County and formed a 
partnership with Dr. M. M. McDowell, of Freelandsville, with 
whom he remained until 1883, when he came to Vincennes to as- 
sume the duties of the clerk's office, which position he has filled 
with ability to the present time. He is a stanch Democrat in pol- 
itics, and in 1878 was chosen by that party to the position of trus- 
tee of Widner Townshij), which he held until 1882, when he was 
elected to fill his present office in November of that year. April 
20, 1875, he married Miss Jennie McClellan, of Sullivan, Ind. 
They have four children: Thomas B., William M., Eustis F. and 
Byrdie L. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic and I. O. O. 
F. fraternities, and he and wife are members of the Christian 
Church; he is considered a worthy and efficient office-holder. 

JAMES S. BADOLLET. The great-grandparents of our 
subject came fi-om France to America in 1777, and made their 
home in Pennsylvania until 1806, when they came to what is now 
Knox County, Ind. Here the great-grandfather died. His son, 
our subject's grandfather, was James P. BadoUet. He was a 
graduate of West Point and was a lieutenant in the war of 1812. 
His death occurred in Knox County in 1873. James S. is a son 
of William and Amanda (Foulks) Badollet, who were born in the 
county in 1821 and 1827, respectively, and both died in 1865. 
James was born in the county November 26, 1854, and after his 
parents' death . he made his home with his grandfather and was 
reared on a farm. He obtained a very good education in the dis- 
trict schools near home, and during the winters of 1874-75 he 
was a student in the Evansville Commercial College, fi-om which 
institution he graduated in the spring of 1875. He subsequent- 
ly engaged in farming and continued a tiller of the soil until 1882, 


when he was appointed deputy treasurer of the county. He is a 
Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Hancock. He 
became a member of the I. O. O. F. in 1882, and is a representa- 
tive of one of the pioneer families of the county and an enter- 
prising young man. 

WAKEEN WORTH BAILEY, editor of the Vincennes News, 
is a native of Hendricks County, Ind., born near New Winches- 
ter, January 18, 1855, son of Elisha and Elizabeth (Eaught) 
Bailey, both natives of Kentucky, the father born in Bourbon 
County in 1802, and the mother near Erankfort in 1824. The 
Bailey family, who are of Scotch-German descent, came to Vin- 
cennes in 1879, and here resided until the father's death, Novem- 
ber 24, 1883. The mother now resides in this city. Warren 
W. is the eldest of- four children born to his father's third mar- 
riage. He received a common school education, and worked on 
a farm iu his boyhood days. He began the study of telegraphy 
in 1871 and soon mastered it. The following year he ac- 
cepted the position as telegraph operator at Kansas, 111., for the 
Indianapolis & St. Louis Eailroad. He continued this work un- 
til 1874, when he began learning the printer's trade in the office 
of the Kansas (111.) News, and remained in said office until 1877. 
He then went to Carlisle, Ind., and became connected with the 
Carlisle Democrat, as editor and part owner. In 1879 that pa- 
per was consolidated with the Vincennes Reporter, and took the 
name of the Vincennes Neivs. Subject removed to Vincennes at 
that time, and has continued the newspaper work. He is an in- 
dependent Democrat in politics, and is an able editor and popular 
man of southern Indiana. 

THOMAS S. BAILEY, dealer in fancy and staple groceries, 
was born October 15, 1848, son of James and Caroline (Tread- 
way) Bailey, and is of Irish descent. His father was born near 
the city of Belfast, Ireland, in County Down, in 1800, and the 
mother in Pennsylvania in 1808. The paternal grandfather was 
Jacob Bailey, a native born Irishman, and lived and died in the 
"Emerald Isle." In 1815 James Bailey came to America and 
settled in western Pennsylvania, and there resided until about 
1830, when he emigrated to Lawi-ence County, 111., where he re- 
mained until 1873. The then went to Lamar County, Tex., where 


he died in 1877. His mother died in Illinois in 1858. In 1873 
our subject went to Texas, and was there engaged in the real 
estate business until 1880, when he came to Vincennes. Since 
that time he has carried on the grocery business, and has been 
quite successful. He was married, in 1872, to Mary Stiles, a 
native of Ohio, born in 1851. They have four sons: Louis R., 
James E., Thomas S. and George S. Mr. Bailey is a member of 
the Democratic party, and joined the Masonic fraternity at 
Bridgeport, 111., in 1870. He enlisted in the Twenty-third Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry in 1865, and was at Lee's surrender. He 
was honorably discharged in August, 1865. His wife is a mem- 
mer of the Presbyterian Church. 

HON. OELAN FRANKLIN BAKER, attorney at law of 
Vincennes, Ind., was born in Paoli, Orange Co., Ind., August 4, 
1843, son of John and Sarah (Delard) Baker. The father 
was born in Woodford County, Ky., in 1812, and the mother 
in Orange County, Ind., in 1819. Subject's paternal grand- 
father was James Baker, a native of Orange Co., Va., born 
in 1785. He moved to Kentucky in 1805, where he remained 
until 1814, when he moved to what is now Orange County, Ind., 
and died in 1816. The maternal grandfather, John Delard, was 
born in what is now Mercer County, Ky., in 1798, son of Et- 
tienne Delard, native of South Carolina, born in 1767. He was 
a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and can trace his ancestry 
back to Montpelier, France. They left their native country in 
1685, upon the expulsion of the Huguenots. Our subject was ed- 
ucated by a private tutor, and attended the State University at 
Bloomington, Ind., and graduated from that institution in 1864. 
He began the study of law in 1860, in connection with his other 
studies, and was admitted to the bar at Jasper, Dubois Co., Ind., 
in January, 1803, before he was twenty years of age. In 1859 
he came to Vincennes, and has here made his home ever since. 
In May, 1863, he was elected city attorney of Vincennes, and held 
the office two years. In 1866 he was chosen to represent Knox 
County in the General Assemby, but declined re-election in 1868. 
He has since practiced his profession in Knox County, with the 
exception of two years, 1869 and 1871, when he resided in In- 
dianapolis, and practiced his profession there in partnership with 


Judge Samuel E. Perkins. September 4, 1867, he took for his 
wife Miss Mary J. Faskingtoii, daughter of Hon. William C. Fask- 
ington, of Indianapolis, Ind. Mrs. Baker died June 5, 1885, leav- 
ing a son named Frank T. In politics Mr. Baker is a Democrat, 
and is one of the best posted and most successful lawyers of In- 
diana. For a number of years he has been engaged in a literary 
work upon the races of men who have inhabited the West. 

A. H. BAERETT & SON, the leading saw-mill and lumber firm 
of Vincennes, is composed of Allen H. Barrett and Robert H. V. 
Barrett, his son. The firm built their mill and established their 
present lumber yards on the Wabash River, in North Vin- 
cennes, in September, 1883. They employ seventy-five men 
and ten teams at their mill, at their yards and up the river, 
cutting, hauling and rafting logs. They saw on an average 
20,000 feet of lumber per day of ten hours, making a spec- 
ialty of sycamore, which finds a ready market in St. Louis, 
with Leggett, Myers & Co., for tobacco boxes. They built and 
used the towboat "Experiment" for towing barges and rafts 
of logs to the mill, but have recently sold the boat. Allen H. 
Barrett, senior member of the above firm, was born in Vermont 
August 28, 1825, and is a son of Reuben and Zilpha (Simons) 
Barrett, natives, respectively, of Massachusetts and New York. 
Reuben Barrett came West with his family in 1839, locating in 
Winnebago County, 111., where he engaged in farming until his 
death. The subject of this sketch was reared with his father un- 
til he was fifteen years old, when he became a clerk in a mercan- 
tile house. Later he began business for himself in Freeport, 111. 
In 1855 he went to California as a gold seeker, remaining there 
two and a-half years with poor success. He then returned to 
Illinois, and after working for two years, began the farming and 
timber business, at which he continued until 1864, when he 
dropped farming and continued in the timber business exclu- 
sively until 1878. He then removed to Lawrenceville, 111., and 
there was engaged in the same business until 1881, and from 
this time until 1883 he was in Tennessee. He then removed 
to Vincennes where he has since been successfully engaged 
in his present business. In 1849 he was married to Frances 
Ann Davis, a native of Illinois, who died in 1884 leaving 


six children: Allen H. ; Mary E., now the wife of the Rev. John 
English of Baltimore, Md. ; Virginia, now the wife of W. C. Hea- 
don of Shelbyville, 111. ; Zilpha, the widow of William Gerrard ; 
Robert H. V., and Martha M. Mr. Barrett is a Democrat, is an 
ancient Mason, and is recognized as being one of the most enter- 
prising and successful business men of the city. Robert H. V. 
Barrett, junior member of the above firm, was born in Shelby 
County, 111., October 31, 1851. He was brought up with his par- 
ents and given a fair education. He began life as a clerk and 
in 1877 he became engaged in the lumber business with his father, 
and was made partner in 1880. He was married September 27, 
1881, to Anna T. Gerrard, a native of Kentucky. They have one 
child, Montjoy G. Mr. Barrett is a Democrat and a member of 
the K. of H. 

THOMAS P. BECKES, a very prominent citizen of Knox 
County, was born November 15, 1819, in Harrison Township, being 
the youngest of a family of four children born to Benjamin and 
Elizabeth (Frederick) Beckes. The father was born in Vincennes 
in 1786 and the mother was born in about 1783. Benjamin Beckes 
was reared in Vincennes and spoke French very readily, but 
was probably of Welsh descent. He was a farmer and stock 
dealer and also one of the most successful men of the county. 
He was sheriff of Knox County, having been appointed to fill a 
vacancy and afterward elected. He was in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe and all tkrough the Indian wars preceding the war of 1812. 
In the Black Hawk war he was captain of a company. He was 
familiarly known as Maj. Beckes, from the part he took in mi- 
litia drills for defense against the Indians. He was a man of 
very decided character and wonderful energy. He served in 
the State Legislatui-e several years during the early days. The 
mother was of a family of very early settlers and of Dutch de- 
scent. When she ilvas but eleven years old she was taken pris- 
oner by the Indians, but in a few days made her escape. She 
was brought up, lived and died in this county, her death occur- 
ring April 9, 1856, and the father's occurring December 3, 1859. 
When she was married to Mr. Beckes she was the widow of Mr. 
Rea, a very early settler. Such is the parentage of our subject, 
who is one of two surviving children. He was reared on a farm 


in this county, and received sucli education as was afforded by 
the primitive schools of the time. He remained with his parents 
until arriving at the age of twenty -three, when he married and 
moved upon the farm where he now resides, and where he has 
been one of the most successful farmers of the county. He was 
married November 15, 1842, to Margaret Emison, a daughter of 
Samuel Emison, who came from Kentucky at an early day. She 
was born August 15, 1824. To them were born twelve children, 
eleven of whom are now living: John H., Mary, Benjamin R., 
Samuel E., Elizabeth, Alice, Margaret, Anne, Martha, Eunice 
and Sarah. Five of them ar^ married and live near home. The 
family are all members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Beckes has 
always been a Democrat, and is said to have been the first En- 
glish child born in Vincennes. He has just retired from a three 
years' term as county commissioner. ' He is one of the prominent 
men of his county and is noted for his love of home and home 
surroundings, and is universally respected as a moral and up- 
right man. 

WILLIAM B. BEDELL, M. D., was born in Knox County, 
Ind., March 30, 1856, son of Clayborn and Mary (Smith) Bedell, 
and is of French and German descent. His father was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1825, and his mother in Knox County, Ind., in 1829. His 
boyhood days were spent in Johnson Township where his parents 
lived, working on the farm and attending district schools. In 1875 
he began teaching school, and continued that vocation a few years. 
That same year he attended the Vincennes High School, and two 
years later attended school at what is now De Paiiw University, 
in Indiana. He began the study of medicine in the summer of 
1877, under the direction of Dr. A. J. Patton of Vincennes, and 
attended lectures at the Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, 
and from that school graduated March 4, 1880, and the same year 
located at Sumner, 111., and after remaining there four years came 
to Vincennes and has here continued to reside since that time 
engaged in active practice. In 1884 he was appointed physician 
of the Knox County Asylum, and still retains that position. In 
June, 1885, he was appointed pension examiner, and in May of the 
same year was chosen secretary of the City Board of Health. He_ 
was married June 9, 1880, to Fannie M. Setzer, a native of Knox 


County, born in 185G. They have two children, named Otto S. 
and Pansj' E. Dr. Bedell is a Democrat, member of the Presby- 
terian Chiirch, and one of the leading physicians of the county. 

WILLIAM W. BEEEY, a retii-ed farmer, and president of 
the Knox County Agricultural Society, is a native of said county, 
born near Wheatland June 15, 1823, son of Andrew and Mary 
(McDonald) Berry. He is the youngest of their four children, 
and is of Scotch-Irish descent. His parents were born in North 
Carolina and South Carolina in 1792 and 1796 respectively. The 
father came to Indiana in 1816, locating in Knox County, where he 
followed merchandising, and died in 1857. The mother died ten 
years later. William's pate.rnal grandfather, John Berry, was a 
slaveholder in his native State of North Carolina. Subject's boy- 
hood days were spent on the farm and in attending the subscrip- 
tion schools, where he received a good common school education. 
Since reaching man's estate his life has been devoted to farming. 
In this he has been very prosperous and now owns 450 acres of 
good land. The old homestead purchased by his father in 1821 
is his. In 1870 he moved to Palmp-a Township, three miles from 
Vincennes, and in September, 1885, moved to the city. In 1847 
he was married to Miss Mary Lillie, who died in 1851, leaving 
one child, Nancy A. In 1865 Mr. Berry married Arabella LiUie, 
who was born in Knox County in 1844. To them were born eight 
children, five now living: LiUie M., Jessie E., Andrew. Anna and 
Ida M. Mr. Berry is a Democrat, and in 1862 was elected treas- 
urer of Knox County, and re-elected in 1864. In March, 1884, 
he was chosen president of the Knox County Agricultural Society, 
and has since filled that position with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of the peoj^le. 

JOHN C. BEVEE, M. D., of Yincennes, Ind, was born in 
Steubenville, Jefferson Co., Ohio, January 26, 1819, and is a 
son of David and Sarah (Clowes) Bever, who were natives respect- 
ively of the Emerald Isle and the State of Delaware. The father 
came to the United States in 1810, and engaged in the manufact- 
ure of woolen goods in Delaware and Ohio, but finally settled on 
a farm in Coshocton County, Ohio, where he died in 1849. Here 
our subject grew to manhood and secured a good literary educa- 
tion for that day. Early in life he manifested a desire to learn 


the medical profession, his mother being a skillful nurse and his 
maternal grandfather a successful practitioner. John C. began 
early in life to study medical works, and- in 1848 entered the 
Physio-Medical College at Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated from 
that institution in 1850. Later he entered the Cincinnati Medical 
College, but received no diploma fi-om the latter institution. He 
first began the regular practice of his profession in Coshocton 
County, Ohio, in 1850, and four years later he removed to Martin 
County, Ind., where he practiced twelve years. In 1866 he re- 
moved to Vincenues, where he has since resided, engaged exclu- 
sively in attending to his medical duties, which occupy his entire 
time. He controls a large and remunerative practice, and merits 
the confidence reposed in him by the people. In 1845 he was 
married to Nancy A. Payne, of Lafayette, Ind., who died in 1878, 
having borne three sons, two of whom, James R. and, Albert Curtis, 
lived to be men grown and engaged in the Rebellion. All are now 
deceased. In 1881 the Doctor married Almira C. Wood, a native 
,of the State, who is an accomplished lady and a regular graduate 
in medicine. She was for many years a teacher, and is also a 
graduate of a literary college. She entered the Eclectic Medical 
College at Cincinnati, Ohio, September 1, 1877, and graduated 
in January, 1881, receiving her diploma. She is the only female 
medical graduate in Knox County. The Doctor is a member of 
the Mississippi Valley, Indiana, State, and Knox County Medical 
Societies, and also holds a certificate licensing him to practice in 
Illinois. He is a Democrat, and was a member of the City Coun- 
cil one year. He is a Mason of the Scottish Rite degree, and a 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

EDWARD BIERHAUS was born in Rhein, Prussia, city of 
Elberfield, August 4, 1832, and is a son of Frederick and Fred- 
erick a (Schulte) Bierhaus, who were born in the same country. 
They came to the United States in 1849, and located in Vin- 
cennes, Ind., where the father died the following year, and the 
mother in 1869. In 1853 Edward engaged in the mercantile 
business in Freelandsville, continuing twelve years with good suc- 
cess, when he returned to this city and engaged in the grain, pro- 
vision and pork-packing business on rather a limited scale, and 
also conducted a retail grocery store in connection until 1879, 


when he purchased Gimbel Bros.' wholesale grocery, which 
he has conducted very successfully, and controls the leading- 
ti-ade in the city. He has continued in the pork-packing busi- 
ness, and now has a slaughter and packing house in the city with 
a capacity of 500 hogs per day. In 1853 he was married to 
Louise Schukman, a native of Lippe, Germany. They have these 
eight children: Charles, Henry, Frederick, Edward, William, 
John, Emma and Anna. Charles and Frederick are partners with 
their father in the business. Mr. Bierhaus is a Democrat in pol- 
itics, and he and family are members of the German Evangelical 
Church. Charles Bierhaus is a native of Knox County, born 
February 13, 1855. He was raised in his father's store, and in 
boyhood attended the Vincennes public schools. In 1877 he be- 
came a partner in the business with his father, and has continued 
with him to the present time. In 1877 he married Helen Busse, 
a native of Knox County. They have two children: Ida and 
Helen. Cliarles is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the 
Evangelical Church. 

THOMAS BOEROWMAN, grain dealer, and treasurer of the 
Vincennes School Board, is a native of Lanarkshire, Scotland, 
born January 19, 1824, and a son of John and Jean (Ormiston) 
Borrowman. His parents were born in Scotland in 1798 and 1800, 
respectively. The family came to America about 1838, and settled in 
St. Louis, Mo., where the father died in 1849. The mothers 
death occurred in 1840. Instead of going to St. Louis with his 
parents our subject stopped in Cincinnati, and served an appren- 
ticeship at the plumber's trade with Peter Gibson. After work- 
ing for Mr. Gibson twelve years he engaged in the business for 
himself, which he continued ten years. In 1860 he left Cincin- 
nati and engaged in farming in Bichland County, 111., where he 
remained eight years. He then came to Vincennes and engaged 
in the grain business, and has since continued, meeting with con- 
siderable prosperity. In 1879 he became a member of the school 
board, acting in the capacity of treasurer. He was married in 
1847 to Miss Isabella Wilson, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
born in 1824. To them were born these children: Agnes, Jean, 
Archibald, John, Isabella, George, Catherine and 011a. Mr. Bor- 
rowman has been a Whig, but is now a Republican in politics. 


He and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is a 
leading citizen. 

EDWAED BEEIVOGEL, hatter, of Vincennes, Ind., was 
born at Mount Carmel, 111., September 29, 1847. His parents, 
John and Catherine (Bischoff ) Breivogel, were born in Germany. 
The father came to this city in March, 1864, and followed his 
trade of brick-masonry and building until his death, in 1872. 
Edward was reared in his native city, where he acquired a very 
good business education, and in early life began clerking in mer- 
cantile establishments, and in 1863 came to this city and en- 
gaged as clerk for Charles Graeter two and a half years, and then 
with J. B. La Plante & Bro., continuing with them seven 
years, when he was admitted as a partner, and remained such one 
year. He then went to Shawueetown, 111., and took charge of a 
branch store for B. Kuhn & Co., of this city. He conducted the 
business for them about six months, when he returned to this city, 
and in 1874 engaged in his present business with his brother, 
Julius A. They remained together until 1880, when oiir subject 
purchased his brother's interest, and has since conducted the bus- 
iness alone. He has an excellent stock of goods, and also has 
the iip-town agency for the Adams Express Company. In 1873 
he wedded Catherine Holland, a native of Toronto, Canada. To 
them have been born seven children — three sons and four daugh- 
ters. He is a Democrat in politics, and he and family are mem- 
bers of the Catholic Church. He is a member of the C. K. of A. 

JULIUS A. BEEIVOGEL, dealer in gents' furnishing goods 
at Vincennes, was born in Mount Carmel, 111, April 11, 1852. 
He is a brother of Edward Breivogel, whose sketch is given 
above. Julius came to this city with his parents when 
twelve years old, and attended the high schools of this place, se- 
curing a very good education. At the age of sixteen he engaged 
as clerk for Charles Graeter, remaining with him four years. He 
then worked for J. B. La Plante & Bro. two years, and in 
1874, in company with his brother Edward, engaged in the hat, 
cap and fur bvisiness in this city. In 1880 he sold out his inter- 
est and attended the Evansville Commercial College, from which 
he graduated in September of the same year. He then returned 
to Vincennes, and February of the next year engaged in his pres- 


ent work. Ha is unmarried, a Democrat in politics, and a mem- 
ber of the Catholic Church and C. K. of A. 

PIEEKE BKOUILLETTB, a prominent farmer of Knox 
County, born March 15, 1820, near Vincennes, is the third of a 
family of five chikben born to Pierre and Julia (Boucher) Brouil- 
lette. The father was born in this county in 1782, and was the son 
of Michael Brouillette, who came from France to Canada during 
the French and Indian war. He was in the battle at Braddock's 
defeat, soon after which he came to Vincennes, and married into 
the family of Bono, an early French settler. He raised a family of 
five children, of whom the subject was one. He was reared in this 
family, and served as a captain in the war of 1812. He was a 
very intimate and trusted friend of Gen. Harrison, for whom he 
carried mail to the fi'ontier settlements, and especially to the 
governor of Missouri. He was also a successful farmer, and ran 
transfer lines to the cities of his day from Vincennes. He owned 
over 1,000 acres of the best land of the county, and was a stock- 
holder of the Wabash Navigation Company and the Ohio & Miss- 
issippi Railroad Company. The subject of this sketch was born 
in this county, and remained with his parents until he was twenty- 
six years old, when he began farming where he now lives. His 
father gave him 170 acres of land, and he has been one of the 
most successful farmers of the times. He now owns 214 acres 
of very fine land, under good cultivation, upon which he has a fine 
two-story brick house in a splendid location. He was married, Jan- 
uary 13, 1846, to Louise F. Bernard, who was born in France in 
1826. They have had eight children: Julia M., Andrew H., Louis 
P. (deceased), J. Bernard, Maurice A., Louis F., Alphonse M. 
and Laurie M. The family are, as all their ancestors were, mem- 
bers of the Catholic Church. Before the time of the Know- 
nothing party Mr. Brouillette was a Whig, but since then he has 
been a Democrat. The children are all unmarried. Julia M. is 
keeping house for her brother Alphonse M. and a cousin, who 
are in -business. Andrew H. is manager of the West Baden 
Springs, Orange County. J. Bernard is at home, and managing 
the farm. Maurice A. is traveling for agricultural implement 
companies, and the other two children are both at home. The 
children were educated mostly in Vincennes. The mother of 


Pierre Brouillette, Sr., was the first white child born in Vin- 
cennes, and the grandfather of Pierre Brouillette. Jr., along with 
another man, was taken prisoner by the Indians, taken by them to 
Mobile, Ala., and detained there eight years. 

JOHN BEYAN was born about 1763 in northeastern Mary- 
land. He began business as a manufacturer of woolen goods in 
Beaver County, Penn. His son, John Bryan, Jr., was born in that 
county in 1811. He obtained his education in the old Jefferson 
College, and became a graduate of that institution. He studied 
theology, and was licensed to preach in the Associate, afterward 
the United Presbyterian Church. He removed to Bloomington, 
Ind., in 1855, and became pastor of a church at that place. In 
that same year Enoch Albert Bryan was born. The latter en- 
tered the State University of Indiana in 1871, and subsequently 
taught three years during his college course. He graduated with 
the degree of A. B. in 1878, and in 1885 the degree of A. M. was 
conferred on him by his alma mater. In 1878 he became super- 
intendent of the graded schools of Grayville, 111., which position 
he held four years. He was married. May 12, 1881, to Miss 
Hattie D. Williams, of Grayville, 111. He was elected to the 
professorship of Latin, Greek and literature in the Vincennes 
University, in August, 1882. In August of the next year he was 
chosen president in place of President P. L. McCrary, resigned. 

STEPHEN BUENET '(deceased) was the only son of Sere- 
nus and Jane (Burnside) Burnet. His ancestral history may be 
traced back as far as 1660, when three Burnet brothers came 
from Wales to the United States, one locating in New Jersey. 
Our subject is a descendant of this one, his grandfather, Edmund 
Burnet, having been born in New Jersey on January 1, 1755. 
Edmund married Sarah Smith in 1780, and the third child born 
to this union was Serenus Burnet, who was born in Trumbull 
County, Ohio, November, 13, 1787, and married our subject's 
mother, who was of Scotch and Irish parentage, November 10, 
1794. In May, 1815, Serenus Burnet moved to Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio, where he and his wife lived and died. The immediate 
subject of this sketch was reared principally in Knox County, 
and received such education as the schools of that day afforded. 
January 5, 1882, he was married to Lamira Gardner, a native of 


New York. To them were born eight children, these six now 
living: Stephen, in business in Vincennes; Lyclia J., wife of 
Thomas Eastham; Rosina E., wife of C. M. Griffith; Charles C, 
in business in Cleveland, Ohio; Emily L., wife of S. B. Judah, 
and Mary L. Mrs. Burnet died March 12, 1856, and February 
16, 1857, he was married to Laura Bently, daughter of Elder 
Adamson Bently, of Ohio, who bore him foiu- childi-en, three liv- 
ing: Harry B., Percy B. and Grace. This -svife died October 
29, 1873, and his last marriage was solemnized November 12, 
1874, uniting him to Mrs. Mary (Bently) Collins, sister of Mr. 
Burnet's first wife. She was the mother of two children by a 
former marriage, viz: Eugenie M., widow of A. G. Hinman, 
and Julia A., wife of D. C. Fellows, Lincoln, Neb. Mr. Burnet 
was a farmer and fruit-grower, and was very successful in those 
callings. He owned a large tract of fine land, under good culti- 
vation, adjacent to Vincennes. The farm residence is well lo- 
cated, and is one of the most beautiful houses in the county. 
Mr. Burnet was a Whig and Bepiiblican in politics, but did not 
take an active part in political affairs. In religion he was con- 
servative, but was an elder in the Christian Church, and during 
the most of his religious life was urged to occupy the pulpit. 
His death, which occurred February 14, 1885, took from the 
community one of its most valued citizens. 

STEPHEN S. BURNET of Vincennes, Ind., was born near 
Cleveland, Ohio, April 8, 1834, and is a son of Stephen and 
Lamira Gardner Burnet. He came to this city with his parents 
in 1852 and remained here until 1858, when he went to Missom-i, 
and was superintendent of lead mines in the southern part of the 
State two years. In 1862 he removed to Nashville, Tenn., and 
was engaged in furnishing sutlers' supplies to the army until 1865, 
when he engaged in the wholesale liquor business in Padiicah, 
Ky., and finally returned to this city in 1868 and engaged in the 
tobacco box factory and planing-miU business, continuing ever 
since with good success. In 1856 he led to Hymen's altar Kate 
Nauce, a native of Putnam County, Ind, Mr. Burnet is a Repub- 
lican in politics, although formerly a Democrat. He was a warm 
admirer of Gen. Garfield, and after his nomination to the presi- 
dency he became a Republican, and has remained such to the 


present time. He is a member of the K. of H. and Royal Arca- 
num fraternities, and is recognized as a prominent business man 
of this city. 

THOMAS EASTHAM, partner of Stephen S. Burnet, was 
born in Nelson County, Ky., February 25, 1835, and is a son of 
Isaac N. and Eliza (Sweets) Eastham, natives of Kentucky. The 
Eastham family came to Vincenues in 1851, and for a number of 
years the father was United States mail carrier from Louisville to 
St. Louis by stage coach, having in use 300 horses on the route, 
and later carried the mails from Cairo to New Orleans by steam- 
boat. He died in Vinceunes in 1873. Thomas was raised in Ken- 
tucky. At the age of eighteen years he began carrying the mails 
by stage fi-om Vincennes to Orleans, Ind., and Shawneetown, 111., 
and then kept a livery stable in this city for about ten years. In 
1869 he becamie a partner with Mr. Burnet in the present business. 
In 1860 he married Lydia J. Burnet, a native of Cleveland, Ohio. 
They have had five children, four now living: Stephen S., Kate 
B., Alice T. and Jesse L. Mr. Eastham is a Democrat in politics 
and a member of the K. of H. and Royal Arcanum. The build- 
ing in which these gentlemen have their factory was erected 
about 1860 by Curry, Ackerly & Co. for a furniture manufactory, 
and was used as such until 1869, Mr. Burnet becoming a partner 
of Curry & Gardner, who succeeded Mr. Ackerly in his business 
in 1868. In 1869 Mr. Gardner withdrew fi-om the firm, and 
Thomas Eastham purchased a one-half interest in the business. 
They conducted a planing-miil and carried a general line of lum- 
ber and building material ; but in April, 1882, they began the ex- 
clusive manufacture of tobacco boxes, taking Henry Eberwine as 
partner the same year. October 1, 1885, he withdi-ew from the 
fii'm, and since that time the other two gentlemen have carried on 
the business very successfully alone. They manufacture about 
1,000 boxes per day and send them to St. Louis, Mo., where they 
have a ready sale. They employ about fifteen hands. 

EDWARD P. BUSSE, M. D., was born in Vincennes, Ind., 
June 6, 1862, son of William and Sophia (Hella) Busse, and is 
of German lineage. His parents were born in Germany in 1829 
and 1827 respectively. The father came to America when about 
sixteen years old, and he and the mother died in Vincennes. Ed- 


ward p. obtained liis education in the public schools and the high 
school of Vincennes. He began the study of medicine in 1880, 
and that same year entered the Bellevue Hospital, New York, and 
remained there three years, graduating in September, 1883. He 
then located permanently in Vincennes, and has continued to 
make this his home ever since. He has practiced his profession 
very sviccessfuUy and is also engaged in the drug business. He 
is one of the prominent young physicians of this city and is suc- 
ceeding well in his profession. He is a member of the German 
Evangelical Church. 

HON. HENET S. CAUTHOEN was born in Vincennes, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1828. He is the son of Gabriel T. and Susan Sullivan 
(Stout) Cauthorn. His father was a native of Essex County, Va., 
and was educated at the university of that State, graduating fi'om 
the literary and medical departments. He came West in 1823, lo- 
cating at Lawrenceville, 111., where he practiced medicine until 
his death in 1834. The mother of Mr. Cauthorn was a daugh- 
ter of Elihu Stout, who founded the Vincennes Wesfern Sun 
newspaper in 1804, and continvied its publication until 1845. 
After the death of his father Mr. Cauthorn, with his mother, re- 
sided with Mr. Stout, and soon after entered the printing office of his 
grandfather, where he acquired the art of a practical printer. In 
1840 he entered St. Gabriel College at Vincennes, and remained 
a student in that school until 1845, when he matriculated at As- 
bury Uulversit)', Greencastle, Ind., which graduated him in 1848. 
While a student at this institution he was distinguished as an es- 
sayist and orator, obtaining prizes in competition with many fel- 
low-students who have since arisen to great distinction in the State. 
In 1851 he began the study of law at Vincennes, with Benjamin 
F. Thomas, at that time United States District Attorney for In- 
diana. He was admitted to the bar in 1853, and was the nest 
year elected district attorney for the judicial district comprising 
the counties of Knox, Daviess, Pike and Martin. With the ex- 
ception of the period covered by his services as clerk of the Knox 
Circuit Court, Mr. C. has continued ever since his call to the bar 
to engage in the practice of his profession. In the preparation 
of causes and the execution of pleadings and other papers, pa- 
tience, care and exactness eminently characterize his work. As 


an advocate he is particiilarly distinguished. Always earnest, 
logical and serious in his manner, he possesses a luxuriant fancy 
which he uses often to emphasize skillfxil deductions from facts. 
In 1855, upon the organization of the city government, he was se- 
lected as its first law officer, and as city attorney, with the mayor. 
Judge John Moore, framed the series of ordinances. In 1859, in a 
spirited contest, Mr. Cauthorn was elected clerk of the circuit 
court of his county, and at once began to bring order out of chaos in 
that office. His system of keeping files and records soon made his 
the model office of the State, and the order into which he soon ar- 
ranged a mass of confused papers, accumulations of half a cen- 
tury, was the marvel of every one familiar with the change. He 
continued in the office of clerk for two terms of four years each, 
and in 1870 was elected a representative in the General Assem- 
bly of the State, and was again elected to the same position in 
1872, 1878 and 1880. At the session of 1879 he was selected as 
speaker of the House, and discharged the duties of that office 
in a most creditable and acceptable manner. As a legislator, 
moderation and conservatism especially marked his course and 
regulated his conduct. He is a Jeffersonian Democrat, not alone in 
the partisan sense of the term, but in that perfect confidence in the 
ability of the people to properly regulate their most important af- 
fairs without elaborate statutes to guide and control them. His 
liberality and fairness to political opponents has secured him warm 
and deserved encomiums from his party adversaries, while his 
unflinching devotion to the principles of the party to which he 
belongs, in its days of misfortune, has niade him strong in its 
ranks and marked by its leaders for further promotion. In 1868 
Mr. Cauthorn was happily married to Margaret C. Bayard, and is 
the father of seven children, six of whom are living — two sons 
and four daughters. He is a member of the Eoman Catholic 
Church, and also of the organization of the C. K. of A., of which 
organization, in 1883, he was Supreme President for Indiana. In 
his social and domestic relations Mr. Cauthorn is exceptionally 
genial, indulgent and obliging. 

OLIVEE W. CADWALLADEE was born March 5, 1830, 
and is the youngest of nine children born to the marriage of Da- 
vid Cad wall ader and. Mary Jones. The parents were natives of 


Wales, and in 1820 came to the United States and settled in Del- 
aware County, Ohio, where they lived till about two or three years 
previous to their deaths, when they moved to Newark, Ohio. 
Here they died in 1855, only a month apart. The father was a 
Methodist Episcopal minister, and one of the prominent circuit 
riders. His home was in the wilderness, and was often visited by 
the Indians. Oliver W. was reared on an Ohio farm, and when 
seventeen years old, entered the Ohio Wesleyan University, which 
he attended until entering the sophomore year. He made his 
parents' house his home until they died. He worked at the car- 
penters' trade during the summer seasons, and taught school sev- 
eral years. In 1877 he came to Knox County, Ind., where he has 
since taught school, and ranks among the first educators of the 
county. He owns 200 acres of finely-cultivated farming land, and 
was married in 1861 to Martha Etlark, of Cardington, Ohio. They 
have one child, George S., now a resident of Delaware County, 
Ohio. Mrs. Cadwallader died in 1875, and a year later Mr. Cad- 
wallader was married to Elizabeth Hinchman, who died in 1878. 
His third marriage was to Jennie Field, of Lawrence County, Ind.. 
in 1880. She died in 1882, and his last marriage was to Naomi 
Murphy, in 1883. The present wife is a member of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Cadwallader is a member of the I. O. O. F., and is 
a Republican, but liberal in his views. His son is a telegraph op- 
erator and assistant railroad agent at Delaware, Ohio; is unmar- 
ried and a graduate of the Delaware High School. 

JACOB W. CASSELL, a prominent business man of Vin- 
cennes, Ind., was born in Madison County, Ind., December 23, 
1840, and is a son of Jacob and Eleanor (Allen) Cassell, who 
were natives of Tennessee. Jacob W. was reared on a farm in 
his native county, and secured a good literary education. He 
graduated from the Commercial College of Pittsbm-gh, Penn., and 
completed the two years' course at the Northwestern Christian 
University at Indianapolis. In 1865 he came to Knox County, 
Ind., followed by his parents some six years later. The father 
died here December 8, 1884. In May, 1875, Mr. Cassell moved 
from his farm in the country to the city, and engaged in the whole- 
sale and retail grocery business, which business he carries on at 
the present time. He carries a large and select stock of goods 


pertaining to his line of business, and controls a large share of 
the trade in the city and county. December 16, 1874, he wedded 
Miss Alice Turner, a native of Illinois, who has borne him four 
children: Elizabeth E., Ernest M., Louana Yerna Pearl and 
William C. Mr. Cassell is a Democrat in his political views, and 
is one of the wide-awake and enterprising business men of the 
city of Vincennes. 

SMILEY NEWTON CHAMBEES was born in the village 
of Edwardsport, Knox Co., Ind., March 18, 1845. His father's 
family were among the pioneers of the county ; his great-grand- 
father, Alexander Chambers, having moved into Knox County 
shortly after the close of the Eevolutionary war. Of his family 
there were a number of children who settled in Knox and adjoin- 
ing counties and became useful and influential citizens, one of the 
sous, Joseph Chambers, filling many offices of public trust. He 
was a strong, pure, intelligent man, whose influence is still felt in 
the county. Our subject's mother was of a family as strong, 
physically and mentally, as that of the father, and although not 
so early in the county, have aided largely in its development. 
Her name was Kachael Keith, and the family moved from Ken- 
tucy to this State about 1820. His parents were married in 1838 
and soon after settled at Edwardsport, where the father, Alex- 
ander Chambers, engaged in the milling busiuess. This venture 
proved disastrous, and soon after they moved upon a farm in 
Widner Township, which they developed and improved, and 
where they died in the year 1866, leaving behind these children: 
Nancy A., Elliott, Lottie C, Johnson and Smiley N. They re- 
ceived the best education afforded by the public schools of the 
county. Soon after the death of his parents Smiley N. entered 
the college at Alton, 111., where he graduated in June, 1870. In 
1863, when scarcely eighteen years of age, he volunteered his 
services in the One Hundred and Fifteenth Indiana Eegiment for 
six months, and afterward in the 100 days' service in the Twenty- 
fifth Indiana Battery and took part in the battle of Nashville, 
December 15 and 16, 1864. He was discharged at Indianapolis 
in July, 1865, having attained the position of sergeant in 
the battery. Having read law one year in St. Louis, in 1871 
he began the practice of that profession in Vincennes, where 


he has since continued, meeting with merited success. In 1872 
he was candidate for the Legislature on the Republican ticket, 
and although defeated, received the full support of his party. 
He is a member and secretary of the board of trustees of the 
Vincennes University and a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
In 1876 he married Isadora McCord, daughter of William and 
Eliza (Caborn) McCord, a highly accomplished and intelligent 
lady. Their life has been happy and prosperous and their future 
promises to be exceptionally bright. 

CLAEENCE N. CHEEVER, union ticket agent at Vin- 
cennes, Ind., is a native of the eastern part of the "Green Moun- 
tain State," born July 13, 18-49, son of Nathan and Lydia Ann 
Cheever. The family are of English descent, and both parents 
were born in Vermont and still reside there. Our subject was 
educated in the schools of his native State, and at the age of six- 
teen he obtained a situation in the office of the Metropolitan 
Railway Company, at Boston, Mass. In 1867 he went to Bur- 
lington, Iowa, and was in the employ of the Northwestern Rail- 
way Company. He remained there two years and there had 
charge of the telegraph interests until 1873, when he came to 
Vincennes and was given the position of assistant ticket agent, 
which position he retained until 1880, when he was given the 
position he now holds. He is the agent for the Ohio & Missis- 
sippi, Evansville & Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Vincennes and 
the Cincinnati, Vincennes & Chicago Railways. In 1871 he was 
married to Ida A. Woodward, born in Vermont in 1856. They 
are the parents of these three children: May F., lima and Helen. 
Mr. Cheever is a Republican and became a member of the I. O. 
0. F. in 1875. For twelve years he has been identified with the 
railway interests of the country and is an exceedingly popular 
and courteous official. 

HON. THOMAS R. COBB, member of the national House of 
Representatives, was born near the village of Springville, lud., 
July 2, 1827, and is one of the chilch'en of Dickson and Merise 
(Shelby) Cobb, the former a native of South Carolina, born in 
1798, and the latter born near Haysville, Ky., in 1800. His 
paternal grandfather was also a South Carolinian by birth, and 
the family is of Scotch- Welsh descent, their genealogy being 


traced back about 720 years. As early as 1813 the family of 
which Mr. Cobb is a representative moved from South Carolina 
to Ohio, and one year later settled in what is now Lawrence 
County, Ind. They there participated in all the hardships and 
inconveniences of pioneer life in the backwoods. The father of 
Mr. Cobb held the office of county sheriff, was one of the 
county's best citizens and died in 1878. The mother died at 
Bedford, Ind., in 1866. Thomas E. Cobb passed his youth in 
assisting his parents, attending school, and later teaching school 
and attending the State University. In 1853 he began the study 
of law at the State University at Bloomington, and the same year 
was admitted to the Lawi-enee County Bar. He practiced his 
profession at Bedford until 1867, when he moved to Vinceunes, 
which has since been his home. Mr. Cobb is one of the leading 
Democrats of the State, and since manhood has figui-ed promi- 
nently in public affairs. The following is his record in brief: In 
1852 was appointed a commissioner of Indiana militia; was a 
member of the Indiana Legislature from 1858 to 1866; a Demo- 
cratic candidate for elector in 1868 ; was president of the Indiana 
State Democratic Central Committee, in 1876 ; a delegate to the 
Democratic National Convention that nominated Tilden and 
Hendricks in 1876 ; was elected to the Forty-j&fth, Forty-sixth and 
Forty-seventh sessions of Congress, and re-elected to the Forty- 
eighth and Forty-ninth sessions. Mr. Cobb has justly the reputa- 
tion of being an economist, having faithfully worked for the sav- 
ing of the people's money during his entire congressional career. 
He served on the Committee of Elections during the Forty-fifth 
Congress and on the Appropriation Committee during the Forty- 
sixth. The Forty-seventh being a Eepublican Congl:ess, he was 
placed on the Committee of Public Lands and the session follow- 
ing was made chairman of that committee. During the Forty- 
seventh he introduced a bill forfeiting the lauds of railway cor- 
porations for non-fulfillment of contracts, thus saving to the peoj^le 
millions of money. In the Forty-fifth Congress he introduced 
a bill and caused it to be passed in the succeeding session, pro- 
viding for the sale of a tract of land beginning at the Wabash 
River and extending to the city limits of Vincennes, thus secur- 
ing to the city a most beautiful park. For many years Mr. Cobb 


has been in piiblic life, and while perfection is one of the impos- 
sibilities of mortal man, his record has been sufficiently accepta- 
ble to his constituents that he has always been re-elected with an 
increased majority. In 1850 Miss Caroline Anderson became his 
wife and by him the father of five children: Orlando H., Alice, 
Catharine, George B. and Ai-thur T. Mrs. Cobb was bom in 
Lawrence County, Ind., in 1830; a daughter of Archibald and 
Catharine Anderson. 

OELANDO H. COBB, attorney at law of Vincennes, Ind.. is 
a native of Lawi'ence County, Ind., where he was born November 
18, 1852. He is a son of Hon. Thomas E. and Caroline (Ander- 
son) Cobb, and is of Scotch- Welsh origin. His boyhood days 
were spent in Bedford, Lawrence Co., Ind., where he attended 
the public schools, and there laid the foundation of his present 
thoroiagh education. In September, 1868, he entered the Indiana 
University at Bloomington, and graduated from that institution 
June 23, 1872, and the following year graduated in the law depart- 
ment of the same school. In 1874: he was admitted to the Knox 
County bar, and that same year he formed a partnership with his 
father in the practice of his profession, and continued thus 
until 1883, when John T. Goodman was taken into partnership, 
and the firm is now known as Cobb, Cobb & Goodman. This is 
one of the ablest and most sagacious law firms of southern Indi- 
ana, as their large and extended practice indicates. Subject was 
married, November 11, 1874, to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
P. and Margaret Beckes. Mrs. Cobb was born in 1853. In poli- 
tics Mr. Cobb is a Democrat, and cast his first presidential vote 
for Horace Greeley. 

JAMES H. COCHRAN, proprietor of the La Plante Hotel at 
Vincennes, Ind., was born in Gibson County, Ind., April 12, 1819; 
son of William and Elizabeth (Colvin) Cochran; natives respect- 
ively of Tennessee and Kentucky. James H. grew to manhood 
in his native county, and assisted his j^arents on the farm, but se- 
cured a limited education. His father died when he was thirteen 
years of age, and on him devolved the duty of assisting his mother 
in providing for the family. He learned the carpenter's trade, at 
which he worked for some time in Princeton, when his health 
failed him and he contemplated returning home, but was offered 


a position as clerk in a hotel in that city and accepted, continuing- 
at that work in Princeton and Evansville until he was married. 
He then kept hotel in Mount Carmel, 111., fifteen monjiis, and at 
the end of that period returned to EYansville and owned and 
managed the railroad hotel of that city a year. His wife, Mary 
Anderson, died about this time, and he then returned to his first 
employer, who had charge of a hotel in Evansville, and managed 
the City Hotel until his marriage to his present wife, Margaret 
(Mouser) Deer in 1856. He became general traveling agent for 
the Evansville & Terre Haute Railroad, continuing in that capac- 
ity seven years, when he conducted the old Parke Hotel in Rock- 
ville, Ind., for six years. At the end of that time he engaged in 
the book and stationery business in Evansville. In 1873 he again 
engaged in the hotel business in Montezuma, Ind., and conducted 
the Cochran Hoiise of that city four or five years. He again kept 
hotel in Rockville, and then returned to Montezuma and remained 
in the hotel business there until September, 1885. Since that 
time he has had control of the La Plante House of Vincennes 
with the best of success, as his long and varied exjDerience would 
insure. Mr. Cochran's last marriage was blessed with eight chil- 
dren, four now living: Laura B. (wife of John E. Johnson), Jen- 
nie (wife of George A. Smith), John W. (clerk of the hotel), and 
Charley F. He also has two living children by his first marriage : 
Alice A. (wife of Joseph Hunt) and Morris J., attorney at law in 
Buena Vista, Col. Mr. Cochran is a Republican and a member 
of the I. O. O. F., and he and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

WILLIAM A. CULLOP, prosecuting attorney for the Twelfth 
Judicial Circuit, is a native of Busseron Township, Knox Co., 
Ind., born March 28, 1853, son of "William and Maria J. CuUop, 
.who were born in Smith County, Va., and Vigo County, Ind., in 
1829 and 183(i respectively. The mother, whose maiden name 
was Patterson, died in 1874. In 1843 the CuUop family came to 
Indiana and located on a farm in Knox County. Here our sub- 
ject spent his boyhood days. He attended the common schools of 
his native township, and in 1874 entered the college at Hanover, 
Ind., and graduated from that institution in 1878, and later be- 
came the principal of the Sandborn public schools. In 1879 he was 


elected to the chair of mathematics and natural science in the 
Vincennes University, and also began the study of law in that 
year. In 1880 he entered the law office of Cobb & Cobb, and 
there continued his studies until 1881, when he practiced for 
about one year, and then formed a partnership with George W. 
Shaw, the fii-m being known as Cullop & Shaw. In July, 1884, 
the firm admitted as a partner Clarence B. Kessinger. and since 
then the firm is called Cullop, Shaw & Kessinger. Politically 
Mr. Cullop is a thorough Democrat, and cast his first presidential 
Tote for S. J. Tilden. In 1882 he was appointed deputy prose- 
cuting attorney for the Twelfth Judicial Circuit, and in 1885 was 
appointed prosecuting attorney of that circuit. His marriage oc- 
curred in 1879 to Miss Kate S. Cobb, daughter of Hon. T. E. 
Cobb. They have one child, named Caroline, born September 14, 
1S83. For quite a number of years Mr. Cullop has takeu an 
active part in the j^olitical affairs of the State, and is one of the 
prominent and rising men of southern Indiana. 

NATHAN F. DALTON, wholesale and retail dealer in lum- 
ber and building goods in Vincennes, was born in Walworth 
County, Wis., March 15, 1845. Here he was raised on a farm, 
and received a very good academic education. At the age of 
nineteen he left home and accepted a position as clerk in the 
commission business in Chicago, where, at a later period, he en- 
gaged in the lumber business. In 1877 he came to this city and 
followed the same occupation with T. U. Lamport as partner, re- 
maining together until 1882, when the latter withdi-ew from the 
business. Mr. Dalton has very successfully carried on the busi- 
ness alone since that time. March 27, 1873, he took for his com- 
panion through life Mary E. Test, a daughter of Hon. C. H. Test, 
of Indianapolis. To their union these three children were born: 
Charles T., Elizabeth H. and Natalie F. In politics Mr. Dalton 
is a stanch Eepublican. He is a Mason, and has taken an active 
interest in all public and private enterprises in the city since his 
residence here, and was the first president of the Vincennes 
Board of Trade, and is at the present time president and stock- 
holder of the Spring Lake Ice Company. He is also president 
of the Indiana Lumber Dealers' Association. He and wife are 
members of the Episcopal Church, of which Mr. Dalton is war- 


den. He is one of the progressive and trustworthy business men 
of the city, and an upright citizen. 

DE. WILLIAM H. DAVENPORT is a native of Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., where he was born July 20, 1850, son of Henry and 
Eliza Ann (Townsend) Davenport. The family is of English 
descent, and the father was born in Ohio in 1822, and the mother 
in Maryland in 1824. The paternal grandfather, Martin Daven- 
port, was born in Pennsylvania, and came to Indiana at a very 
early day, locating in Indianapolis, where our subject's father be- 
came a prominent contractor, and was given the building of the 
fii'st theater. He died in that city July 22, 1851. The mother 
died ten years later. Subject first attended the public schools of 
his native city, and then spent one year at Notre Dame, at South 
Bend, and then two years in Bryant & Stratton's college at In- 
dianapolis, and then a short time at the Northwestern Christian 
University of that city. He began the study of medicine in 
1872, and attended lectures at Ann Arbor, Mich., and Jefferson 
Medical College at Philadelphia, graduating March 20, 1881. 
He then located in Vincennes, Ind., where he is one of the prom- 
inent and successful physicians. In 1883-84 he was secretary 
of the United States Board of Examining Surgeons at Vincennes. 
He was married, June 12, 1884, to Mrs. Ruth O'Boyle, formerly 
Miss Watson, born July 26, 1845. In politics the Doctor is a 
Republican, and cast his first vote for U. S. Grant. 

COL. WILLIAM N. DENNY was born May 12, 1836, at 
Bruceville, Ind., the fourth of eleven children of William and 
Catharine (Cook) Denny. The father was born in Kentucky, in 
1802, and came to Knox County, Ind., with his parents when but 
two years old. The grandparents, James and Catharine Denny, 
were early settlers of the county. The father was reared in this 
county, and when young joined the Presbyterian Church, and for 
forty years previous to his death was an elder in the church. He 
was a farmer and merchant, and for eight years was clerk of the 
circuit court ; previous to that time he was justice of the peace 
and county commissioner. He was very energetic, and is said to 
have organized nine different Sunday-schools, and successfully 
carried them on. He will long be remembered as one of the most 
prominent and trustworthy men of the county. He died Febru- 



ary 8, 1862. The mother was born in central Tennessee in 1804, 
and is yet hale and strong, and the oldest member of the Presby- 
terian Church in the city of Vincennes. William N. was 
reared in Knox County, and secured a limited early education, but 
afterward attended the Vincennes University. When twenty-four 
years old he entered the army in Company G, Fourteenth Indi- 
ana Infantry as first lieutenant, but was transferred to the Fifty- 
first Indiana Volunteers, and was made captain of Company E, 
of which his father had been captain but resigned. He was then 
promoted to different ranks, and finally to the colonelcy, which 
he held to the close of the war. While a captain he was captured 
and taken to Libby prison, where he was for nearly two years, 
and there contracted disease which yet disables him. He made 
his escape by cutting a hole through a car in which he was being 
transferred. After his return from the war he farmed about a 
year, and was then appointed postmaster of Vincennes under 
Grant's administration, and served thirteen years, the longest 
term of any who have held the office. Since that time he has 
carried on farming, and owns eighty acres of very fine land. He 
was married. May 24, 1866, to Ellen K. Lemen, daughter of Ben- 
jamin F. Lemen, of Salem, 111., who was one of the early settlers 
of the Northwest Territory. She was born April 8, 1843, and has 
borne eight children, five now living, viz. : Katie E., Florene G., 
Gertrude L., Mary E. and Carrie C. Mr. and Mrs. Denny are 
members of the First Baptist Church of Vincennes, and are ad- 
vocates of the temperance cause, Mrs. Denny being a very active 
and efficient worker. Mr. Denny is a Republican, and was 
depiity clerk of the county. 

WILLIAM H. DeWOLF, attorney at law, was born in Fair 
Haven, Mass., September 30, 1832, son of John B. and Mary 
(Andrews) De Wolf, and of Scotch-Irish descent; His parents 
were both born in Nova Scotia in 1801. At the time of the 
Edict of Nantes the family came from France to America. The 
father died in Massachusetts, in 1860, and the mother in 1863. 
Our subject was educated in his native State, and began the 
study of law in 1850, and two years later came, to Indiana 
and settled in Petersburg, Pike County. In 1857 he was ad- 
mitted to the Pike County bar, and continued the practice until 


his removal to Knox County in 1864. That same year he formed 
a partnership with Judge W. E. Niblack, and remained in part- 
nership with him until 1871. Two years later he became a partner 
with S. N. Chambers, the firm being known as DeWolf & Cham- 
bers. He was married, in 1857, to Carrie H. Drake, a native of 
the " Empire State" and daughter of Henry Drake. They have 
three children : Clara, Edgar and Anna. In politics he is a Dem- 
ocrat, and one of the most prominent lawyers of the Vincennes 
bar. He became a Mason in 1860, and is also an I. O. O. F., 
made such in 1857, having been Grand Master of this order. 

JAMES DICK, one of the prominent early settlers of the 
county, was born in Leslie, Scotland, January 26, 1806, and was 
of pure Scotch descent. His ancestors for many generations 
were natives of Scotland. He attended school in his native 
country, and there received a complete education. He came to 
America in 1832, but remained only a short time, and then re- 
turned to his native land and there remained until 1836, when he 
again immigrated to the United States and located in Decker 
Township, Knox Co., Ind., where he carried on the farming bus- 
iness, having learned to farm in his native land. He was a 
Democrat in politics, and a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention. September 6, 1828, he was married to Miss Wilhelmina 
Watson, by whom he had these children: Marion, Isabella, Wil- 
helmina, Jemima, Christena, George, Elizabeth, William, James 
A., Anna, Wellington, Jemima and Emma. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed postmaster at Vincennes, under Pierce, and in 1857 was 
elected mayor of the city, and served one term. His death occurred 
November 24, 1863. He was an enterprising and eminent man, 
and one who had many friends. 

H. H. DUBOIS is a son born to the marriage of Henry 
Dubois and Ophelia Clark, and was born January 15, 1820, in 
Lawrenceville, 111., and on the death of his mother, while he was 
yet quite young, he went to live with an uncle, and remained 
with him until fifteen years of age, when he went to Vincennes, 
Ind., and began learning the tinner's trade under Nicholas Smith, 
with whom he remained over twenty years. After a short stay 
in Evansville, Ind., he returned to Vincennes and opened a shop 
on his own responsibility, and is doing a lively business. In 


1842 Mr. Dubois took for his life companion Clarissa Devine, by 
whom he had one child, but both soon after died, and he then 
wedded, in 1848, Lydia Watson, by whom he has had twelve 
children. Of these Sarah, William, Jessie, Kate (Wager) and two 
infants are deceased, and Ophelia, George, Fred, Henry, Jessie and 
Sarah are still living. Mr. Dubois is a distant relative of 
Toussaint Dubois, well known in the fearly history of the county, 
and in politics is a stanch Republican. 

GEEHARD H. DUESTERBERG, Sr., a prominent pioneer 
citizen of Vincennes, Ind., was born in the kingdom of Hanover, 
Prussia, November 18, 1811, son of Bernard H. and Maria An- 
gela (Kiewit) Duesterberg, who were natives of the same place. 
Gerhard was reared in the old country, where he secured a good 
education in his native language. He learned the manufacture 
of spinning-wheels, and followed that occupation until 1834, 
when he came to the United States, and worked first in Buf- 
falo, N. Y., Sandusky, Ohio, and then settled in Cincinnati, 
where he was joined by his parents, who came over in 1837, 
and made that city their home until their deaths. In 1837 Ger- 
hard came to Vincennes, and worked for John Moore as a 
wood-turner two years, and then started a similar business for 
himself, which he has continued ever since, in later years en- 
gaging also in the undertaking business. By industry and close 
attention to business he has succeeded in acquiring a comfort- 
able competency, and has a fairly large and remunerative bus- 
iness. In 1837 he was married to Caroline Beckman, a native 
of Germany, and all the German families of the city attended 
the wedding, viz. : Ferdinand Eberweyn and wife, Messrs. Col- 
lenberg and Klaus, Franz Peters and wife, Frank Spelmeier 
and wife, and the rest younger persons. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Duesterberg ten children were born, eight of whom are living: 
Henry B., city treasurer; John M., di-uggist of the city; Ger- 
hard H., grocer of the city; Lorenz. in business with his father; 
Caroline, wife of John Ostendorf ; Mary, wife of Henry Terher; 
Julia and Elizabeth. Mr. Duestei-berg is a Democrat in politics. 
He was a member of the city council a number of terms, and 
was a member of the school board twelve years, city treasurer 
four years, and has been a member of the city board of health 


six years. He and family are members of the Catholic Church, 
and he is one of the eminent and successful business men of 
the city. 

HENEY B. DUESTEEBEEG, city treasurer of Vincennes, 
Ind., was born in that city December 9, 1842, son of Gerhard H. 
and Caroline (Beckman) Duesterberg, who were born in Hanover, 
Germany. Subject was raised in the city with his parents, and 
secured a very ordinary education. At the age of fifteen he began 
learning the cabinet-maker's trade, which he mastered and fol- 
lowed until 1872, when he engaged in the undertaking and cabinet- 
making business in Vincennes, with his father, and continued act- 
ively in the business until September 1883, when he took charge 
of the city treasurer's office, serving one term of two years, and 
was re-elected in May, 1885, and is now serving faithfully and 
and efficiently in this capacity. He is a Democrat, and was elect- 
ed to his office on this ticket, having been an active worker in 
local campaigns for some years. July 30, 1867, he chose for his 
life companion Elizabeth Memeriug, a native of Hanover, Ger- 
many. To their union eight children were born — five sons and 
three daughters. He and family are members of the Catholic 
Church, and he is a member of the St. Francis Xavier branch. No. 
256, of the Catholic Knights, and is recognized as one among the 
enterprising and successful citizens of the town and county. 

JOHN M. DUESTEEBEEG is a son of Gerhard H. and Car- 
oline (Beckman) Duesterberg, and was born in Vincennes Sep- 
tember 20, 1814. He is of German descent, and is the fourth in 
the family. He received a common school education at the Cath- 
olic and public schools, and in 1860 began the drug business in 
this city in the store of H. E. Peck, and remained with him three 
years, and then remained with W. J. Luck one year, and then 
entered the employ of J. D. Lander, also having an interest in the 
business. In 1875 he entered the same business for himself on 
Main Street, but sold out in 1880, and engaged in the dry goods 
and grocery business, Li 1883 he returned to his old employment 
and began selling drugs at his present' location, and has a full line 
of choice drugs. He was married, January 2, 1872, to Miss Lizzie 
Tracy, a native of Vincennes. Mrs. Duesterberg died the same 
year. In 1874 he wedded Miss Mary Eikoff, a native of Cincin- 


nati, Ohio, born in 1851. He is a Democrat, and in 1870 he was 
elected to the city council and served two years. He was chosen 
township trustee in 1872, and was re-elected in 1874, and again in 
1876. He is a member of the Catholic Church, and a representa- 
tive of one of the old families of the county. 

JOHN EBNEE is a son of George and Kathrina Ebner, who 
were natives of Alsace, France (now Germany), where they lived 
and died. John was born in the same place as his parents June 
8, 1817. He was reared in his native land and secured a common 
German and French education. At the age of fifteen he began 
learning the miller's trade, which he mastered, and then learned 
the baker's trade. At the age of twenty-one he enlisted in the 
regular French Army, serving sis years. They were stationed in 
Africa five years, and he served in the capacity of baker. In 1846 
he came to the United States and worked at the baker's trade in 
New Orleans three months, then in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he 
soon engaged in steamboating on the Ohio River two years. In 
the spring of 1819 he came to Vincennes, and after laboring long 
enough to acquire some means he started a bakery and family 
grocery store, continuing four years with good success. He then 
continued two years longer in groceries alone, and on a large 
scale, but was burned out and broken up in 1855. He soon accu- 
mulated enough means to build a brewery one-half mile east of 
the city, and also began retailing liquors. In 1859-60 he built 
and started the present Eagle Brewery of the city, and continued 
in the active management of the same until 1878. He also en- 
gaged in the ice business in 1860, and now owns four large ice 
houses, near the river, with a capacity of 13,000 tons of ice. He 
has probably contributed as much toward the growth and pros- 
perity of Vincennes as any other citizen of Vincennes. He has 
built a number of good business blocks and dwellings, notably tlie 
First National Bank building. In 1818 he married Kathrina 
Scherer, who died six years later, leaving two childi-en, who are 
both deceased. Later he married Kathrina Kuhn, his present 
wife. They have six children: Lena, wife of Joseph Smith; 
John; Mary, wife of Benjamin Wiesney (?); Joseph; Lorance 
and Theresa. Mr. Ebner is a Democrat, and was a member of 
the city council four years. He and wife are members of the 


Catholic Church, and he is known to be one o£ the fii'st-class 
citizens of the county. 

JAMES EMISON, senior member of the firm of J. & S. Emi- 
son, proprietors and operators of the Atlas Mills and Elevator A 
at Vincennes, is a native of Knox County, having been born in 
that county October 15, 1846. He is the eldest of two sons and 
one daughter living, born to James W. and Emeline (Scott) Emi- 
son, both natives of Knox County. Thomas Emison, our subject's 
grandfather, came to Knox County about 1805 and established 
the Marie Creek Saw and Grist-mill and a small distillery which 
he operated during his life, it being the first combined enterprise 
of the kind in the township and one of the first of any importance 
in the county. James M. was reared by his father to the busi- 
ness and operated it successfully during his life, and transacted 
quite an extensive business in this and also in real estate, grain 
and live-stock, and accumulated considerable property. His 
death occurred in Washington Township June 14, 1861. The 
mother still survives him, being in her seventy-fii-st year. 
The subject of this sketch was brought up by his father 
in his native township, and secured a good common school 
education. After his father's death himself and an elder 
brother, Samuel (now decased), took the active management 
of the farm and mill, and a few years later our subject took 
complete control of the mills, which he operated successfully 
until 1879, when he reiaoved to -Vincennes, and in company with 
Scott, his brother, built the Atlas Mills of this city, at first put- 
ting in four sets of buhrs, but six months later replaced them 
with new improved rollers, and has operated the mills success- 
fully until the present time, the mills having a capacity of 300 
barrels of flour per day. The mills were partially destroyed by fire 
May 4, 1885, and the proprietors are now engaged in erecting an 
addition thereto, which when completed will enlarge the capacity 
of the mills to 500 barrels per day. In 1883 the fii-m purchased 
the Jones & Co. Elevator A, which they have since operated suc- 
cessfully in connection with the mills, handling on an average 
400,000 bushels of wheat and the same amount of corn per an- 
num, and giving employment to thirty-five men. In October, 
1871, James Emison was married to Hulda McClellan, a native 


of the county, who died in March, 1881, leaving three children: 
Stella, Maud and Samuel. Mr. Emison is a Democrat, and was 
elected county commissioner in 1878, but resigned after a few 
months' service. He is one of the enterprising and successful 
business men of the county. 

SCOTT EMISON, junior member of the fii-m of J. & S. Emi- 
son, was born in Washington Township, Knox County, Septem- 
tember 23, 1855, and is a son of James M. Emison. He was 
brought n-p by his parents in his native township, and secured a 
good literary and business education, graduating fi-om the busi- 
college of Indianapolis and then attending Hanover College until 
he completed his sophomore year. At the age of twenty-one he 
returned home and accepted a clerkship with G. Winstein & Co., 
of Vincennes, remaining with them three years, after which he 
clerked two years in a mercantile house in Oaktown. In 1879 he 
engaged in the milling business with his brother and present 
partner. He is a Democrat and unmarried, and, like his brother, 
is recognized as one of the enterprising and successful business 
men of the county. 

GEOKGE FENDEICH, wholesale and retail tobacconist of 
Vincennes, Ind., was born in Baltimore, Md., March 17, 1841, 
and is a son of David and Mary (Sauers) Fendrich, who were 
born in Germany. The father came to the United States when a 
young man, married, and located in Baltimore until within about 
a year of his death, when he removed to this city and resided with 
our subject until his death in 1881. The mother died in Balti- 
more. George was reared in his native city and secured a good 
education in the public schools. By the time he had reached his 
fifteenth year he had mastered the cigar-maker's trade, and left 
home, working at his trade" in a store in Columbia, Penn. In 1861 
he came to Evansville, Ind., and clerked in the wholesale cigar 
and tobacco business until 1864, when he came to this city and 
started a cigar maniifactory on a small scale. His business in- 
creased from time to time so that he gradually dispensed with 
making his stock, and now carries a large and select stock of im- 
ported "and domestic cigars, snuffs, pipes, chemng and smoking 
tobacco, etc., and has the only establishment of the kind in the 
city. October 11, 1870, he was united in matrimony to Theresa 


Worth, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, They became the parents 
of five children, tour now living; Mary K., Clara, John J. and 
Helen. Mr. Fendrich is a Democrat in jsolitics and has always 
manifested considerable interest in j^olitical affairs. He was a 
member of the city council three years, and in 1873 was ap- 
pointed chief of the Yincennes fire department, which position he 
has filled with ability to the present time. 

HIEAM A. FOULKS, cashier of the Yincennes National 
Bank, is a native of Knox County, Ind., born May 7, 1832. He 
and Mrs. Isabel Patterson, of California, being tire only surviving 
members .of the family of William G. and Isabel (Charles) 
Foulks, natives respectively of Pennsylvania and North Carolina. 
The father came West in 1818 and lived for some time in Illinois, 
and finally came to Knox County, Ind., in 1828, locating about 
two miles from Yincennes, where he engaged in the combined oc- 
cupations of farming, general merchandise and the manufacture 
of cigars and tobacco, the latter having been his chosen calling in 
early life. In 1874 he moved to Missouri, where he died in 
1876. The mother died in Knox County about the close of the 
war, and the father afterward married a Mrs. Elizabeth Patter- 
son, who is now deceased. Hiram A. was raised with his parents, 
securing a good preliminary education in the public schools. At 
the age of nineteen he entered the military institute near Frank- 
fort, Ky., and graduated ift the scientific course in 1852. He then 
returned to Knox County, Ind., and followed civil engineering 
and surveying for three or four years. In 1855 he accepted the 
position of deputy auditor of the county and served eight years, 
and was then elected auditor of the county, and held the position 
two terms of four- years each. At the expiration of his term in 
1872 he opened an abstract of titles and real estate ofltice, contin- 
uing abo\it four- years, and then served four years in the record- 
er's ofiice. In June, 1881, he was chosen cashier of the Yin- 
cennes National Bank, which position he has filled faithfully and 
efficiently to the present time. In 1857 he married Mary E. Mc- 
Kee, a native of Knox County. To them were born these chil- 
dren: Charles A., William M., Hiram J., Frank D., Henry E., 
Robert N., George W. and two daughters deceased. Mr. Foulks 
has been an active Democrat in politics a number of years. He 


became a member of the I. O. O. F. in 1864, and is one of 
the successful and enterprising business men of the city and 
county. He has invested considerable money in farming lands 
and owns a one-half interest in 1,400 acres of land in the White 
Biver bottoms near Deckertown, which is well stocked with horses, 
cattle, mules, etc. 

GEOEGE FTFIELD, proprietor of the Wabash Woolen 
Mills at Vincennes, Ind., is one of five children born to the mar- 
riage of George Fyfield and Eliza Atwell, born in Manchester, 
England, and Ohio, respectively. The father came to the 
United States about 1830, and engaged in the cotton business 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in 1832 he came to this city and took 
charge of the " Davis S. Bonner." In 1862 he, in company with 
L. H. Grammer, started the Wabash Woolen Mills, which they 
operated successfully eight or ten years. The mills then passed 
out of his ownership, but he continued to work in them, and later 
bought the entire factory, which he operated successfiilly until 
his death, April 30, 1885. George was brought up in the busi- 
ness with his father, and since the latter's death he has owned 
and operated the factory with the best of success. They manu- 
factui-e a superior quality of jeans, satinets, flannels and blankets, 
finding a good local demand for all the goods manufactiu-ed. 
George employs ten hands, and is doing a lucrative business. In 
1880 he married Jennie Borrowman, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
They have two children: Belle and Frank. He is a Republican 
and a K. of P. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, and 
his wife is a Presbyterian. 

JOHN W. GADDIS, professional architect, of Vincennes, 
Ind., was born in Olney, 111., December 2, 1858, and is a son of 
George and Julia Ann (Brillhart) Gaddis. The father was born 
in Evansville, Ind., in 1831, and the mother in York, Penn., in 
1845. Our subject attended the public schools of Olny, and spent 
1877-78-79-80 in the Illinois State University at Urbana, 111. 
Here he took a full course in architectui-e, and later built the 
public school building at Newton, 111. ; the same at Sumner, 111. ; 
the opera house at Newton; the Holdzkom block at Efiiugham, 
111., and has worked in Salem, that State. He has also exercised 
his skill in Albion, Washington, Petersbui-gh and Worthington, 


Ind; the Presbyterian Church at Vincennes; Bernhard Kuhn's 
residence in the same place; E. Bierhaus & Son's wholesale gro- 
cery block, and many other biiildings. He moved to Vincennes, 
Ind., in the fall of 1883, and here still resides. He is a member 
of the K. of P., and was married November 26, 1885, to Miss 
Ellen E. Loten, of Vincennes. He is the only architect in the 
city, and is a thorough master of his profession. 

ELBEIDGE G. GARDNEE, a prominent pioneer .citizen 
of Vincennes, Ind., and native of the city, was bora April 1, 1820, 
and is one of three surviving members of a family of nine chil- 
dren, of which he was the eldest, born to Andrew and Hannah 
(Swift) Gardner, natives respectively of Massachusetts and New 
Jersey. The father came West about 1812, and located in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, where he followed his trade of cabinet-making. In 
1816 he came to this city and started in business for himself in 
the manufacture and sale of furniture and undertaking goods, this 
being the foundation of the present business conducted by our 
subject. Andrew Gardner was well and favorably known in the 
county as an enterprising and successful business man. He was 
a Democrat in politics, and held various offices of trust in the 
county, such as treasurer, commissioner, and other local offices. 
He was a leading member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He died in 1860, and the mother in 1874. Our subject was 
reared in his father's store, and secured the ordinary education 
of the day. In 1840 he married his present wife, Dorcas Fel- 
lows, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, and continued in business with 
his father until the latter's death, and has since carried on the 
business successfully alone. Mr. and Mrs. Gardner became the 
parents of nine children, six of whom are living : Nancy, wife of 
Hiram Baker; Dexter, in business with his father; Edward, con- 
nected with the business ; Lucy, wife of M. L. Seddelmeyer ; Wil- 
lis F. and Hannah E. Mr. Gardner is a Democrat of the Jack- 
sonian school, and has held various minor offices in the county. 
He is a member of the Encampment, I. O. O. F., and is a trustee 
and firm supporter of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to which 
he and family belong. 

MILTON P. GHEE, general insurance agent at Vincennes, 
Ind., was born in Thompson, Ohio, March 3, 1822, and is a son 


of Chester H. and Freedom (Pomeroy) Ghee, who were born in 
Northampton, Mass. Milton P. was raised in his native county 
on a farm, and received a good academic education. At the age 
of twenty-four he began teaching school in his native State, and 
in 1845 came to Vincennes and followed the same profession two 
years. He then accepted the position of deputy county auditor, 
which he held nine years, and then took an interest in the book 
and stationery, and also newspaper business. He purchased an 
interest in the Daily and Weekly Gazette, which he conducted 
successfully until the beginning of the war. He then became 
bookkeeper for H. B. Shepard, the collector of internal revenues 
for the First District, continuing eight years, and in 1868 was ap- 
pointed United States gauger of distilled spirits for the First Dis- 
trict, and filled the office very efficienly until 187-1. In the mean- 
time he engaged in the fii-e and life insurance business, and in 
1875 established an office in the city, and has met with good and 
well-deserved success. April 8, 1817, he married Sophia A. 
Laughton, a native of the county. To them were born these four 
children: Sophia A., wife of F. A. Hyatt; Mary O., wife of John 
A. Hatcher; Carrie H. and Milton P., Jr., at work in the Phoenix 
Fire Insurance Company, of Chicago. Mr. Ghee is a stanch 
Eepublican in politics, and has taken an active interest in the 
campaigns of the county and district, and has been an ardent 
worker for the interests of his party. He is a member of the I. 
O. O. F. and Episcopal Church, as is his wife, and is justly rec- 
ognized as one of the successful and highly respected business 
men of Vincennes. 

JOHN T. GOODMAN, attorney at law and member of the 
firm Cobb, Cobb & Goodman, is a native of Knox County, Ind., 
where he was born March 1, 1861, and is a son of William and 
Mary (Pickle) Goodman. He is of Dutch-English descent, and 
his father was born in Knox County in 1831. He was a 'farmer 
by occupation, and was a resident of this county all his life. 
His death occurred in 1864. The mother was also a native of 
Knox County, born in 1840, and died here in 1878. The paternal 
grandfather, John Goodman, was a Kentuckian by birth, and 
came to Indiana about 1825, settling near Edwardsport, where he 
died in 1850. The boyhood days of our subject were spent on the 


farm and in attending the district schools in his neighborhood. 
In 1878 he became a student at the Knox County Normal School, 
at Edwardsport, and in 1879 entered the DanYille Central Normal 
College and remained there two years. In 1881 he began study- 
ing Blackstone in the law office of Cobb & Cobb, and was admit- 
ted to the Knox County bar in 1882. Since that time he has 
been actively practicing his profession. He is one of the leading 
attorneys of the county, and promises to rank among the first in 
his profession. In October, 1883, he became one of the firm of 
Cobb & Cobb, and has since continued. He is a Democrat in 
politics, and has taken an active interest in politics for the last 
eight years, and has gained some reputation as a political 
speaker. He cast his first presidential vote for Grover Cleveland. 
He is a Mason, and was married, December 13, 1883, to Mary E. 
Fuller, a native of the county, born October 28, 1865. They have 
one child — Charles O. Mrs. Goodman is a daughter of George 
W. Fuller, a prominent citizen of Bickuell, Knox Co., Ind. 

CHAELES GEAETEE, retired merchant, is a native of 
Alsace, Germany (formerly a French possession), born May 12, 
1811. He is a son of August C. and Elizabeth Graeter, and is 
of French-German descent. His father was born in "Wurtemburg, 
Germany, in 1748, and died in his native land in 1820. His 
mother was born in the interior of France. The Graeter family 
has been known in what is now Knox County, Ind., since 1772. 
The first of the family who came to America was Frederick 
Graeter, an uncle of our subject. He was a fur trader, and served 
as justice of the peace a number of years. He died here in 1829. 
The second of the faiaily who came to Indiana was Christian 
Graeter, a brother of our subject, who came prior to 1800. He 
was a tavern-keeper and merchant, and died about 1833. Charles 
Graeter came to America in 1837. He was educated in his native 
country, and in early manhood carried on a confectionery busi- 
ness. In 1838 he began keeping a bakery and confectionery 
store, and in 1842 he began general merchandising, and continued 
the same until 1875, when he retired from active business life. 
Since then he has been engaged in the real estate business, and 
in 1885 erected what is now one of the finest and most extensive 
business blocks in the city — -54x132 feet and three and a half 


stories high, and cost $25,000. It is a great credit to the city 
and to the public spirit and enterprise of its owner. In politics 
Mr. Graeter is a Democrat, and has been a member of the city 
council. He is a Mason, and is liberal in his religious belief. 
He brought the first billiard table in the city fi'om France to Vin- 
cennes. He is one of the leading men of the city. 

FKEDEEICK GEAETEE, Jk. Among the men who were 
prominent in the mercantile business in Vincennes, £i-om 1839 to 
1860, none perhaps deserve more extensive notice than the subject 
of this sketch. He was born in Vincennes, November 20, 1815, 
and is the second of six sons born to Christian and Margaret 
(McClure) Graeter, and is of French-German descent. His 
father was born in Germany in 1777, and came to Knox County, 
Ind., in 1804. He was a soldier in the war 1812, and was in the 
battle of Tippecanoe, and commanded the First Division of 
Dragoons under Gen. Harrison. For many years after he was 
colonel of Indiana militia at Vincennes'. He died here in 1832. 
The mother was born in Kentucky in 1787, and died in Knox 
County in 1822. Our subject spent his early boyhood in this 
city. In 1833 he left, his native city and went to New Orleans, 
and there remained until 1838, when he returned to Vincennes, 
and the following year engaged in the grocery business, continu- 
ing successfully at that business until 1860, when he quit that 
work and engaged in a sale and livery stable, and also established 
an omnibus line in the city. In 1883 he became one of the prin- 
cipal owners of the Vincennes City Street Eailway. For many 
years he dealt extensively in real estate. He was proprietor 
of the Grand Hotel, which burned in December, 1885. The 
building was erected in 1876, and cost S16.000. The marriage 
of Mr. Graeter took place in 1841. to Miss Mary Cardinal, a na- 
tive of Vincennes. To their union nine children were born, five 
of whom are living: Joseph, George, Samuel, and two daughters. 
Mrs. Graeter was formerly a Whig, but is now an ardent Eepub- 
lican. He is a member of the Catholic Church, and a representa- 
tive of one of the fu-st families of the count}'. 

GEOEGE W. GEAETEE, superintendent of the Vincennes 
Street Eailway Company, is a native of this city, born September 
13, 1853, son of Frederick and Mary (Cardinal) Graeter, and is 


of French descent, and a representative of one of the early day 
families of the city. He was educated in the Vincennes Public 
School. In 1870 he engaged in the city omnibus and transfer 
business in this city, and continued the same business until 1883, 
when he was appointed to his present position, which he is filling 
very acceptably. July 3, 1878, he was married to Miss Fannie 
Fralick, a native of the city, born in October, 1861. They have 
two children: Alice and Fannie. Mr. Graeter's political pro- 
clivities are Kepublican. He cast his first presidential vote for 
Hayes. He is a member of the Catholic Church, and his wife is 
a Presbyterian. The family is highly respected, and our siibject 
is a shrewd and popular business man. 

JOHN L. GEEEN was born in the city of Vincennes, Ind., 
September 17, 1846, and is a son of William and Hannah (Bart- 
lett) Green. He is of English descent and was educated at the 
Vincennes University. In 1868 he became connected with the 
Adam's Express Company and remained with them twelve years, 
nine of which were spent as express messenger. In October, 1880, 
he engaged in the ice and feed business, but four years later he 
quit dealing in ice, and devoted his time to the purchase and sale 
of grain and still continues in that business, doing an extensive 
grain and feed sale. In 1885 he handled 70,000 bushels of 
wheat. He was married, in 1875, to Mise Frank C. Markley, a 
native of Ohio, born September 17, 1852. They are the parents 
of these three children: Perry D., Bessie M. and an infant un- 
named. In politics he is a Republican and cast his first presi- 
dential vote for U. S. Grant. He is the leading grain dealer of the 
city and a representative of one of the oldest families of this 

HENEY L. GEIFFITH is a native of Ohio, and was one of 
six children of James and Abiah (Stow) Griffith, natives of New 
York and Connecticut, respectively. The father was taken to Ohio 
when quite young, where he was reared and engaged in the lum- 
ber business for many years. He then moved to Iowa and was 
engaged in the same business. He died in that State. The 
mother died in Michigan, where the family lived a short time. 
Our subject was reared in his native State fi-om the time of his 
birth, February 28, 1832, to years of manhood. At the age of 


eigliteen he went to Illinois with his parents, where they lived a 
short time and then lived an unsettled life for several years, and 
at one time was in the employ of a large lumber firm at Chippewa 
Falls, Mich. From there he went to Iowa and two or three years 
later came to Decatur County, Ind., where he married and fol- 
lowed lumbering. He moved to Bartholomew County and about 
eight years later came to Knox County, and lived in Vincennes 
seven years. December 10, 1884, he began farming and has been 
very successful, and now owns 440 acres of land. June 8, 1862, 
he married Eunice B. Taylor, who has borne him six chikben, 
three now living: Harry L., Etta and John S. Mrs. Griffith is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Griffith is a 
Eepublican and a member of the K. of H. 

CADWALLADER M. GRIFFITH was born March 29, 1843, 
at Evansville, Ind., being the third of a family of four children 
of Cadwallader M. and Rachel P. (Harvey) Griffith, both natives 
of Pennsylvania. They moved to Vanderburg County, Ind., in 
about 1838, and lived and died there. Oui- subject was reared in 
Evansville and secured a limited education. He remained with 
his parents till they both died. The father died when our subject 
was but fourteen years old. He then was the support of the fam- 
ily till the death of the mother several years afterward. He was 
then engaged in United States mail service on the Ohio River, in 
which he continued about four years. He then removed to Mount 
Carmel, 111., and engaged in the grocery trade for one and a half 
years. He then went to Indianapolis and for one year was in the 
grocery trade, thence to "Vincennes, where he engaged in the dairy 
business, which he now conducts. He was married February 20, 
1872, to Rosina E. Burnet, a native of Ohio and daughter of 
Stephen Burnet. The wife is a member of the Christian Church. 
Politically he is a Rej^ublican. He was in the late war four years, 
. in Company F, Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteers, and resigned- 
his commission of first lieutenant before the close of the war. He 
is known as an honorable and resj^ectable citizen. 

FREDERICK HALL, recorder of Knox Coimty, Ind., was 
born in Madison County, Ind., January 16, 1850. He is a son of 
Hem-y and Anna A. (Harting) Hall, who were born in Hanover, 
Germany, March 28, 1796, and September 13, 1822, respectively. 


The family came to America at an early day and for a brief period 
lived in Hamilton County, Ohio. They then moved to Madison 
County, Ind., where the father died November 21, 18B2. Three 
years later the family came to Knox County, Ind., and located in 
Harrison Township. Here our subject received a common school 
education and spent his boyhood days on the farm. In 1867 they 
moved to Vincennes and here the family have since resided. 
Frederick was appointed deputy auditor in 1869 and served in that 
capacity for ten years. He is a stanch Democrat, in politics, and cast 
his first presidential vote for Horace Greeley. In 1878 he was 
elected county recorder and received the entire vote of the county, 
having no opposition. He was re-elected in 1882 by a majority 
of 1,099. He has filled the office to the entire satisfaction of the 
people, and is in every respect a tried and true officer. 

GEOKGE HALL, of the firm of Hall Bros., grocers, of Vin- 
cennes, Ind., was born in Madison County, Ind., November 29, 
1852, son of Henry and Anna A. (Harting) Hall, natives of Ger- 
many. The father died in Madison County, Ind. The subject 
of this sketch came to Knox County with his mother shortly after 
the close of the war and lived with them on a farm until 1870, 
when he came to this city and clerked for Charles F. Baker until 
1871 and then engaged in his present business. June 7, 1882, he 
married Lena Lackman, a native of the city. They have had 
born to them two children, who are botli dead. Mr. Hall is a 
Democrat and a member of the German Lutheran Church. 

HENEY HALL, brother and partner of George Hall, was 
born in Wayne County, Ind. He came to Knox County, Ind., 
with his people and worked at the carpenter's trade until 1871, 
when he engaged in the grocery business with his brothers as 
above stated. January 1, 1878, he married Dora A. Hamm, a na- 
tive of Vincennes. They have three children, named John F., 
Jesse E. and Frank H. Mr. Hall is of the same political belief 
as his brother, and a member of the St. John's Evangelical Church 
of the city. Their firm is composed of Charles, Henry and George 
Hall, and they established their grocery in 1871, but removed to 
different localities in the city until 1884, when they built their 
present commodious brick store-rooms, and carry the largest and 
best stock of fancy and staple groceries in the city. 


GEOEGE HAREIS, wholesale dealer in imported and do- 
mestic queens ware, glassware, etc., in Vincennes, Ind., was bom 
in Staffordshire, England, February 22, 1834, son of Thomas and 
Elizabeth (Cope) Harris, both natives of England. George was 
reared hj his parents in his native country, and learned the pot- 
tery business. At the age of seventeen he came to the United 
States, locating at Cincinnati, Ohio, where he followed his trade 
a number of years. He lived for some time in Indianapolis, and 
then moved to Louisville, Ky. In 1862 he enlisted fi-om Indian- 
apolis in the Seventy -ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
and served in the war of the Rebellion until its close, being pro- 
moted during service to lieutenant. In 1865 he came to thia 
city and engaged in his present business, on a smaller scale, and 
has continued in it, increasing his stock from time to time, until 
at present he carries the largest p-nd best selected stock of goods 
in his line in the city, and commands the leading trade. In 
1858 he married Eliza Cooper, a native of Ohio. They have 
eight children — six sons and two daughters. In politics he is a 
Republican, and is a member of the I. O. O. F. and K. of H. fra- 
ternities. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 

FRANCIS M. HARRIS, M. D., of Vincennes, Ind., was born 
in Clermont County, Ohio, October 23, 1836, son of Boales and 
Elizabeth J. (Thompson) Harris, natives respectively of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. They removed to Harrison County, Ky., 
when our subject was an infant. He was reared on a farm, and 
received a limited education until he attained the age of nine- 
teen, when he attended a graded school in Kentucky, graduating 
when he was twenty-two years old. He then began the study of 
medicine under Dr. J. B. A. Risk (late professor of obstetrics in 
the Cincinnati Medical College), and remained with him until he 
attended the above named college, fi-om which he graduated in 
1863. He began practicing his profession in Butler, Ky., re- 
maining there until 1879, when he came to this city, where he 
has since remained. In July, 1863, the Doctor married Miss 
Kate M. Shaw, a native of Alexandria, Ky. They have three 
children: Albert E., Inez M. and Ralph R. Albert E. is a grad- 
uate of the Vincennes University, and is at present bookkeeper 


for J. & S. Emison, of this city. His daughter is a graduate of 
the same institution, and also of St. Mary's Institute, of Vigo 
County, Ind. The Doctor is a Democrat in politics, and has 
been a member of the board of health three years, and is presi- 
ident of the board of United States Examining Surgeons at this 
point. He is also a member of the Indiana State, Mississippi 
Valley and Knox County Medical Societies, and is a Knight 
Templar. He, wife and daughter are members of the Christian 
Church. Although not an old resident of the county, he is just- 
ly recognized as a \iseful citizen and successful medical practitioner. 
WILLIAM HEBEED, wholesale and retail dealer in general 
hardware, is a native of Vincennes, having been born in that city 
September 30, 1827. He is a son of William J. and Charlotte 
(Burtcli) Heberd, both natives of Connecticut. The father came 
to Knox County in 1820, where he began life as clerk, and later 
engaged in the general merchandising business, in which he con- 
tiniied, meeting with good success, until his death, December 5, 
1859. He was a Democrat in politics, but never aspired to office. 
In religion he was a Presbyterian, and he was favorably known 
as a moral and upright citizen. The subject of this sketch was 
brought up by his parents at Vincennes, receiving a fair educa- 
tion in the common schools. He was admitted to partnership 
with his father, under the firm name of W. J. Heberd & Son, and 
remained a member of the firm until his father's death, after 
which he and his brother, Ulysses, conducted the same business 
until 1860, when they sold out the dry goods department, and en- 
gaged exclusively in general hardware. Ulysses died about 
seven years ago, since which time our subject has conducted the 
business successfully alone. He is also proprietor of a large 
agricultural implement business conducted by his son, William 
J., and Charles H. Miller. In April, 1854, Mr. Heberd married 
Irene Hanna, a native of Georgetown, Ky. They have had six 
children, four of whom are still living: Mattie (the wife of 
Thomas J. Cook), Mary A. (the wife of L. T. James, of Kansas 
City), William J. and Irene H. Mr. Heberd is a Democrat in 
politics, and is justly recognized as a successful and enterprising 
business man. 


KOBEET A. HENDEKSON was born at Bedford, Lawrence 
Co., Ind., January 11, 1826, and is the eldest of seven children of 
John and Anne (Reid) Henderson. The father was born in Vir- 
ginia, in 1801. He moved to Knoxville, Tenn., and remained 
there with his parents a few years, and then came to Bedford, 
where he married the mother, who was a native of Kentucky, 
born in 1803. She moved to Lawrence County, Ind., in 1820, 
and there remained until a few years previous to her death, when 
she came to where our subject now lives, and died in 1880. The 
father was a farmer, and died about 1878. Robert A. secured 
the rearing and education of the average farmer's boy, and when 
twenty-one years old he married and settled near Bedford, where 
he followed farming, iiat-boating and dealing in produce, until 
the war broke out. He farmed in Lawi-ence County until 1870, 
and then came to Knox County and located near Vincennes. He 
owns 260 acres of the very finest land on the Wabash bottoms, 
under good improvements. March 1, 1847, he was married to 
Emily J. Hoopingarner, who has borne him eight children, five 
now living: Isaac N., Cornelia A. (who died after being grown 
and married), Mary C, Thomas L., Sarah J. (who died at nine 
years of age), Susan C, Martha E. and Samuel R., who died at 
the age of sixteen. Mrs. Henderson is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and he is a Mason and a Democrat, po- 
litically, having cast his first vote for Cass. He takes an active 
interest in politics, and is recognized as a prominent man of the 
county. All his cliildi-en are living near him. 
. ISAAC N. HENDERSON, an enterprising farmer of Knox 
County, Ind., is the eldest of Robert A. Henderson's family, and 
was born July 8, 1848, in Lawrence County, Ind. He was reared 
on a farm, secured a common school education and remained with 
his parents to the age of twenty-seven years, when he married 
and settled on a farm near his father. He owns 120 acres of fine 
bottom land, well cultivated and improved. He was married 
February 18, 1875, to Helen Hudson, a native of Wayne County, 
111. To them were born these four chilcb-en: Cora L., Minnie M., 
Maud E. and Claud. Mr. Henderson is a member of the Demo- 
cratic party and is one of the successful young farmers of the 


J. H. HENSLEY, M. D., of Vincennes was born in Owen 
County, Ind., March 24, 1857, and was a son of John and Nancy 
(Steele) Hensley, natives respectively of Virginia and Owen 
County, Ind. The father came to Indiana with his parents as 
early as 1832 or 1833, locating in Owen County, where he has 
since resided, engaged in the occupation of farming and stock 
raising. Our subject was reared with his parents in his native 
county securing a good literary education, graduating from the 
Terre Haute Business College, then attending the Northern 
Indiana Normal School at Valparaiso nearly four years. In 
1877 he began the study of medicine in Valparaiso under Dr. W. 
A. John, professor of chemistry and toxicology in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago, continuing with him until he 
entered the medical department of the University of Louisville, 
Ky., fi'om which he graduated in 1881. In March of that year 
he removed to this city, where he has since resided, engaged in 
the practice of his profession, having met with more than ordinary 
success. He is a member of the Mississippi Valley, National, In- 
diana State and Knox County Medical Societies, being treasurer 
of the latter. He is a member of the Royal Arcanum and is a 
Republican in politics and unmarried. Besides being a success- 
ful physician he is recognized as a moral, upright and useful 

JERE HERSHEY, city civil engineer of Vincennes, Ind., 
was born in Martinsburg, Penn., October 15, 1839. His parents, 
Joseph M. and Catharine (Sias) Hershey, were born in Pennsyl- 
vania and are of German descent. They moved to Wabash County, 
111., when Jere was a small lad. Here he was reared and worked 
at wagon-making and blacksmithing, the latter being his father's 
trade. He secured a good English education and at the age of 
nineteen began teaching school in that county, continuing until 
1864, when he came to Knox County, Ind., and taught in the 
public schools of Edwardsport and this city until 1868, when he 
engaged at surveying with C. S. Kabler, an able and experienced 
surveyor, who graduated in the class with Jubal Early and Gen. 
Robert E. Lee. Mr. Hershey studied and worked under this 
gentleman about a year and was appointed county surveyor to fill 
an unexpired term of Mr. Kabler, who resigned to go West. In 


1871 he was elected city civil engineer and resigned the former 
office to accept the latter, which he has filled in a highly efficient 
and faithful manner. In 1863 he married Martha J. Jackman. 
They have one son, named Joseph B. He is a Democrat in 
politics and has taken an active part in political affairs of the city 
and county. He is a member of ^ the Baptist Church and his wife 
of the Christian Church. In 1862 he enlisted in Company E, 
Sixty-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry, serving less than a year 
in the war of the Rebellion, when he was honorably discharged 
from the service. 

CHRISTIAN HOFFMAN, exrcounty treasurer, of Knox 
County, Ind., is a son of Adam and Justenia (Bedo) Hoffman, 
who were of German and French descent, born in 1811 and 1828 
respectively. The Hoffman family came to America in 1828, and 
for a time settled in St. Louis, Mo., and then came to Vincennes 
and here the father died, March 25, 1867. The mother is still 
a resident of this city. By occupation the father was a butcher, 
and for many years was one of the leading ones in the city. Our 
subject was born in Knox County, in 1846, and in early life 
learned the butcher's trade of his father, and began this business 
for himself in 1865, and continued until 1878, when he was elected 
treasurer of this county, and was re-elected in 1880. He filled 
the office with much credit to himself and to the general satisfac- 
tion of the people. In 1883 he resumed the butchering business 
and continues to follow that occupation. In 1870 he took for his 
companion through life Miss Mary Schockamiller, a native of 
Germany, born in 1858. They have six children: Rosa, Ida, 
Adam, Christian H., Frederick and Cora. Mr. Hoffman's politi- 
cal views are Democratic. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and the Evangelical Church. 

SHERIDAN H. ISAACS, assistant cashier of the Vincennes 
National Bank, is a son of Abraham and Sophia (Rogers) Isaacs, 
and was born November 10, 1855. His father was born in Manches- 
ter, England, in 1807. He was a fine scholar, and was professor 
of languages in a London college, and was afterward principal of 
a school for boys in Coalbrookdale, England. He died in Califor- 
nia in 1867. The mother was born in Shrewsbury, England, and 
died in Terre Haute July 3, 1860. Subject was reared by his 


brother-in-law, Wilson J. Williams, who took the place of a father 
to him. He was educated in the private school of Mrs. Massey 
and Miss Ann Decker, and at the Vincennes University, and later 
attended the Evansville Commercial College. In 1871 he entered 
the employ of Herman J. Watjen as drug clerk, and remained 
with him one year. He then accepted a position in the Vincennes 
National Bank, and for about four years has been assistant cash- 
ier. He is a Eepublicau, and cast his first presidential vote for 
that illustrious man, James A. Gai-field. He became a Mason in 
1884, K. T. degree, and is a member of the Episcopal Church. 

WILLIAM H. JACKSON, justice of the peace, was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, March 1-4, 1823, son of Charles and Mary 
(Jocelyn) Jackson, and is of German-Irish descent. The parents 
died when our subject was about five years of age, and he was 
brought by his grandfather, Jackson, to Paoli, Orange County, Ind., 
where he was reared and educated. At the age of fourteen he 
began learning the printer's trade in the Indiana Patriot office, 
at Paoli, and completed his trade in the Banner office, at Madison. 
He came to Vincennes in 1840, and became one of the proprietors 
of TJie Neics of tlie Day, and afterward published the Vincennes 
Times. In 1861 he enlisted in Company G, Fourteenth Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, and served his country nearly two years. He 
was discharged in 1863, on account of physical disability. After 
his return home he published the Vincennes Gazette for eighteen 
months, and again published the Vincennes Times for a short 
time. He was foreman of the Sun office more than six years. He 
is politically a Republican, and was elected justice of the peace 
in 1881, and was re-elected in 1884, and still retains the position. 
He was married, in 1841, to Helen Cooper, a native of Virginia, 
to whom were born nine children, four of whom are living: Clar- 
ence W., Horace K., Cyrus A. and Nellie. Mrs. Jackson died 
September 10, 1872. 

LENSON JOHNSON, a representative of one of the first ten 
American families who settled at Vincennes, Ind., and proprietor 
of the telephone exchanges at Vincennes, Columbus, Shelbyville, 
Seymour, Worthington and Greensburg, Ind., and Olney, 111., is 
a native of Daviess County, Ind., born August 29, 1841, and is 
the youngest of eight children born to Elijah Johnson, and of 


Scotch-Irish descent. He was educated in the Worthington schools, 
and worked on a farm till seventeen years of age. In 1861 he 
enlisted in Company D, Twenty-fonrth Indiana Volunteer Infant- 
ry, and served four and a half years in the war of the Bebellion. 
He was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, and participated in the 
battles of Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, Champion Hill, Port Hud- 
son and in the Eed River expedition and at Blakely. He was 
honorably discharged in 1865. Three years later he began gen- 
eral merchandising in Washington, and continued there until 
1871, when he came to Vincennes and engaged in the agricultural 
implement business. In 1880 he began the telephone business, 
and continued building lines until 1882. He was the founder of 
the Telephone Exchange, and one of the founders of the Vincennes 
Electric Light and Power Company. He was married, in 1867 to 
Mary Warren, by whom he is the father of their two children : Mattie 
and Cora. Mrs. Johnson died in 1869, and in 187-3 Mr. Johnson 
took for his second wife Miss Alice Bishop, a native of Vincennes. 
They have five children: Charles, Lee, Eoscoe, Blaine and Ethel. 
Mr. Johnson is quite an inventor, and has secured about twenty 
patents, the principal one of which is the self-oiler for wagons. 
He is a Republican and a Mason, and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

EUGENE A. JOHNSON, clerk of the Union Depot Hotel at 
Vincennes, Ind., was born in Tiffin, Ohio, December 18, 1854, son 
of William M. and Ellen (Nolen) Johnson, 'and is of English- 
Irish extraction. The father was born in Maryland December 3, 
1824, and the mother in Pennsylvania in 1831. William John- 
son, the grandfather of our subject, was of English and Welsh 
parentage, born in the latter part of the last century. He came 
to America in early life, and settled in Maryland, and subsequent- 
ly moved to Tiffin, Ohio, where he died in 1869. The father died 
two years later, and the mother in 1876. The father was a lead- 
ing attorney of Tiffin, and for four terms (sixteen years) was pro- 
bate judge of Seneca County, Ohio. Our subject received his 
education in the Tiffin public schools, and remained in his native 
city until seventeen years of age, when he came to Vincennes, and 
for six years was in the employ of the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
way Company. In 1878 he accepted the position of clerk of the 


Union Depot Hotel, and this position he has since retained. He 
was married, December 21, 1876, to Miss Mary E. Mass, daughter 
of Capt. Mass, of this city. They have two children: C. Edwin 
and Mary E. Mr. Johnson is a Republican in politics, and cast 
his first presidential vote for R. B. Hayes. 

JAMES E. KACKLEY, postmaster of Vincennes, was born 
in Scott County, Ky., September 30, ISiO, son of Elias and 
Lucy (Burke) Kackley, of German and Irish descent respect- 
ively. The father, a native of Virginia, married in Kentucky, 
where he followed the occupation of farming. He died in Knox 
County, Ind., while on a visit to relatives. The mother died a 
year or so later in Kentucky, leaving our subject an orphan at 
the age of nine years. He came to this county with an uncle, 
residing with him about three years, when the latter died, and 
James was then compelled to do for himself. He worked as a 
farm hand in this county until he was eighteen years old, and 
then followed the mercantile business as clerk at Oaktown until 
1876, when he ran for sheriff of the county, but was defeated. 
He then continued farming until 1880, when he was elected 
sheriff of Knox County on the Democratic ticket, serving, by re- 
election, until 1884. He then acted as deputy under the present 
sheriff until June, 1885, when he was appointed to the postmas- 
tership under President Cleveland, and he is now filling the dii- 
ties of that office very efficiently. October 25, 1878, he married 
Hattie E. Decker, a native of Knox County. To them were born 
four children, Bessie, Clotilda, and Ellen now living. Mr. 
Kackley has been an active Democrat in politics for a number of 
years. He started in life a poor boy, but by energy, integrity 
and sterling business qualities he has made life a success. He 
is a member of the Masonic, I. O. O. F. and K. of P. fraterni- 
ties. Although not a member of any religious organization, he 
was raised in the Catholic faith, to which his wife and family 

ANTON KAPPS, manufacturer and dealer in boots and shoes, 
is a native of Alsace, France (now Germany), where he was born 
April 12, 1834. He is a son of John and Kathrina (Hartnagel) 
Kapps, who were born in the same country as our subject, where 
they lived and died. Anton learned the shoe-maker's trade in 


boyhood, and, at the age of twenty immigrated to the United 
States, landing at New Orleans in 1854. He worked at his trade 
in that city about three months, when he came up the river as far 
as Evansville, Ind., where he worked about eighteen months. In 
185G lie came to Vincennes, where he worked at his trade until 
1860, when he opened a store and shop of his own, and has fol- 
lowed that vocation ever since, having by his industry and good 
habits established one of the best stores of the kind in the city, 
carrying a full and select stock of goods, controlling a fair share 
of the trade. In 1859 he wedded Juliana Heisner, a native of 
Germany. To them were born seven children, five of whom are 
living: Frank Joseph, Edward George, Louis Anton, Emma 
Kathrina and Franciska. Mr. Kaj^p's political proclivities are 
Democratic. He is a member of the present city council, having 
served six terms. He and family are members of the Catholic 

JONATHAN KEITH, attorney at law, Vincennes, is a native 
of Knox County. He was born June 10, 1856, being a son of 
Warren C. and Elizabeth (Chambers) Keith, natives respectively 
of Kentucky and Indiana. The father came to Indiana at the age 
of sixteen, about the year 1835, where he lived the remainder of 
his life, following farming and preaching, being a member of the 
Baptist Church. His death occurred in 1872. The mother died 
in 1873. The subject of this sketch was brought up on the 
farm, and secured a good common school education. At the age 
of nineteen he commenced teaching school, to obtain means to 
enable him to secure a collegiate education. He attended the 
Terre Haute Normal School, and afterward the Ann Ai-bor Uni- 
versity one year, where he studied medicine. Giving up medi- 
cine he returned home and resumed teaching, and began the 
study of law with a view to making that his profession, reading 
with DeWolf & Chambers, and being admitted to the Knox 
County bar in 1883. Although a young man, and having to con- 
tend with able contemporaries, he has met with well-deserved and 
encouraging success. He opened his office in November, 1881. 
In politics he is a Republican, and has been engaged to some 
extent in local politics. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. and 
of the Baptist Church. He is a regular contributor to the Vin- 
Netvs under the nom de plume of "Glendale." 


JOSEPH B. KELSO, a prominent farmer of this county, 
was born September 2, 1830, in Knox County, Ind., on the farm 
where he now lives, being the second of a family of six children 
of William and Julia Ann (Hogue) Kelso. The father was born 
in 1800, in Monongahela County, Va., and was reared there until 
nineteen years of age, and then came to Cincinnati, Ohio, with a 
boat-load of chestnuts, and then came to Knox County, Ind., with 
Jerry Coleman, employed in transporting a mill. He then en- 
gaged in the brick business, and made the first brick that was 
used in the buildings of the town of Princeton, Gibson Co., Ind. 
He continued in this business till his death, also carrying on 
farming to some extent. He was successful, but met with some 
reverses. He died in 1869. The mother was a native of this 
county, and lived and died here. She was born May 5, 1809, and 
died August 22, 1872. Our subject was reared on a farm, receiv- 
ing a common school education. He remained with his parents 
to the age of twenty-six, when he engaged in farming and the 
brick business successfully, and now continues farming. He is 
recognized as one of the most successful farmers of the county, 
and owns 220 acres of land, all adjacent to the city of Vincennes 
and very valuable from the location and the very modern improve- 
ments. His residence is a two-story bi-ick, one mile from Vin- 
cennes, and presents an elegant appearance, and certainly makes 
Mr. Kelso a happy home. March 18, 1862, he was married to 
Martha J. Hollingsworth, a native of this county, born Decem- 
ber 15, 1836. They have five children : Charles S., born Novem- 
ber 18, 1863; Emma H., born February 10, 1866; William H., 
born October 8, 1868, and died July 18, 1870; Ellis T., born 
October 12, 1871, and John L., born April 24, 1877, and died 
June 12, 1877. Politically Mr. Kelso is a very zealous Repub- 
lican, and always has been. He was honored with the office of 
township trustee two years. He is recognized as one of the 
prominent and highly-respected men of the county, and is a 
moral, upright citizen. He was in Camp Knox in the time of the 
war, and did a great deal for the relief and entertainment of the 
soldiers in the camp, and furnished fuel, etc., for the soldiers. 

JEEOME T. KELSO is a son of Joseph and Margaret (Stone) 
Kelso, natives respectively of Virginia and New York. Jerome 


T. was born and raised in Decatur County, Ind., his birth-day oc- 
curring November 4, 1849. He secured a good business educa- 
tion in early life, and in later years engaged as clerk in the mer- 
cantile business. In 1873 he came to Vincennes and engaged in 
the grain and produce business four years. He then built the 
Riverside stave factory and lumber mills of this city, which he 
operated successfully four years. Later the building was con- 
sumed, but he rebuilt, and in 1881 sold out and dealt in lumber. 
In 1883 he established the Kelso Oil Company, with George Heitz as 
a partner for six months. In November, 1885, he sold the business 
to the Consolidated Oil and Tank Company, and has conducted 
the business for them up to this period. Their present plant was 
established by Mr. Kelso when he started the business. It is a 
corrugated iron structure, 40x80 feet in dimensions, situated near 
the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad bridge. It will soon be replaced 
by two large brick buildings, and a two-story brick store-house, a 
brick cooper shop, and five oil-tanks of 1,000 barrels capacity 
each. Vincennes will then be the general supply station for a 
large portion of southern Indiana and Illinois. May 14, 1876, 
Mr. Kelso was united in marriage to Julia E. Brouillette, a native 
of Vincennes. They have two children, Frank B. and George L. 
Mr. Kelso is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the K. of P. 
and Royal Arcanum, and he and wife are members of the Presby- 
terian Church. 

CLARENCE B. KESSINGER, attorney at law and deputy 
prosecuting attorney for the Twelfth Judicial Circuit, is a native 
of Bruceville, Knox Co., Ind., born April 28, 1859, son of 
William M. and Margaret J. Kessiuger, whose maiden name was 
Bruce. The Kessinger family are of German descent. The father 
of our subject was born in Pennsylvania, and his mother in this 
county, being a representative of one of the pioneer families of 
Knox County. The father came to Indiana about 1849, and set- 
tled in Washington Township, Knox County, where he still resides. 
Subject was raised on a farm, and his early years were spent at farm 
labor. He attended the schools of his native township and the Vin- 
cennes High School, which he entered in 1877, and fi-om which he 
graduated two years later. He began the study of law in the office 
of Cobb & Cobb in 1880. In 1882-83 he was an officer in the 


Plainfield Reform School. lu 1884 he was admitted to the Knox 
County bar, and at once formed a partnership in the law practice 
with William A. Cullop and George W. Shaw, continuing to the 
present. In the spring of 1885 he was appointed to his present 
office, which he is filling very creditably to himself. Politically 
he is a Democrat. He is one of the leading young lawyers of the 
Knox County bar, and his future promises to be all that his 
fi-iends could desire. 

EDWARD M. LAAKMAN, deputy recorder of Knox County, 
Ind. ; is a native of the city of Vincennes; was born July 8, 1863; 
son of Michael and Magdalena (Biever) Laakman. The father was 
born in Germany in 1809, and the mother in Strasburg, France, 
(now a German province), February 29, 1836. The family came 
to America about 1845, together with the mother's parents. The 
mother died October 28, 1885. Edward M. is the fourth of nine 
children. He was educated at a private school, and is the pos- 
sessor of a good common school education. In 1882 he was ap- 
pointed deputy recorder of Knox County, and has filled that posi- 
tion with much credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of 
the people. He is a stanch Democrat in politics, and his first 
presidential vote was cast for Grover Cleveland.. He is secretary 
of the Gramercy Club, and a member of the German Lutheran 
Church. He is well known and respected, and is one of the 
prominent young men of the city. 

JOHN D. LA CROIX, of Vincennes, Ind., and native of the 
city, was born April 7, 1856, and is the only son of four children 
born to the marriage of Marcell D. La Croix and Adel Bayard. 
Our subject was reared in this city with his parents, and secured 
an ordinary school education. He assisted his father in his dry 
goods store in this city until the latter' s death. In 1879 he en- 
gaged in the grocery and provision business, where he still holds 
forth, meeting with well-earned success. He carries a full and 
select line of goods, and controls a fair share of the trade in city 
and county. He is unmarried; a Democrat in politics. He is a 
member of the Catholic Church, and is justly recognized as a 
young man of business and energy. 

THOMAS V. LAMPORT was born in Woodstock, Canada, 
February, 14, 1844, son of Benjamin and Mary (Force) Lam- 


port, born in England and Canada respectively. Thomas V. was 
raised on a farm in Kankakee County, 111., where the father moved 
in 1847. He first engaged in the livery business in Momence, 
111., and in 1872 came to Knox County, Ind. and farmed one year. 
He then became manager of John Loten's lumber yard and re- 
mained such two years. In the spring of 1876 he established a 
similar business under the firm name of T. V. Lamport & Co. ; a 
year later merged into Dalton & Lamport. In 1882 he engaged 
in his present business and has met with well-deserved success. 
January, 1869, he married Mary C. Crews, a native of Missouri. 
They have five children: Myi'ta M., Listen W., Mary A., Lor a M. 
and Lester. Mr. Lamport is a Republican and a member of the 
Royal Arcanum society and he and his wife are members of the 
Baptist Church. 

BENJAMIN LAMPORT was born in Woodstock, Canada, 
August 30, 1846. He is a brother and partner of T. V. Lamport, 
and secured a common school education in Kankakee County, 111. 
In 1872 he took for his companion through life Angeline Crews, 
of Missouri, and engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1878, when 
he accepted the position as manager of the branch himber yards 
of Dalton & Lamport at Lawrenceville, 111., remaining there two 
years. In 1883 he came to Vincennes and engaged in his pres- 
ent business, sharing the success of the business with his brother. 
Mr. Lamport's married life has been blessed with one son named 
Elmer C. Mr. Lamport is a Republican and a member of the 
Royal Arcanum society, and he and his wife are members of the 
Baptist Church. The firm deal in lumber, shingles, doors, blinds 
and all goods pertaining to their line of business. Thomas began 
dealing in lumber in 1882, and the spring following Benjamin 
engaged in the business, and they have since conducted affairs 
very successfully: $50,0(J0 per annum is a fair estimate on their 
sales. They have five men employed besides themselves, and also 
have a coal agency for John D. La Croix of this city. T. V. 
Lamport is the founder of all the present lumber interests of the 
city of Vincennes. 

ADOLPH S. LANE, of the firm of M. Tyler, Son & Co., 
hardware nierchants and dealers in agricultural implements and 
seeds, in Vincennes, Ind., was born in Lippe Detmold, Prussia, 


November 5, 1842, son of George and Caroline (Ernsting) Lane. 
Our subject came with his parents to the United States when 
about twelve years of age. The mother died while en route, and 
the father located on a farm in the northern part of Knox County, 
Ind., in 1854. Here Adolph S. lived until he was twenty years of 
age, but secured little or no education. In later years, however, 
he secured a good business education by his own efforts and by 
actual contact with business life. In November, 1862, be came to 
this city and entered the employ of M. Tyler & Son, and contin- 
ued with them as clerk until January, 1876, when he became a 
partner in the business and has remained such ever since, having 
actual management of the same and showing his business capa- 
bilities by the successful manner in which he has conducted the 
business. December 3, 1863, Mr. Lane married Miss Hannah 
Brocksmith, who died March 17, 1877, leaving five children: Ed- 
ward, Louis, Alfred, Charles and Minnie. September 22, 1877, 
Mr. Lane married his present wife, who was a Mrs. Caroline 
(Brocksmith) Helle, a sister of his former wife. Mr. Lane is a 
Eepublican and a member of the city council. He is a member 
of the I. O. O. F., K. of H., K. L. of H. and K. of P. fraternities. 
He and his wife are members of the St. John's Evangelical 
Church, and he is recognized as being one of the prosperous bus- 
iness men of Vincennes. 

THE LA PL ANTE FAMILY, of Vincennes, Ind., are among 
the most distinguished and oldest families in the county or State. 
John Baptiste La Plante, native of Canada, came from Detroit to 
Vincennes in 1798 with his wife and family, and established a dis- 
tillery on the Illinois side of the Wabash Eiver. He was a soldier 
in the war of 1812 and was guide and scout for Gen. Harrison in 
the battle of Tippecanoe. He raised four sons: Pierre, John B., 
Hyacinthe and Joseph, and three daughters, all of whom spent 
their lives in Knox County, with the exception of one daugh- 
ter. Pierre La Plante, the eldest, a native of Detroit, Mich., 
participated with his father in the war of 1812. At an early age 
he learned the carpenter's trade which he followed irregularly 
the greater part of his life. After becoming of age he conducted 
a trading store or agency at Fort Harrison, above Terre Haute. 
He was only moderately successful in the accumulation of prop- 


erty and died a comparatively poor man. He was guide for 
Gen. Tipton in the removal of the Pottawattomie Indians from 
about Logansport to Missouri in 1837. He was a Whig in pol- 
itics and was commissioner of Knox County at one time. He 
married Elizabeth Gamelin, a native of this city, who bore him 
five children; three sons now living: John B., Peter E. and 
Charles. The father died in Vincennes in 1859 and the mother 
a year later. John B. La Plante of this city is the eldest son of 
Pierre La Plante, born February 3, 1823. Early in life he be- 
gan learning the saddler's trade, at which he worked until attain- 
ing his majority. He then engaged in the grocery business on 
a small scale, and by years of industry, economy and strict 
business integrity he and his brother Peter succeeded in 
increasing their business from time to time until they estab- 
lished one of the largest general merchandise establishments in 
the city, and succeeded in accumulating handsome competencies. 
John B. retired from active business life in 1878 and has since 
given his attention to the management of his property. Decem- 
ber 7, 1845, he was married to Malinda Scott, who died, and May 
28, 1874, he married Catherine E. AuU, who bore him one child 
now deceased. He is a Democrat in politics and has been county 
commissioner two terms and a, member of the city council numer- 
ous terms. He and his wife are Catholics. Peter E. La Plante, 
was born June 19, 1831, and was reared in the city where he se- 
cured an ordinary education. At the age of twenty-one he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business with his brother, and shared 
with him the success of their united efforts. He is a Democrat 
, and has been a member of the city council from time to time. He 
is a member of the Catholic Church, and was one of the organizers 
of the Vincennes Deposit Bank in 18G7 and was president of the 
same until its dissolution ten years later. Charles La Plante, the 
youngest of the three sons of Pierre La Plante, was born in this 
city September 28, 1833. He was clerk in his brother's store until 
1878^ when he assumed control of the grocery business, which he 
now conducts. In 18G1 lie married Sarah Hiles, who died in 1868, 
leaving one child, now deceased. In 1872 he married his present 
wife, Elizabeth Page, a native of this city. He is a Democrat, 
and he and his wife are members of the Catholic Church. 


JOHN LOTEN (deceased) was a native of England, born 
March 16, 1830, son of Robert Loten. The family came to 
America in 1852 and settled in Edwards County, 111. The father 
died in Vincennes in 1865. • Our subject came from England to 
America in 1853 and settled in the same place as his parents, and 
in the fall of the same year to Vincennes, and made his home in 
this place until his death. By occupation he was a painter and 
house decorator, having learned his trade in his native country; 
he followed it in this country and also dealt extensively in build- 
ing materials. As a painter and decorator he had few equals. 
His marriage took place in 1851 to Miss Eleanor J. Roberts, born 
in England in 1832, daughter of William and Mary Roberts, who 
lived and died in England. Five children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Loten, four of whom are living: John O., Mary A., Ellen 
E. and Emma J. Mr. Loten was a Democrat, and for eight years 
Tvas a member of the city council and held the position at the 
time of his death. He was a member of the I. O. O. E. and was 
a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was 
noted for his many charitable deeds and had many warm personal 
friends. His death took place December 9, 1876. After his 
death his eldest son assumed control of the business. Robert W. 
was born in Yorkshire, England, October 13, 1852, and came to 
America with his parents. His death occurred March. 7, 1884, 
and since that time Mrs. Loten has carried on the business alone 
and has been very successful. She carries an extensive line of 
wall paper, ceiling decorations, window shades, curtains, etc., etc., 
and does the most extensive business of the kind in Vincennes. 
She was for a number of years engaged in the photographic bus- 
iness in the city and was quite successful. She is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and is a prominent lady. 

JOHN R. MANTLE, M. D., is a native of Watertown, N. ¥., 
born April 6, 1815, son of Edmund and Dorothy (Richardson) 
Mantle. He is the eldest of eight children — five daughters and 
three sons — and is of Scotch-German extraction. The parents 
were born in Connecticut and Massachuetts in 1788 and 1792, 
respectively. The paternal grandfather. Consider Mantle, was 
born on the Atlantic Ocean about 1750. His parents died when 
he was very young and he was raised by a friend of the family. 


He served in the Revolutionary war and died in the "Empire 
State" in 1835. Subject's father was an 1812 soldier. His 
death took place in New York in 1875. The mother of our sub- 
ject died at seventy-five years of age. Our subject grew to man- 
hood in his native town, attending the common schools and 
afterward a select school. In 1836 he went to Ohio, and the 
winter of 1836-87 taught a country school near Cleveland. At 
the latter date he went to Kenton County, Ky., and taught school 
in this State for over three years. In 1841 he began the study 
of medicine in Cincinnati, under Dr. B. S. Lawson. He attended 
lectm-es at the Medical College of Ohio, and graduated in 1844. 
In April of that year he came to Vincennes and began the 
practice of his profession, and has continued to live in this place 
for forty years. He has a large and remunerative practice, and in 
consequence has done well financially. In March, 1847, he was 
married to Caroline Judah, a daughter of Hon. Samuel Judah. 
Mrs. Mantle was born in 1829 and died in 1849, having borne 
her husband one child, Harriet, who died in 1873. Dr. Mantle 
took for his second wife Mrs. Eliza Sears, a native of Michigan, 
born in 1825. They were married in 1854. The Doctor is a 
Republican and a member of the Vincennes Brick and Tile 
Company, he acting as secretary for them. The Doctor and Mrs. 
Mantle are leading members of the Cliristian Church, and he has 
long been a representative man of the city. For thirty-five years 
he has been a member of the board of trustees of the Vincennes 
University, and for six years was president of the board. 

WILLIAM A. MARKEE, dealer in drugs in Vincennes, 
Ind., is a son of Isaac N. and Mary A. (Pirtle) Markee, and was 
born in Sullivan County, Ind., May 12, 1857. The parents were 
natives respectively of Ohio and Indiana. William A. was raised 
in Carlisle, Sullivan Co., Ind., and secured a fair literary education. 
In 187G he began learning the di-ug business and entered the 
employ of F. P. Parvin, of that place, remaining with him about 
two years. He then came to Knox County and established a 
branch drug store at Oaktown for Jenkins, Curtner & Co., which 
he managed successfully until the latter part of 1879, when he 
became clerk in a drug store in Princeton. In 1880 he went to 
Mattoon, 111., and engaged as fii'st clerk in the leading drug 


establishment of that city. In 1882 he contracted for a one-half 
interest in the drug firm of Bridwell & Curry, at Evansville, but 
on account of the financial difiiculties of the firm he withdrew, 
the business was placed in the hands of a receiver and Mr. 
Markee was appointed manager to assist in closing out the same. 
July 15, 1882, he came to Vincennes and engaged in his present 
business, with W. Q. Rogers as partner. May 1, 1883, Mr. 
Markee purchased his partner's interest and has since conducted 
the business very successfully alone. That same year he engaged 
in the wholesale cigar business in connection with his drugs, and 
is doing an equally thriving trade in that line. November 9, 
1882, he was united in matrimony to Abbie D. Daniels, a daugh- 
ter of W. D. Daniels, a prominent citizen of Patoka, Ind. They 
have one son, named Fred D. In politics Mr. Markee is a Repub- 
lican and one of the first business men of the city. 

CAPT. ISAAC MASS, a well-known citizen of Vincennes, 
was born September 20, 1810, in Baltimore, Md., and is the 
youngest of nine children born to John and Mary (Essex) Mass. 
At nine years of age his mother died, aiid when twelve years old 
he began the coach-trimmer's trade, serving seven and a half 
years' apprenticeship. He worked in his native town and Newark, 
N. J., several months, but in February, 1832, embarked on board 
the ship "Congress," bound for Mexico, where he remained until 
December, 1833, working at his trade. He then returned to the 
United States, but later determined to again go to Mexico. Going 
overland through some Western States he stopped off at Vin- 
cennes, Ind., and through the instrumentality of the Masonic 
fraternity, of which he is an ardent member, he became acquainted 
with Col. John C. Clark, a prominent man of that day. Col. 
Clark induced him to take charge of his coach-trimming and 
repairing department, he at that time operating a line of mail 
stages, and some time later Mr. Mass was enabled to purchase the 
shops for himself. He here met Miss Emeline McCutchen, who 
became his wife October 14, 1835. In 1843 his business was 
destroyed by fire, and he then served as deputy county sheriff 
until 1844, when he was elected principal to that ofiice. In 1848 
he embarked in merchandising and the pork-packing business, 
but in 1852 sold out. He built the first eleven miles of the Ohio 


& Mississippi Eaili'oad east from Vincennes, and in 1854 erected 
the Star Flour-Mills at Vincennes, whicli lie operated until 1856, 
when they were bui-ned out. He then opened a general auction 
house and continued in that business until the late war, when, in 
July, 18G2, he recruited a company for the Sixty-fifth Regiment 
Indiana Volunteer Mounted Infantry, of which he was chosen 
lieutenant. The same month he was elected captain of the 
company. He served one year in Kentucky, then became a part 
of Gen. Schofield's army corps and as such participated in nu- 
merous hard-fought engagements, notably among which was Knox- 
ville. Because of ill health he resigned April 30, 1864, and was 
then elected sutler of the Sixty-fifth Indiana Regiment, but never 
served in that capacity. Until the close of the war he had charge 
of the Government mess hoiises. January 1, 1866, he returned 
to Vincennes and embarked in the dry goods and grocery trade, 
but sold out shortly thereafter and established an eating house at 
the crossing of the railroads. In 1870 he was burned out, but 
the same year, in company with his present partner, L. L. Wat- 
son, he built the Union Depot Hotel; also being one of the 
principal movers in putting in the new gas works, of which he 
was made president. Although having received but little school- 
ing Capt. Mass has acquired an education above the average, and 
has contributed numerous articles on various topics to the press, 
which have attracted the attention of the more intelligent class of 
people. By his first wife he was the father of five childi-en ; only 
one (Mrs. W. S. Sterne) is now living. He wedded his present 
wife, Mary A. Thorn Raper, daughter of Hon. "William Raper, 
October 7, 1847, and to their union seven children have been 
born — two sons and one daughter now living: Samuel, Lewis B. 
and Mary E. ; Carrie, another daughter, died May 6, 1884. 
Capt. Mass is independent in his views on all topics, believing in 
politics that the man is the one to vote for and not the party, and 
that one should be governed by the broad principles of Christi- 
anity in religious matters instead of church creed or dogma. 

CHARLES G. MATHESIE, assistant postmaster at Vincen- 
nes, Ind., was born in Lancaster, Penu., December 11, 1833, and 
is a son of Christian Mathesie, a native of Germany. The sub- 
ject of this sketch came to Indiana with his parents in 1839, and 


located in Evansville, -where they died a short time before the 
war of the Rebellion. He was brought up by his parents prin- 
cipally in New Harmony and Evansville, receiving a fair education 
in common branches. At the age of sixteen he began clerking 
in a mercantile establishment, and continued in this employment 
until he was twenty years of age. In 1854 he came to Vincennes 
and accepted a position in the postoffice, which he held irregularly 
until Lincoln's election, engaging somewhat in general merchan- 
dising in the meantime. In 1861 he was elected city clerk, serv- 
ing in this office faithfully and efficiently four terms of two years 
each. In 1860 he was engaged in taking the census of Vincennes 
Township. In 1869 he accepted the position of deputy county 
treasurer and was elected to the office of treasurer of Knox County 
in 1870, serving by re-election until 1874. He was then engaged 
in general merchandising three and a half years, at the end of 
which time he again became deputy treasurer and acted until 
Hollingsworth was elected and installed. In January, 1885, he 
was appointed to his present position, and is now attending to 
his duties in a satisfactory manner, his long experience in public 
rendering him singularly fit for such duties. He was married, in 
1857, to Amanda E. Colman, a native of Knox County, by wljom 
he has had four children, two of whom are living: Cora L., the 
wife of E. H. Buck, and Nellie B. Mr. Mathesie has always been 
an active Democrat, and he is a member of the Masonic order and 
K. ofH. 

PETER R. McCarthy, son of Michael and Bridget McCar- 
thy, was born in Coimty Clare, Ireland, March 10, 1849. Inl860 
he came with his father (his mother died in the old country) to the 
United States, and first located in Hoboken, N. J., where he was 
put to work at the tinner's trade. In 1864 he came to Vincennes, 
Ind., and the following year began working as locomotive fireman 
for the Ohio & Mississijjpi Railroad Company. Two years later 
he was given charge of an engine upon that road, continuing until 
1872. April 4, 1871, he was married to Ophelia, the accomplished 
daughter of H. H. and Lydia Dubois, a descendant of Capt. 
Toussaint Dubois, one of the early and wealthy French Canadians 
who were settlers at Vincennes prior to the Revolutionary war, 
and for whom the county of Dubois in this State is named. This 


union has been blessed with sis children, five of whom are living. 
July 19, 1874, Mr. McCarthy began business with a very small 
capital, as a dealer in stoves and tinware, but by indomitable 
energy and business sagacity has made his small capital produce 
marvelous results. He has a beautiful residence, and the archi- 
tectural work alone excells any in Southern Indiana. He intro- 
duced the manufacture of galvanized iron work over a large scope 
of territory and is president and manager of the company. In 
1879 he became a candidate for the office of city treasurer, and 
after a spirited contest defeated a very popular candidate. At 
the regular election he defeated the very popular Republican, Mr. 
Fred Miller, and at the succeeding election had no opposition. 
At the expiration of his terms, by his request, his accounts were 
examined by two expert book-keepers, who found the entire errors 
to amount to less than $1. In 1881 he was made chairman of 
the county Democratic Central Committee, and largely through his 
exertions the majority was handsomely increased. Mr. McCarthy 
is a member of the St. Francis Xavier congregation of the Cath- 
olic Church and is an earnest communicant, biit of tolerant and 
liberal views. He is a zealous Democrat in politics and has been 
of incalculable value to his party. He possesses the grace, wit 
and fancy characteristic of his race, and is a favorite with all who 
know him. He is quite a philanthropist and takes a great interest 
in all enterprises for the welfare of mankind. His kindness of 
heart and charity are proverbial, and the needy and unfortunate 
were never known to apply to him for aid in vain. He is consid- 
ered by his countrymen as a considerate and helpful brother, and 
in business circles ranks very high as a man of clear and sound 
judgment and superior business ability. 

CHARLES G. McCORD, attorney at law and examiner of 
titles at Vincenues, Ind., is a native of Knox County, born March 
21, 1851, son of William R. McCord, who was born in Madison 
County, Ky., May 2, 1809. His parents removed to Lawrence 
County, 111., in 1819 and there remained five years, and then came 
to Knox County, Ind., and located on a farm near the city. He 
was the eldest of twelve children, eight of whom are living. Mr. 
McCord was twice married; the first time to Mary A. Johnson, 
daughter of Judge Johnson, a prominent lawyer of Knox County. 


To them was born one child, a daughter, who lived but a short 
time. Mrs. McCord's death occurred October 5, 1835 ; April 22, 
1841, Mr. McCord took for his second wife Eliza J. Gibson, a 
Virginian by birth, who bore him four childi'en: William (a grad- 
uate of Yale College), Dora (wife of Smiley H. Chambers), Mary 
wife of J. F. Harris), and Charles G., our subject. March 13, 
1833, he became deputy circuit clerk and held that position with 
honor and credit to himself until November 5, 1838, when he was 
commissioned clerk by Gov. Wallace. He held the position four- 
teen years and was noted for his accuracy and painstaking. Later 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits and by his energy, honesty and 
trustworthiness, succeeded in amassing a handsome competency. 
His death occurred January 26, 1881. The mother died August 
8, 1867. Charles G. McCord, our subject, was raised in Vincennes, 
and received his preliminary education in the Vincennes Univer- 
sity. At the age of fourteen, he entered his father's store, con- 
tinuing with him until 1870, when he entered Brown University 
of Providence, B. I., and graduated from that institution in 1873. 
After his return home, he became a student of Blackstone, with 
Judge F. W. Viehe, until 1875, when he began practicing law 
with Col. C. M. Allen as partner, continuing two years. Since 
that time he has practiced his profession by himself in the county 
courts and has given especial attention to making and examining 
absti-acts of title, and has attained a degree of proficiency in this 
line, excelled by none other in the county. December- 22, 1881, 
Mr. McCord married Eleanor M. Drish, of Mattoon, 111. He is a 
Mason and a Eepublican in politics, and in November, 1876, he 
was appointed commissioner of the circuit coui'ts of the United 
States, and is now holding that position. 

JOHN T. McJIMSEY was born in Montgomery, Ohio, July 
14, 1840, son of John and Mary (Howser) McJimsey. The father 
was born in Miami County, Ohio, in 1799, and still resides in his 
native county. At the age of twenty-one John T. began life for 
himself and for a number of years dealt in stock. In 1863 he 
came to Green castle, Ind., and engaged in the livery and sewing 
machine business, continuing until 1872, when he came to Vin- 
cennes as manager for the Singer Manufacturing Company, and 
remained such for two years. He then became a general dealer 


in sewing machines. In 1884 he erected a commodious barn 
and began keeping a livery stable. In December, 1885, the barn 
caught fire and was consumed with all its contents. About eight- 
een horses perished in the flames. In 1864 he was married to 
Miss Hannah Ames, of Greencastle, Ind., by whom he has one 
child, Guy A., born in 1866. Mrs. McJimsey died in 1873, and 
in 1874 Mr. McJimsey was married to Miss Araminta DeBolt, a 
native of Cincinnati, Ohio, born in 1844. Our subject is a Repub- 
lican, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a 
member of the K. of P. He is a prominent man of the county 
and bids fair to retrieve his fallen fortunes. 

ARCHIBALD B. McKEE, born November 30, 1808, in Vin- 
cennes, was the second of a family of two children born to Samuel 
and Nancy (Shannon) McKee. The father was born in Lexington, 
Ky., where he studied medicine, immigrating to this county in an 
early day as surgeon in an army, and remained here the iirst regu- 
lar American physician in Vincennes, being also one of the prom- 
inent men of his time. He died November 6, 1809. The mother 
was reared in Knox County, Ind., and died November 25, 1819. 
At the time she came to this county the Indians were very cruel 
and atrocious, and her mother was killed by them. After the 
death of his mother the subject of this sketch was reared by his 
guardian for two or three years, and then went to his uncle in 
Kentucky, where he remained until 1830, when he returned and 
settled upon this farm. Ever since settling here he has followed 
farming. He was assessor of the county in 1836, and was United 
States assistant assessor in the county in the time of the war. 
He was the second auditor of Knox County for a part of a 
term made vacant by the expulsion of the auditor. He has been 
a successful farmer and now owns about 700 acres of excel- 
lent land. His residence is a very commodious frame building 
in a beautiful location. This farm was first opened up by Col. 
Francis Vigo, who lived with our subject several years. Mr. 
McKee was married October 1, 1831, to Julia Ann Smith, a native 
of this county. To them there have been born eleven children, 
one of whom died in infancy and two after being grown to matur- 
ity and married. Eight are now living. John F., born August 
8, 1832, and died in infancy; Samuel V., born October 27, 1833; 


Mary E., born April 25, 1835; Nancy A., born April 12, 1837; 
Sarah Anne, born February 15, 1839, and died after marriage, the 
mother of six children; David N., born March 7, 1841; Kobert 
L., born March 15, 1843; Julia E., born April 14, 1845, and died 
after marriage, the mother of four children; Archibald S., born 
July 27, 1847; Dorcas L., born May 16, 1850, and James H., 
born September 22, 1852. All the family are members of the 
Presbyterian Church, the parents being very pious and zealous 
members. Politically he is a very firm Republican and earnest 
advocate for all principles of morality and integrity, and also of 
temperance. He has been a member of the Presbyterian Church 
sixty years, an elder many years, and is now treasurer of the Vin- 
cennes Presbyterian Church. 

WILLIAM M. MEDCALF, M. D., of Vincennes, Ind., was 
born in Dale, Spencer Co., Ind., September 11, 1838, and was the 
son of Allen and Frances (Winkler) Medcalf, natives respectively 
of Maryland and North Carolina. The father, who was born 
September 23, 1791, removed in early life with his parents to 
Nelson County, Ky., where he followed farming. In the war of 
1812 he was a soldier in a Kentucky regiment, and was engaged 
fighting the Indians at Vincennes and at Tippecanoe. After the 
war he resided in Daviess County, Ky., until 1828, whence after 
his marriage he immigrated to Spencar County, Ind. Here he fol- 
lowed the occupations of farmer, carpenter and millwright, paying 
most attention to the latter. He was the first trustee of the town- 
ship and served a number of years as justice of the peace. He 
was also postmaster at Dale for a long time. He was well known 
throughout that section of country as a man of ability, energy and 
integrity, and he was a ruling elder of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. His death occurred May 29, 1876. The subject 
of this sketch was brought up by his parents in his native place 
on a farm until he was sixteen years old, securing an academic 
education, and studied Greek and Latin tinder a private tutor. 
He then took a course in theology and prepared himself for the 
ministry, and followed this calling in Monroe, Greene and Carroll 
Counties, Ind., and at Lincoln, 111., Eldora and Iowa Center, Iowa. 
In 1872 he assumed charge of the congregation at Washington, 
Ind., and remained there two years. Having given some atten- 


tion to the study of medicine lie now began the study of Homoe- 
opathy under Dr. Goodhue. lu 1874 he removed to Gibson 
County, Ind., locating in 1876 in Fort Branch, where he had 
charge of a congregation, still pursuing the study of medicine. 
In 1878 he graduated from the Missouri Homoeopathic College at 
St. Louis, and then took a course in the Missouri School of Mid- 
wifery, graduating and receiving the Franklin prize in surgery 
in his first college, being a member of Dr. E. C. Franklin's priv- 
ate class. Returning to Gibson County he entered regularly on 
the practice of medicine at Patoka and Fort Branch, remaining 
until February, 1884, when he came to this city, where he has 
since been engaged in the practice of his profession, meeting with 
well-deserved success. He is a member of the Indiana Institute 
of Homoeopathy. He received the ad eundem degree fi'om his alma 
mater in 1881. He was married, March 28, 1859, to Eugenia 
Leathco, a native of Kentucky, by whom he has five living child- 
ren: Ella J., William E., Thomas R., Carrie E. and Ireanius A. 
He is a Republican in politics, a Knight Templar, and though 
not actively engaged in the ministry, is a member of the Indiana 
Presbytery, still holding his credentials and frequently officiating 
as a minister. His son William E., a young man grown, is totally 
blind, from an accident early in youth. Notwithstanding this he 
has received a finished education at the State Asylum for the 
Blind, and is one of the most accomplished organists and pianists 
in the city or State. 

LOUIS A. MEYER is a native of Hanover, Germany, where 
he was born April 21, 1852; son of Gottfreid and Sophia (Kuster) 
Meyer. He was educated in the schools of his native country, 
and attended the gymnasium at the city of Eimbeck, and gradu- 
ated fi'om that institution in 1866. This same year he came to 
America, and landed at the city of New York, where he remained 
nine years. A portion of the time he was a di-y goods clerk, and 
later became a shipping clerk. While in this city he attended 
the New York Evening High School. In 1876 he came to Knox 
County, Ind., and for five years was engaged in teaching school. 
He began reading law in 1876, and in 1880 he entered the law 
office of DeWolf & Chambers. He remained in the office one 
year, and in the fall of 1880 was admitted to the Knox County 


bar. Since that time he has been engaged in the practice of his 
profession. In January, 1882, he formed a law partnership with 
Benjamin M. Willoughby, and the firm is now known as Meyer 
& Willoughby. He is a Democrat, and cast his first presidential 
Tote for Tilden. He practices law in both the English and Ger- 
man languages, and has met with excellent success. September 
20, 1882, he was married to Emma E. Litterskamp, a native of 
Vincennes. They are leading members of the St. John's Ger- 
man Evangelical Church. He is the German correspondent for 
several leading German journals, and transacts the German con- 
sul's business for Knox County. 

EEEDEKICK MILLEE, dealer in furs, hides and leather, is 
a native of Alsace, France (now Germany), born August 23, 1831, 
and son of Frederick and Dora (Schneider) Miller. His father 
was born in 1800, and died in Vincennes in 1873, the mother in 
1842. Our subject, the eldest of four children, came to America 
in 1851, and settled in New York City, where he remained about 
three years; then went to Chicago, 111., but stayed only a short 
time, when he returned to New York, where he remained until 
1856. At that date he came to Vincennes, where he has since 
resided. He is a butcher by trade, and followed that occupation 
in this city about four years. In 1878 he engaged in the hide 
and leather business, having followed the same occupation for 
other parties since 1862. In 1884 he located in his present place 
of business, where he has since continued. He was married in 1857 
to Sophia M. Zuber, born in the same place as himself in 1840. 
She came to this country whea about three years of age. They 
have six children: Frederick C, Emma L., George A., Dora E., 
Ernest C. and Charles A. He belongs to the Eepublican party, 
and is a member of the K. of H. He has been a successful busi- 
ness man, and is esteemed by all. 

JOHN F. MILLEE, manufacturer of spring and road wag- 
ons, buckboards, sulkies, buggies, etc., of Vincennes, Ind., is a 
native of the city, born April 27, 1840, the only child born to 
the marriage of John F. Miller and Mary E. Ostendorf, who were 
native Germans. They came to Vincennes, Ind., in 1838, where 
the father followed carpentering until his death, September 6, 
1845, at the age of twenty-seven years. Subject secured a good 


education in the common branches. He was compelled to work 
hard not only to support himself, but also his widowed mother 
and two step-brothers. He aided in supporting his mother until 
her death, October 27, 1882. At the age of about twenty-four 
he began learning the wagon-maker's trade, and after having 
mastered it, he opened a small shop of his own, and began black- 
smithing, wagon-making and repairing. He persevered in his 
work, which he increased from time to time, until he now does a 
large and remunerative business. He has all the modern appli- 
ances for his work, and is among the foremost business men of 
the city. April 26, 1864, he married Hannah Thecklaw EUer- 
kamp, who died December 18, 1883, leaving these children: 
Frank A., Henry H., John H., Peter B., Louis F. Mary E. Jo- 
seph E., Hannah L. and Emma S. (deceased). Mr. Miller is a 
Democrat in politics, and he and family are members of the 
Catholic Church, the wife being a devout member until her death. 

CHARLES S. MILLEE. Among the leading young busi- 
ness men of Vincennes may be mentioned our subject, who is a 
dealer in choice drugs, medicines, paints, oils, etc. He was born 
in SjDringfield, Ohio, in 1859, and is a son of John G. and Ma- 
tilda (Stout) Miller. The Millers are of English descent, the 
father being born in England in 1810, and the mother in Clark 
County, Ohio, in 1817. The family came to Knox County in 
1863, where they have since lived. Oiu- subject was educated in 
the Vincennes public schools, and later attended the Vincennes 
University during the Centennial year. He entered the employ 
of the drug firm of Moon & Harris, and with them remained 
until 1883. During his service with this fii-m he read medicine 
under the direction of Dr. Moon. In 1883 he engaged in the 
drug business for himself, purchasing the store of Daven- 
port & Co. He has been and is doing a successful business be- 
yond his expectations. He is a Mason and a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

G. I. NEPTUNE is one of the firm of R. Neptune & Co., 
dealers in tight barrel staves and heading. The business was es- 
tablished in this city in 1879, and has since continued, doing an 
extensive business. Their factory has a capacity of 12,000 pieces 
per day, and gives employment to twenty-five persons. Their 


manufactures are shipped to different parts of the country, espe- 
cially to California, and during 1885 amounted to $2,250,000, 
G. I. Neptune was born in Franklin County, Ind., April H, 1853, 
son of Eichard and Ehoda (De Camp) Neptune. His father was 
bOrn in the same State and county as himself in 1831, and his 
mother in 1833. His paternal grandfather, Amos Neptune, was 
a Virginian by birth. Our subject came to Vincennes in 1879, 
and was married in 1878 to Miss Orra Comes, a native of Boone 
County; he was born in 1854. They became the parents of these 
three children: Carl I., Eichard C. and Joseph C. He is a Ee- 
publican in his political views. His wife is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

MASON J. NIBLACK, son of William E. and Eliza A. Nib- 
lack, was born in the city of Vincennes, Ind., April 14, 1857, 
where he resided until he was nearly fourteen years of age, when 
he went to Cazenovia, in Madison County, N. Y., to live with his 
grandfather, William Sherman, on a farm. He remained on the 
farm for four years, and then attended school at Cazenovia Semi- 
nary at Cazenovia, N. Y., from which institution he graduated in 
1878. During the school year of 1878-79 he attended school at 
the university of Ann Arbor, Mich. He began the study of law 
at Cazenovia, N. Y., in June, 1879, with D. W. Cameron, and in 
September of that year returned to Vincennes and continued the 
study of law. He graduated at the university of Michigan Law 
School in 1882, and received the degree of LL. B. He is now 
the junior member of the law firm of Viehe & Niblack, the senior 
member being Hon. F. W. Viehe. 

LOVELL M. NICHOLSON, book-keeper and cashier for B. 
Kuhn & Co., is a native of Clark County, Ind, ; born February 10, 
1838, son of George A. and Eliza (Chowning) Nicholson, and is 
of Welsh origin. The parents were born in Trimble County, 
Ky., in 1805 and 1812 respectively. The paternal grandfather, 
Thomas Nicholson, was a Virginian by birth, and the family 
moved from Kentucky to Missouri in 1840, remaining there nine 
years, and then moved to Indiana and settled at New Albany. 
They moved to Indianapolis in 1850, and made that city their 
home eleven 'years. At that time they moved to Marshall, 111., 
and there the mother of our subject died in 1868. The father 


died in Vincennes, January, 1875. Our subject is a graduate of the 
Indianapolis Commercial College (graduating in 1858). He 
taught school for five years, and in 1860 entered the employ of M. 
Meyer, of JefPersonville, and remained with him ten years. He 
came to Vincennes from Louisville in 1873, and was employed by 

B. Kuhn as book-keeper, and this position has since retained. 
He was married, in 1867, to Miss Emma Smith, of Madison, Ind. 
Mrs. Nicholson died March 25, 1882, and April 2, 1885, Mr. 
Nicholson married Miss Clara H. Montgomery, of, Orleans, Tnd. 
born in 1852. He is a Republican, and joined the Masons in 
1864. He is a member of the Unitarian Church, and his wife 
of the Christian Church. 

WILLIAM J. NICHOLSON, boot and shoe merchant, of 
Vincennes, is a native of Knox County; born October 14, 1851, 
and is a son of Simon A. Nicholson, who lives near Wheatland, 
this county. William J. spent his boyhood days on a farm. He 
secured a very good education and prepared himself for teaching, 
which occupation he followed three years in the county. In 1875 
he began reading medicine with the view to making it a profes- 
sion, and in 1876 engaged in the drug business in Wheatland, but 
abandoned the study of medicine and conducted the drug store 
successfully there until 1881, when he came to this city and en- 
gaged in a similar business here, continuing two and a half years. 
He then sold out his store and became connected with the Vin- 
cennes Commercial in the capacity of city editor, in which he re- 
mained but six months. He then opened his present store, and 
has conducted the business very siiccessfully since that time, and 
controls a large share of the trade in city and county. He still 
retains an interest in the drug business in Wheatland, which is 
managed by his brother and partner in the business, Anderson 

C. Nicholson. Mr. Nicholson is unmarried. He is a Republican 
in politics, and was postmaster of Wheatland five years. He is a 
member of the I. O. O. P. and K. of P. fraternities, and a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

JAMES T. ORR, commissioner of Knox County, Ind., and 
manufacturer and wholesale and retail dealer in general saddlery, 
is a native of the "Emerald Isle," born in 1835, son of Thomas 
and Catherine (Parrel) Orr, and is of Scotch-Irish descent. The 


Orr family came to America from Ireland in 1837, and settled in 
North Vernon, Ind. Our subject came to Vincennes in 1843, and 
this has been his home since that time. In 1852 Mr. Orr went 
to Louisville, Ky., and worked for four years as an apprentice at the 
saddler's trade. In 1855 he began the saddlery business in Vin- 
cennes, and has continued at that work ever since, meeting with 
good success. His j^olitical views are Democratic, and he served 
as a member of the Vincennes city council for seven years. He is 
president of the Vincennes Draw Bridge Company, and in 1885 
was elected county commissioner of Knox County. He was mar- 
ried in 1872 to Miss Mary Beckes, daughter of Thomas P. 
Beckes. They have four childi-en: Thomas G., Mary E., James 
B. and John E. Mr. Orr has been very prospei-ous in his busi- 
ness enterprises, and is one of the leading and prominent men of 
the city and county. He is a member of the Catholic Church. 

JOHN A. OSTENDOEF, jeweler, was born in the northern 
part of Germany, December 14, 1834, son of John H. and Cather- 
ine (Bockman) Ostendorf. He is the third of nine children, and 
is of German descent. The parents were natives of Germany, 
born in 1803 and 1807, and died- in this State in 1862 and 1847, 
respectively. Subject came to America in 1853 and settled in 
this city. He began learning the jewelry business in the old 
country, and completed the trade in Vincennes under Asa Wash- 
burn. He began business for himself in 1855, and continued 
alone until 1863, when his brother, Harmon H., became a part- 
ner in the business. They have the oldest jewelry store in the 
city, and have succeeded well in the business. They have now 
four times the amount of capital they had in 1861. John A. was 
married in 1862 to Caroline M. Duesterberg, a daughter of G. 
H. Duesterberg. She was born in 1839. They have two children: 
Catherine and Henry. Mr. Ostendorf is a Democrat, and a mem- 
ber of the German Catholic Church. 

HAKMON H. OSTENDOEF was born in Germany in 1838, 
and came to America in 1855, and went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
learned the jeweler's trade. He came to Vincennes in 1861, and 
two years later formed his present partnership. He was married 
October 17, 1865, to Christina Memmering, a native of Knox 
County, who died January 21, 1871, leaving one child, Annie. 


Mr. Ostendorf married Caroline Belgenorth November 24, 1873. 
She was born in this county in 1848. They have three children: 
Bernard, Caroline and Ella. Harmon H. is a Democrat, and a 
member of the German Catholic Church. They are one of the 
most reliable and oldest fu-ms in the city, and do an extensive and 
paying business. 

CHAELES W. PADGETT, dealer in drugs, was born in 
Daviess County, Ind., July 6, 1851, and is a son of William B. 
and Minerva J. (Seals) Padgett. His parents were born in Har- 
din County, Ky., and his paternal grandfather, Charles Padgett, 
was a native Virginian. About one-half century ago the family 
removed to Martin Co., Ind., and there the grandfather still re- 
sides, on the farm which he entei'ed on coming to "Hoosierdom." 
The parents are residents of Washington, Ind. Our subject 
spent his boyhood days on a farm, and attended the country 
schools. In 1867 he engaged in the grain business at Edwards- 
port, and in 1882 he came to Vincennes and engaged in the 
wine and liquor business, but began keeping a drug store in 
1884, and has continued to the present. He was married, July 
6, 1884, to Miss Carrie M. Spees, a native of Ohio, born in 
1867. She is a daughter of David F. and Julia M. (Show) Spees. 
Mr. Padgett is a Democrat, and cast his first presidential vote 
for Horace Greeley. He is one of the leading young business 
men of the city, and he and his wife are members of the church. 

JOHN B. PAGE, Jk., dealer in harness, saddles, collars, 
etc., is a native of Vincennes, born June 13, 1847, and son of J. 
B. and Elizabeth (Millet) Page, and is of French descent. His 
father was born in Vincennes October 15, 1815, as was also 
the mother, in 1820. The grandfather was Dominick Page, also 
born in this city, in 1783. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, 
and died in 1868. The great-grandfather was a Canadian by 
bii'th and came to Vincennes about I860. Our subject's parents 
still reside in this city. John B. was educated in the public 
schools and the Vincennes University. When about fifteen 
years of age he began the harness-maker's trade in this city with 
the firm of Page & Orr. In 1882 he began the business for 
himself, and has continued with marked success to the present 
time. He was married, April 22, 1872, to Miss Mary Brouillette, 


a native of Vincennes, born February 16, 1847. They have two 
daughters and a son: Laura, Paul and Emma; Mr. Page be- 
longs to the Democratic party, and is a representative of one of 
the old families of the city. 

WILLIAM H. PENNINGTON, county siiperintendent of 
schools, was born in Knox County June, 1855, son of William 
and Eebecca Robinson Pennington, who were born in Kentucky 
and New Jersey in 1821 and 1819 respectively. The family came 
to this county in 1829, and here the father died in 1863. Our 
subject was reared on a farm and first attended the country 
schools, next the high school, and lastly the State Normal School 
at Terre Haute. He then taught school in the country for six 
years, and in 1878 was made principal of the Edwardsport schools. 
In 1879 he taught the Bicknell schools. In 1883 he was elected 
superintendent of the schools of the county, and was re-elected 
in 1885 without ojjposition, thereby showing the high estimation 
in which he is held. He moved to Vincennes in 1883, and is a 
Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Hancock. He 
was married August 21, 1879, to Anna Shively, a native of Du- 
bois County, born in 1860, daughter of William F. and Alice 
Shively. Mr. and Mrs. Pennington are the parents of two chil- 
dren: Alice and Helen. They are members of the Christian 
Church, and he is much respected by all who koow him. 

HARRY W. PORTER, dealer in staple and fancy groceries, 
was born in Greenville, Floyd Co., Ind., in 1854. His parents, 
Henry and Mary (Brown) Porter, were of English-Scotch origin. 
They were born in New England. About 1850 the father came 
to New Albany, and a short time after moved to Greenville, 
where he died in 1859. The rest of the family came to Vin- 
cennes in 18G3, and here the mother continues to reside. Our 
subject received a common school education and until 1877 was 
employed as a clerk. At that time he engaged in the grocery 
business in partnership with his brother, C. P. Porter, and the 
firm was known as Porter & Bro. In 1882 our subject took 
entire control of the business and has since continued very suc- 
cessfully. In 1878 he was married to Miss Leah N. Miller, a 
native of Illinois, born in 1855. They have two children, named 


Harry O. and Emma L. His political views are Democratic. He 
and wife are members o£ the Presbyterian Church. 

JOHN T. POTTEK is the third of eight children of George 
W. and Eliza (Mallory) Potter. The father was born in North 
Carolina in 1811, and when sixteen years old came to Knox 
County, Ind., with his father, who returned to North ^ Carolina, 
leaving George W. here. He was a prosperous farmer, and at the 
time of his death was worth about $8,000. He was twice mar- 
ried, the first time to Rhoda A. Carothers, who bore him two 
children, one of whom is now living — Helena. His second mar- 
riage was to the mother of our subject. The father was a Re- 
publican and was assessor of the county one term, a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and died May 14, 1865. John T. was 
born December 11, 1851, where he now lives. He received the 
education and training of the average farmer's boy and made his 
home with his mother until twenty-eight years of age. She died 
October 27, 1878. He was married, when twenty-seven years old, 
to Ida J. Colman October 24, 1877. She was born in the 
county October 5, 1853. They have these childi-en: Bessie L., 
born May 20, 1878; Charles W., born May 21, 1881, and Harry 
E., born July 14, 1885. Mr. Potter is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church, and politically is a Republican. He is recognized 
as one of the prominent and highly respected citizens of the 

ROYAL E. PURCELL, editor and proprietor of the Western 
Su7i, is a native of Knox County, Ind., born July 26, 1849, son 
of "William and Sophia (Beckes) Purcell, and is of Scotch -Irish 
lineage. His parents were born in Knox County in 1811 and 
1817 respectively. The father died in said county in 1850, but 
the mother still resides near Vincennes. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject was John Pui-cell, a Virginian, who was a 
soldier in the war of 1812, and died in Knox County. Royal E. 
attended the common schools where he acquired the rudiments of 
a first-class education. At a later period he taught school in the 
county, and in 1870 entered the Hanover College (Indiana) and 
graduated from that institution in 1874 with the degree of B. S., 
and in 1883 received the degree of A. M. He began the study 
of law in 1874 and was a student of Blackstone for two years. 


In 1876 be purchased the Western Smv and became its editor, 
and in this capacity has since continued, meeting with the suc- 
cess and appreciation his labors deserve. He is an earnest and 
conscientious worker for the Democratic party and is largely in- 
strumental in shaping the politics of the county and Second Dis- 
trict. He is one of the leading editors of Indiana, and is in all 
respects a representative man. In 1879 he wedded Miss Mary 
Pidgeon, who died in 1880. 

FEANK E. EAILSBACK, packer and shipper of poultry 
and eggs, at Vincennes, Ind., was born in Georgetown, 111., Octo- 
ber 1, 1855, son of David and Adaline C. (Goe) Railsback, na- 
tives respectively of Warren County, Ind., and Pendleton, Ind. 
Our subject was raised in Illinois, and secured a very good pre- 
liminary education of his father, who was a teacher and educator 
of more than ordinary ability. The father died in Champaign 
County, 111., September 30, 1865. Our subject then removed 
with his mother to Indianapolis, where Frank E. completed his 
education and engaged as clerk for some time, and later kept a 
grocery store in that city until 1879, when he engaged with J. E. 
Sullivan, in the poultry and egg business, as traveling agent un- 
til 1882, when he came to Vincennes and established his present 
business here in company with Mr. Sullivan. The latter gentle- 
man retired in 1885, and Mr. Eailsback is now conducting his 
mammoth business alone, and meeting with good and well-deserved 
success. He ships about $300,000 worth of poultry and eggs to 
Eastern markets per annum, and purchases such products within 
a radius of 100 miles of Vincennes, and employs on an average 
twenty hands in killing and dressing poultry and packing eggs 
ready for shipment. In 1880 Mr. Railsback married Jessie S. 
Goe, a native of Indiana. They have two childi-en: Albert Carr 
and Mamie Goe. In politics he is a Republican, and a member 
of the O. of C. F. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and one of the first business men of Vincennes. 

GEORGE G. RAMSDELL, superintendent of the Citizens' 
Gas Light Company, of Vincennes, Ind., was born near Provi- 
dence, R. I., April 30, 1848, and is a son of Ezra B. Ramsdell, of 
this city. George G. came to this city with his parents in 1860, 
and was educated in the Vincennes University. At the age of 


sixteen he began learning the machinist's trade, which he mas- 
tered and followed with Clark & Buck, of this city, acting as fore- 
man for them several years. He resigned his position there in 
1879 to accept the superintendency of the gas company, which 
position he has filled in a very able manner. He has also acted 
as secretary and treasurer of the company since his connection 
with it. He has been prominent in all private and public enter- 
prises of the city for a number of years, and has been an active 
member of the Board of Trade of Vincennes since its organization, 
and was secretary of the same two years, and now holds the posi- 
tion of jDresident. He is a Eepublican in politics, but has never 
aspired to office. June 10, 1884, he was united in matrimony to 
MoUie Hays, his present wife. He has two children — Sallie M. 
and Marion B. — by a former marriage. Mr. Ramsdell is a mem- 
ber of the Vincennes Commandery, No. 20, K. T., of which he is 
Recorder. He and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, 
and he has led the choir for a number of years. He is recognized 
as one of the prominent business men of the city, and is one of 
its fii-st citizens. 

HON. GERAED REITER, ex-auditor of Knox County, Ind., 
was born in Vincennes, September 1. 1849, sou of Caspar and 
Mary E. (Biiltman) Reiter, and is of German descent. His 
father and mother were born at Osnabrueck, Germany, in 1823 
and 1826, respectively. In 1847 they immigrated to America 
and located in Vincennes, where they yet reside. Subject at- 
tended the German Catholic schools until twelve years of age. and 
then spent three years in the public schools of Vincennes. At 
the age of fifteen he entered the county auditor's office as deputy, 
and served as such for ten years. In 1874 he was elected auditor 
of Knox County, and was re-elected in 1878, serving constantly 
in the office for eighteen years. His reputation for competency 
and accuracy secured for him the position of deputy auditor of 
the treasury, but he declined the honor. He served the three 
counties of Knox, Sullivan and Greene in the State Legislature, 
and proved to be one of the best working members of that body 
He was chosen by acclamation, and received a majority of 2,000 
votes. He has always been an earnest Democrat, and has always 
manifested much interest in politics. In 1880 he was elected 


secretary of the Knox County Agricultural Society, and still 
serves in that capacity, and its great success is largely due to his 
untiring energy. October 24, 1871, he was married to Miss Ellen 
Green, a native of Belfast, Ireland, born June 14, 1853, daughter 
of Arthur and Margaret Green. Mr. and Mrs. Eeiter are mem- 
bers of the St. John's German Catholic Church, and he is one of 
the prominent men of the Hoosier State. 

FEANK G. EEITEK, deputy auditor of Knox County, Ind., 
is a representative of one of the prominent families of the county, 
and was born in the city of Vincennes, August 24, 1862, and is 
a son of Caspar and Mary E. (Bultman) Eeiter, who were of Ger- 
man descent. Frank G. spent six years in the German Catholic 
schools of Vincennes, and two years in the public schools. At 
fifteen years of age he entered the county auditor's office as dep- 
uty, and served in that capacity with his brother, Gerard Eeiter, 
ex-auditor, six and one-half years, and has been two years with 
the present auditor, James A. Dick. He is a Democrat in his 
political views, and cast his first presidential vote for Grover 
Cleveland. He is a most careful and competent official, and a 
prominent young man of the county. 

JAMES EEYNOLDS, Sr. Of the many men who have for 
years taken an active part in the jjolitical affairs of the county, 
probably none deserve more prominent mention than the subject 
of this sketch. He is of Scotch-German descent, and was born 
in Somerset County, Penu., in 1826, son of William and Mary 
(Jones) Eeynolds, natives respectively of Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. They both died in the old Pennsylvania Common- 
wealth. In 1852 James went to Louisville, Ky., remaining there 
one year, and then moved to Evansville, Ind., and in 1855 came 
to Vincennes, and here has since resided, and later was employed 
by the Adams Express Company, remaining with them until 
1860, when he was elected sheriff of Knox County, and was re- 
elected in 1862. From 1864 to 1867 he was engaged in farming. 
In 1868 he was again elected sheriff, and re-elected in 1870, and 
afterward served as deputy sheriff two years. In 1874 he was 
elected treasurer of the county, and served two terms. For 
twelve years he held important offices in the county, and filled 
them with much credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction 


of the people. He is an enthusiastic Democrat, and is one of the 
first men of the county. In 1850 he was married to Mary 
Sterret, a native of Pennsylvania, by whom he had these three 
children: Elizabeth, Josephene and James. Mi's. Reynolds died 
in 1859, and the same year Mr. Reynolds married Mary U. 
Markley, who died in 1866. In 1867 he took for his third wife 
Mrs. Jane E. Bloom, formerly a Miss Watson, daughter of L. L. 
Watson, of this city. To their union these children were born: 
Samuel D., William H., Jesse L., Edith F. and Genevieve. 

WILLIAM B. ROBINSON, of Vincennes, Ind., was born in 
Knox County, September 9, 1839, and was one of a family of 
four sons and foui* daughters born to William and Sarah (Nich- 
olson) Robinson, natives respectively of Ohio and Pennsylvania. 
The father came to this county about 1820 with his father, Ab- 
ner Robinson, locating on a farm in Palmyra (now Steen) Town- 
ship. Here our subject's father married and brought up his 
family on a farm. In politics' he was an old line Whig, and took 
an active part in local campaigns. He was trustee of Steen 
Township several terms, and was widely and favorably known as 
a plain, unassuming, moral and upright citizen. His death oc- 
curred in 1858. The subject of this sketch was reared in Steen 
Township, on a farm, and obtained a good literary education in 
his early years. At the age of sixteen he began teaching school, 
and made this his profession for five years. He was connected 
about one year with the Vincennes High School. In the mean- 
time he had begun the study of law, with a view to making that 
his profession, and in 18l')6 he entered the law department of the 
State University at Bloomington, graduating in 1867. Return- 
ing to Vincennes he was admitted to the bar of Knox County, 
and was engaged in jM'actice until 1876, when he accepted the 
office of clerk of Knox County, ta which hs had b33a elected by 
the Democratic party in 1874. He filled this office in so effi- 
cient and satisfactoi-y a manner that he was re-elected, and served 
until 1884. Mr. Robinson was county school examiner three 
years previous to bslng elastel clerk of tha county, ani hs was 
mayor of the city five terms. In 1873 he was married to Mar- 
garet La Hue, a native of the county, by whom he has had four 
sons and one daughter. Mr. Robinson is a member of the I. O. 
O. F. 


SALYARDS & BURNS, dealers and importers of monu- 
ments, Vincennes, Ind., established their business in September, 
1885, and are receiving much of the patronage of town and coun- 
ty. E. M. Salyards, senior member of the firm, was born in 
Portsmouth, Ohio, March 18, 1845, and is a son of Edward and 
Maria (Buffington) Salyards, of Ohio. Edward, our subject, was 
raised in Cincinnati, Ohio; New Albany and Orleans, Ind., learn- 
ing the marble-cutter's trade, and engaged first in the business for 
himself in Madison, Ind., and later in New Albany ; then in Wash- 
ington, and from the latter j^lace came to tliis city, where he 
conducted his present business. November 27, 1867, he married 
Ellen Anderson, a native of Indiana. They have three children: 
William E., Roy G. and Pearl. In 1861 Mr. Salyards enlisted 
in Company G., Twenty-fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, serv- 
ing three years, and was then veteranized, and served until the 
close of the war, participating in many of the most important 
actions. Peter J. Burns, junior member of the above named firm, 
is a native of Pittsburgh, Penn., born March 9, 1851, son of Pat- 
rick M. Bui'ns. His mother died when he was three years of 
age, and his father when he was nine, consequently, he knows 
but little of his ancestry. He worked as a farm band in Daviess 
County, Ind., after his father's death, until he began learning 
the marble-cutter's trade, which he mastered, and engaged in the 
business in Louisville, Ky., in 1876, and then moved to Sey- 
mour, Ind., and in 1885 engaged in the present business in this 
city. October 3, 1882, he married Mary Walter, a native of 
Scott County, Ind. They have one daughter, named Zella Z. 
Mr. Burns is a member of the K. of H. fraternity. 

FREDERICK SAMONIEL, trustee of Vincennes Township, 
Knox Co., Ind., was born in Floyd County, Ind., near Cory- 
don, January 1, 1841, son of Frank J. and Margaret Samoniel, 
who were natives of Germany, born in 1792 and 1809 respect- 
tively. The father came to America in early life and settled in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he remained but a short time and then 
removed to Floyd County, Ind., but lived there only a short time 
when they moved to Louisville, Ky., where he lived until 1858. 
They then moved to Mt. Carmel. Ill, where the father died in 
1860. The mother is yet a resident of that place. Our subject 


was the second of ten children, and what education he now has 
was obtained by his own exertions. In 1863 he came to Knox 
County, Ind., and in 1871 entered the employ of F. M. Fay, and 
remained with him five years. Since that time he has been en- 
gaged in the transfer business for himself. He is a Democrat, 
and was elected township trustee in 1882 and re-elected in 1884. 
He was married, February 1.3, 1872, to Miss Bridget Quinn, a 
native of the " Emerald Isle," born in 1849. They have four 
children. Mamie, Charles, Maggie and Helen. Mr. Samoniel 
has made his own way in life, and during the war supported his 
mother and her four children while two of his elder brothers were 
in the service. He is a member of the Catholic Church. 

HENRY SCHAFFER was born in Prussia January 11, 1843, 
and is a sou of Henry and Mary (Schroeder) Shaffer, who were 
born in the same country. The family came to the United States 
in 1858 and located in Knox County, Ind., on a farm. Here 
Henry lived until he was eighteen years old, when he went to 
St. Louis, Mo., and learned the carpenter's trade, at which he 
worked until the beginning of the war. He then returned home, 
and in January, 1863, came to Vincennes and followed teaming, 
carpenting and clerking in stores until 1875, when he engaged in 
the general merchandise business, in which he has continued ever 
since. In 1882 he built his present commodious brick store-room, 
which he uses as a store-room and dwelling. He has a fine line 
of general merchandise, and is doing a paying business. In 1865 
he married Wilhelmina Weitzel, a native of Ohio. They have 
eight children: William, Henry, John, Emma, August, Laura, 
Louis and Eleanor. He is a Democrat, and he and family are 
members of the St. John's Evangelical Church of this city. 

CONEAD SCHEEFERS, a prominent business man of Vin- 
cennes, Ind., is a son of John and Mary (Caskort) Scheefers, who 
were born in the city of Paderborn, Prussia. Conrad was born in 
the same place December 20, 1841, and here he received his ed- 
ucation and learned the carpenter's and millwright's trades, at 
which he worked in his native country until 1867. He then im- 
migrated to the United States and came directly to Vincennes, 
where he worked at his trade one year and clerked in the hard- 
ware business two years. He then conducted the Central Hotel 


and Saloon of this city until 1879, when he sold out and went to 
his native country on a visit. He returned to Vincennes in 1880 
and engaged in the retail liquor business, where he conducts a 
strictly fii-st-class house in all respects. He also has the agency 
fpr European steamship lines, the only agency of the kind in the 
city. October 28, 1872, he married Barbara Hartts, a native of 
Bohemia. To them were born seven children, three now living: 
Anna, Frank and William. Mr. Scheefers is a Democrat in poli- 
tics and has taken an active interest in the political affairs of the 
city for a number of years. He is at present serving his sixth 
term in the city council. He is essentially a self-made man, as 
he came to Vincennes a poor boy. By close application to his 
duties, economy and strict business integrity, he has won his way 
to the front and is now one of the solid business men of the city. 
He and his family are members of the Catholic faith, and he is a 
member of the C. K. of A. 

JOSEPH SCHMIDT, manufacturer and wholesale dealer in 
cigars, of Vincennes, Ind., was born near Vienna, Austria, June 
30, 1841, son of Frank and Josepha (Grenn) Schmidt, who were 
also natives of Vienna, where they lived and died. Joseph grew 
to manhood in his native land and obtained a good German edu- 
cation. He was employed with his father in the service of the 
Government from sixteen to twenty-one, and then left home and 
came to the United Sbates and located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
kept a notion store two years. He then began steamboating on 
the "Wabash River, still retaining an interest in his mercantile 
business. In 1873-74 he engaged in the manufacture of hoop- 
skirts and window shades in New York City. Returning to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, he engaged in the manufacture of cigars with Mr. 
E. Gloss, his present foreman. In 1879 he came to Vincennes, 
Ind., and engaged in the same business, continuing to the present 
time. He gives employment to about twelve experienced cigar- 
makers, putting out nothing but first-class stock, for which he 
finds a ready market in the city, also in the southern part of Indi- 
ana and Illinois. He also handles all kinds of chewing and 
smoking tobaccos and snuffs. In 1878 Mr. Schmidt married 
Lena Ebner, daughter of John Ebner of this city. He is inde- 
pendent in politics and a member of the Catholic Church. 


JAMES F. SECHLEE was born in Danville, Penn., Novem- 
ber 30, 1829, son of Jacob and Barbara (Reese) Sechler, natives 
of Pennsylvania and Switzerland, respectively. James F. was 
raised in Danville and there learned the machinist's trade. After 
he became of age he left home and worked at his trade in various 
places, and was foreman in machine shops for different railroads 
for a number of years. In 187(3 he came to Vincennes and ac- 
cepted the position of general master mechanic for the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad, which position he held about five years ; he 
then resigned and accepted a similar position with the Texas 
Pacific Railroad, but after a year's service with that road he 
returned to this city and engaged in his present business. June 
17, 1852, he married Miry Farley, a native of Pennsylvania. To 
them were born seven children, six of whom are living — two sons 
and four daughters. Mr. Sechler, Daniel M. Lynch and Edward 
Watson are proprietors of the city machine shops and foundry. 
The business was established in 1882 by Mr. Sechler, L. L. and 
Edward Watson, who erected the present building, and started a 
general repair and machine shop, also a foundry for all kinds of 
brass and iron castings, apd give employment to ten men. The 
firm has had charge of the business since 1883 and has had 
good success in every respect. 

MARTIN L. SEDDELMEYER, sheriff of Knox County, 
Ind., was born in Harrison County, Ind., September 22, 1844, son 
of John H. and Margaret (Traub) Seddelmeyer, who were na- 
tives of Germany. The father came to the United States between 
1830 and 1835, and located first at Fort Wayne, Ind., next in In- 
dianapolis, then in Harrison County, thence to Dubois County, 
and finally in 1852 removed to Knox County and located in Wid- 
ner Township, where he preached the gospel and also practiced 
medicine. His death occurred in Vanderburg County February 
20, 1864. He was well and favorably known throughout the 
southern part of the State as an earnest worker for the cause of 
religion, being a minister of the German Lutheran Church. Our 
subject was raised principally in Knox County on a farm, securing 
a fair education in the common schools. After his father's death 
he went to Indianapolis and clerked in the mercantile business 
two years, and then returned to this county and followed a similar 


occupation. He then learned the gunsmith's trade at Freelands- 
ville, in this county, where he resided with his mother. He was 
elected constable in 1872, and in 1874 accepted the position of 
deputy sheriff, which office he continued to hold until November, 
1884, when he was elected to the office of sheriff, which he is now 
filling in a very efficient manner, owing to his long experience as 
deputy. September 5, 1877, he was married to Lucy A. Gardner, 
a native of Viucenaes, and daughter of E. G. Gardner, a pioneer 
citizen of the city. To Mr. and Mrs. Seddelmeyer these four chil- 
dren were born: Dexter A., Margaret, Dorcas and Elbridge G. 
Mr. Seddelmeyer has always been an unswerving Democrat in his 
political views, and takes an active part in the local campaigns in 
the county. He is a meniber of the I. O. O. F. and K. of P., and 
he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
he is recognized as a popular and efficient official, and one of the 
first citizens of the county. 

GEOKGE W. SHAW is a native of Campbell County, Ky., 
born June 20, 1853, son of Coleman and Mary E. (Eeily) Shaw, 
and is of Irish descent. His father was born in the same State 
and county as himself in 1818. The mother's birth occurred in 
1829. Mr. Shaw's boyhood days were spent in farming in sum- 
mer andattending school in winter. In 187 3 he entered Georgetown 
College at Georgetown, Ky., and attended this school three years. 
He taught school six years and his last work was in the Butler 
High School. He began reading law in Louisville, Ky., in 1876, 
and in 1879 came to Vincennes and entered the law office of Judge 
E. W. Viehe, and continued his study two years. He was admit- 
ted to the Knox County bar in 1880 and formed a partnership 
with WilliamA. Callop, and the firm was known as CuUop & Shaw. 
He is a Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Samuel 
J. Tilden. In 1881 he was appointed master commissioner of the 
Knox Circuit Court and has since held the position. He is one 
of the leading attorneys of the Vincennes bar. 

LEANDER J. SHEPARD, coal dealer, of Vincennes, Ind., 
is a son of Horace B. and Martha (Harper) Shepard, who were 
born in Kentucky. The father came to Knox County, Ind., in 
1820, and located on a farm, where he resided until 1862 and 
then took up his residence in this city, where he now resides at 


the advanced age of eighty-seven years. He was formerly a Whig 
in politics but is now a Republican. He has held a number of 
important offices in town and county, and was a member of the 
State Legislature one term and has been an active worker for his 
party in his day. Leander J. was born in Knox County, Ind., 
November 12, 1828, and spent his boyhood days on a farm and 
secured a common school education. At the age of twenty-six he 
engaged in the mercantile business in Illinois, continuing there 
five or six years. He then returned to this city and soon after 
accepted a position under Gen. James C. Veatch, in the office of 
collector of revenue at Evansville, and remained with him two 
years. He then returned to this city in 1881 and purchased an 
interest in the Edwardsport Coal Company, and also established 
his coal- yards in this city. The mine which supplied their coal 
gave out, and he in company with others organized the Indian 
Creek Coal Company and opened up a mine at Bicknell, 
which they are now operating successfully. In 1854 Mr. Shep- 
ard married Jane Emmons, a native of Illinois. They have one 
son, named Charles E. Mr. Shepard is a Republican in politics 
and a member of the I. O. O. F. 

ANTON SIMON, of the Eagle Brewing Company of Vincennes, 
was born in Alsace, France (now Gei-many), November 2, 1848, 
and is a son of Peter and Barbara (Risch) Simon, natives respect- 
ively of Savoy and Alsace, France. Anton was reared with his 
parents in his native country, and secured a good ordinary German 
and French education. At the age of thirteen he left home and 
came to the United States, locating almost immediately in Vin- 
cennes, where he engaged as clerk in the dry goods business for 
a short period, and then worked for some time in Jacob Kautz's 
brewery. Later he clerked in a confectionery store about five 
years. He then worked for about two years at the bookbinders' 
trade, and in 1869 entered the employ of John Ebner, Sr., in the 
brewery business, and has continued in the establishment ever 
since, taking a partnership in 1874. In 1869 he married Caroline 
Ebner, a daughter of John Ebner, Sr., who died in 1872. To 
them was born one child, deceased. In 1876 he married his pres- 
ent wife, Anna Weisenberger, a native of Mt. Carmel, 111. They 
have thi'ee children: Clara, Eugene A. and Louis J. Mr. Simon 


is a Democrat in politics and a warm advocate of the principles 
of his party. He and his family are members of the Catholic 

JOHN EBNEK, Je., bookkeeper and junior partner of the 
Eagle Brewing Company, is a native of Knox County, Ind., where 
he was born May 12, 1859, son of John Ebner, Sr., of this city. 
He was reared in Vincennes, and obtained a very good education, 
attending the St. Meinrad College in Spencer County, and the St. 
Joseph College at Teutopolis, 111. After completing his educa- 
tion he engaged in his present business, and in 1880 took a part- 
nership with the firm. He is unmarried, a Democrat in politics, 
and a member of the Catholic Church. The Eagle Brewing Com- 
pany, of which these gentlemen are proprietors, was established 
in 1859, by John Ebner, Sr., who conducted it alone until 1870, 
when he leased the building to various parties who proved unsuc- 
cessful in its management, and accordingly, iu 1874, he, in com- 
pany with Eugene Hack and Austin Simon, refitted and remod- 
eled the old building, until it now ranks among the first in the 
State. The building is a large, three-story brick, and is supplied 
throughout with all modern appliances and conveniences. They 
have completed a new double cellar, which is used for storing 
hogshead beer and fermenting, and in addition they have a fine 
brick office, of Gothic architecture, on the first floor, which is 
handsomely fitted up. They manufacture about 18,000 barrels of 
beer per year, and employ about five wagons and twelve head of 
horses for the home trade. The beer is of such high quality that 
it has not only kept away all foreign competition in southwestern 
Indiana, but has compelled the proprietors to establish refrigerator 
depots in Washington, Ind., Carmi and Olney, 111., and Jasper 
and Princeton, Ind., besides supplying southern Illinois and Indi- 
ana within a radius of seventy-five miles. 

HENEY M. SIMPSON, a prominent and enterprising nur- 
seryman and fruit-grower of the State, was born March 18, 1847, in 
Palmyra Township, and is the third child of Archibald and Jane 
C. (McCord) Simpson. The father was born in Vincennes Town- 
ship in 1802, and was reared in the county, being a son of Patrick 
Simpson, a native of Scotland, who came to this country from 
Glasgow in 1783, and lived all his life here as one of the early 


pioneers. He kept a store in Yincennes at one time, and -was en- 
gaged in many skirmishes with the Indians. Our subject's 
father was also a resident of the county all his life, and was a very 
prosperous farmer and nurseryman. He was one of the associate 
judges of the county, and a prominent man. He was a Republican 
at the time of his death, March 23, 1873. He left three children: 
James H, in the Pension Office in Washington, D. C. : Henry M., 
our subject, and John N., proprietor of the Vincennes Greenhouse. 
Mr. Simpson was the founder of the Knox County Nursery, com- 
prising 100 acres in small fruit. Henry M. was reared on the old 
homestead in Palmyi-a Township, and secured a good common- 
school education. At the age of twenty -three he married, and con- 
tinued to make his home with his mother. He owns 101 acres of 
well-improved land, besides his nursery, with a good residence in 
a nice location. June 21, 1870, he wedded Adelia McCord, daugh- 
ter of Robert and Martha McCord. They have five children: 
Harry, Robert A., Charles A., Anna L. and Ray C. Both hus- 
band and wife are members of the Presbyterian Chui-ch, and he 
belongs to the I. O. O. F., and politically has always been a Re- 
publican. His brother James served four years in the late war. 
Henry M. devotes his time to raising small fi-uits. The yearly 
strawberry yield is about 800 bushels, and raspberries and black- 
berries 200 bushels each. He has about half a million apple- 
grafts for this spring's planting (188G). 

HUBBARD M. SMITH, M. D.,of Vincennes, Ind., was born 
in Winchester, Ky., September 6, 1820, son of Willis R. and 
Elizabeth (Taylor) Smith. The father was a native of Kentucky, 
and was a lieutanant in the war of 1812. In 1850 he removed 
to Missouri, where he died five or six years later. He was a farmer 
and merchant, and was well educated for his day, being a teacher 
for several years. The mother was a daughter of Hubbard Tay- 
lor, who came with Gen. Knox to survey Kentucky, and afterward 
became a prominent citizen of that State. Our subject's early 
boyhood was spent on a farm and in attending the common schools, 
obtaining a somewhat limited education. At the age of fourteen he 
left home and began learning the saddlery and harness-maker's 
trade, continuing at this ilntil he was twenty years of age, and in 
the meantime, by desultory study, improved his rudimentary edu- 


cation, and at the age of twenty-one had improved his education 
eufficiently to enable him to begin teaching, which he followed in 
order to procure means to enable him to obtain a medical educa- 
tion. He attended the medical department of the Transylvania 
University in IS-io, and then practiced in his native State. In 
1848 he entered the Starling Medical College, of Columbus, Ohio, 
and graduated in 1849. Since that time he has practiced his pro- 
fession in Vincennes, where he has met with more than ordinary suc- 
cess. In 1859 the Doctor purchased the Vincennes Daily Gazette, 
conducting it but a short time, and giving it up for the position 
of postmaster of Vincennes, which he held for over eight years. 
Since that time he has given his attention to his large and re- 
munerative practice. In 1846 he married Nannie W., daughter of 
Gen. Edmund Pendleton, of Clark County, Ky. They became 
the parents of eight children, six of whom are living: Edmund 
W. P., United States Consul at Carthagena, South America; Ma- 
ry E. ; Hubbard T., employed in the War Department as Wash- 
ington, D. C, and a musical composer of considerable notoriety 
in the capital; Alice Cary; Cyrus A., druggist at Vincennes, and 
Curtis P., a young attorney of this city. The Doctor is promi- 
nently identified with a number of medical societies, and is con- 
sidered one of the ablest and most experienced physicians in the 
county. He has shown his ability as a literary writer since his 
residence here, having published numerous poems and other ar- 
ticles of merit in the local and other papers; also keeping up 
some correspondence with metropolitan papers at various times 
for a number of years. He and family are members of the Pres- 
byterian Chui-ch. 

WEBSTEE SMITH, an enterprising farmer of the county, was 
born in Clark County, Ind., October 29, 1836, and is the young- 
est of five children of Bastion and Hannah (Nickerson) Smith, 
natives of Saratoga County, N. Y. The mother was born in 1803, 
and came to Knox County about 1819. They were married in 
said county and moved to Clark County, where the father died 
when our subject was but six months old. The mother then re- 
turned to Knox County, where she died in 1872. Ooi- subject did 
not return with his mother, but was about eight years old on his 
arrival here. He attended the common schools, and acquired 


nearly all his education by self-application at home. He made 
his home with a brother until fourteen years of age, when he 
began supporting himself. He began farming, and lived with his 
mother from the time he was twenty-one until her death. He 
married a few years after, and continued farming on the same 
place. He has succeeded well, and owns 158 acres of very fine 
land well improved. November 22, 1877, he wedded Mary E. 
Harvey, a native of Monroe County, and the mother of five chil- 
dren by a former marriage. Three of these children are now 
with Mr. Smith. He has no children of his own. He is a mem- 
ber of the Republican party, and a good citizen. 

CHRISTIAN SPIEGEL, a prominent citizen of Vincennes, 
Ind., was born in Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, August 1, 1823, 
son of Jacob and Sophia E. (Braun) Spiegel, natives of the same 
place. Christian came to the United States with his parents in 
1832, and located at Baltimore, Md., where the father died in 
1835. In 1887 the family removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and here 
Christian learned the cabinet-maker's trade, at which he worked 
until about 1846 or 1847, when he moved to Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
and remained about nine years. In 1855 he removed to Indian- 
apolis, and engaged in the manufacture of furniture in partner- 
ship with his brothers and Frederick Thomas, this being the 
commencement of the largest business of the kind in that city, 
and one of the largest in the West. In 1878 our subject sold his 
interest in the business, and having accumulated a comfortable 
fortune, came to Vincennes and engaged in the same business 
with William Roberts three years, when four gentlemen pur- 
chased Mr. Robert's share, and Mr. Spiegel, in company with 
these gentlemen, has conducted the business successfully to the 
present time. They make a specialty of the manufacture of bed- 
steads, making on an average nearly 300 per week, and giving 
employment to thirty men. In 1845 Mr. Spiegel married Amelia 
Boyce, a native of Kentucky. They had these eight children, 
six living: Edward, William, Frederick A., Fannie J. (wife of 
Edward Perkins), Charles A. and Arthur E. Subject is a Re- 
publican in politics and strictly temperate in all his habits. He 
is an Odd-fellow, and he and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 


GEOEGE E. SPITZ, dealer in liats, caps, and gents' furnish- 
ing goods, in Vincennes, Ind., is a native of Knox County, Ind., 
born February 2, 1859, son of Eoman and Martha (Bernstein) 
Spitz. The father was a native of Alsace, France (now Ger- 
many), and came to this State in 1849, where he has since re- 
sided. The mother was born in Louisville, Ky. George E. was 
raised in this city, and acquired a very good German and English 
education. At the age of eighteen he engaged as clerk with I. 
Joseph & Son, and remained with them until December, 1884, 
when he was engaged in the gents' clothing and furnishing busi- 
ness with G. F. Montgomery, continuing until June, 1885. Au- 
gust of the same year he engaged in his present business, in 
which he is meeting with good and well-deserved success. He 
carries a good and full line of goods, the best in the city, and 
commands the leading trade in town and county. September 
24, 1884, he married Tillie Gubelman, a native of Daviess Coun- 
ty, Ind. They have one daughter. Hazel E. ' In politics Mr. 
Spitz is a Democrat, and is one of the leading business men of 
the city. 

FEEDEEICK WILLIAM STAFF, general master mechanic 
of the Ohio & Mississippi Eailroad, was born in Newport, Ky., 
March 9, 1852, being a son of William J. and Wilhelmina (Sauer- 
brey) Staff, who were born respectively in Saxony and Hanover. 
Frederick W. was reared with his parents in his native city, hav- 
ing but few opportunities for acquiring an education. When 
fourteen years of age he began learning the machinist trade, 
which he mastered in Cincinnati, Ohio. His evenings were spent 
in acquiring an education, and in time he acquired a fair literary 
education. At the age of twenty he became draughtsman of the 
Little Miami Eailroad, having previously devoted a great deal of 
time and study to this profession. He filled the jDOsition credit- 
ably a number of years. In 1883 he accepted a similar position 
on the Ohio & Mississippi, and in July, 1885, was promoted to 
his present position, and is now filling the position very satisfac- 
torily. In 1870 he was united in marriage to Emma E. Marston, 
a native of Newport, Ky. To them were born seven children, six 
now living: Thomas W., Frederick William, Ida May, John W., 
Pearl, and J. Howard. Mr. Staff is a Democrat in politics, and 


took quite a part in the political affairs of his native city, being a 
member of the city council a number of years. He has been a 
Mason since 1873. He is an example of the self-made men of the 
country, as he started in life a poor boy with little or no capital, 
but untiring energy, study, an:! singular capability for his par- 
ticular calling in life, and has won golden opinions, not only from 
his employers, but by a large circle of friends, who know him 
only to respect his many excellent qualities. 

EDWAED TAYLOK, A. M., superintendent of the city 
schools at Vincennes, Tnd., was born at Wea Plains, six miles 
west of Lafayette, Ind., October 30, 1842. The father was Jo- 
seph N. Taylor, a native of Winchester, Va., born in 1813. The 
mother's maiden name was Phoebe Garretson, born in Spring- 
boro, Ohio, in 1816. Both parents are still living, and are mem- 
bers of the religious Society of Friends, or Quakers, as also is 
our subject. They were the parents of seven chilcb-en. When 
our subject was seven years of age his parents removed to Mon- 
rovia, Ind., in order to secure better church and school facilities, 
and there he still resides. Subject attended school during the 
winter and farmed in the summer time until he was seventeen 
years of age. Dui-ing his youth he was a member of various 
literary societies, and thereby acquired a liking for literary work. 
In 1860 he entered the Earlham College, at Kichmond, Ind., and 
his time was spent between the duties of a student and in assist- 
ing his father, who had been chosen superintendent of the insti- 
tution. He graduated from the classical course in 1865. He 
then became a teacher of Latin and Greek at Spice) and Academy, 
Ind., and at the end of the year was elected principal of the 
academy. He resigned this position, however, in order to travel 
and study in Europe. He made the tour of the Continent, and 
spent a year in linguistic and historical studies in Berlin, Prus- 
sia, and during his absence sent weekly letters to the Kichmond 
Telegram. Some months after his return he married Miss Louise 
Bales, daughter of John H. Bales, of Knightstown, Ind. They 
have two sons. He chose teaching as his occupation, and in 18G8 
was chosen superintendent of the city schools of Kokomo, Ind. 
In 1872 he removed to Iowa, where he was for several years 
principal of New Providence Academy, and during that time 


(1878) was elected to the State Legislature. His principal 
speeches while in office were in opposition to the enactment of a 
bill for the re-establishment of capital punishment in the State; 
a plea for the financial support of the Reform School; in advo- 
cacy of a bill for the repeal of what was known as " the wine and 
beer clause," and in support of a bill for compulsory education. 
In 1879 he published " My Brief History of the American Peo- 
ple, for Schools," which has reached the sixteenth edition in six 
years. Under the auspices of the State Temperance Alliance he 
spent the winter of 1879-80 in travel as a State lecturer in advo- 
cacy of the reform. In 1881 he removed to Indianapolis, and 
the following year was elected to his present position. As a boy, 
it may be said of him that his taste was for science, especially 
astronomy ; as a college student, it was for the ancient languages ; 
later, for historical and literary studies, and is now for moral and 
economic questions. 

FRANCIS A. THUIS is a native of Holland, where he was 
born in 1837, son of Francis A. and Johanna H (Hendrickson) 
Thuis, and is of pure Dutch descent. He came to America in 
1853, and settled in New York, where he remained one year, and 
then went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he remained three years. 
In 1856 he came to Vincennes. He learned the saddler's trade 
in Europe. After coming to Vincennes he secured a position on 
the Evanston & Terre Haute Railroad, which he held two years. 
He then clerked in a store until 1861, when he enlisted in the 
Twenty-fourth Indiana Infantry as a musician, and served four- 
teen months. He then came home and remained nine months, 
and then re-enlisted in Company A, Ninety-first Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, and served until the close of the war. He was dis- 
charged in 1865 at Indianapolis. Since the war he has been 
engaged in the manufacture of the " Scotch horse-collar," and has. 
secured an extensive reputation as a collar manufacturer. He 
was married in 1866 to Mary Jane Page, a native of Vincennes, 
born in 1843. They have seven children: Johanna E., Louis E., 
Mary E., Francis E., Charles A., George J. and Silas L. He is 
a member of the Democratic party, and in religious belief is a 


FEEDEEICK TWIETMEYEE, of Vincennes, Ind., was born 
in the Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, January 17, 1837. His 
parents, Deitrich and Ada Twietmeyer, were born in the same 
country. Frederick was raised on a farm in Hanover, and at the 
age of twenty immigrated to the United States, landing in New 
York City in 1857, and worked as a clerk in a grocery store for 
about two years, and then worked for himself in that city until 
1860, when he went to New Orleans, but left the following year 
and came to Vincennes, where he remained as clerk for M. Tyler 
& Son a year, and then enlisted as private in Company A, One 
Hundred and Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, serving in the 
war of the Eebellion until its close. He then returned to this 
city and engaged in the grocery business. In 186(3 he went to 
St. Louis, Mo., and was a grocer in that city until July, 1883, 
■when he again returned to Vincennes and re-engaged in his old 
occupation, in which he has been quite prosperous. In 1868 he 
married Henrietta Kleintopf, a native of Germany. They have 
seven children — six sons and one daughter. In politics he is in- 
de^jendent, but generally votes the Eepublican ticket. He and 
family, are members of the German Lutheran Church. 

WILSON M. TYLEE, president of the Vincennes National 
Bank, was born in West Brookfield, Mass., February 20, 1836, 
the son of Moses and Eliza (Makepeace) Tyler, natives of 
Massachiisetts, but were of English and Irish extraction respect- 
ively. The father came to Ohio in 1843, and resided at Chagrin 
Falls until 1852, when he removed to Vincennes, Ind., where he 
engaged in the general merchandise business, meeting with more 
than ordinary success, and accumulating quite a handsome com- 
petency. In 1864 he engaged in the general hardware, building 
material, and agricultural implement business, in which he re- 
mained as senior partner until his death in March, 1881. He 
was a Whig, and later became a Eepublican in politics, but took 
no active part in political affairs. He was well and favorably 
known throughout the county as an active, energetic and success- 
ful business man, and an upright, Christian citizen, being a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. The mother still resides in 
Vincennes, at the advanced age of eighty years. Our subject 
was brought up by his father in the mercantile business, and se- 


ciu'ed a good academic education, and at the age of twenty-one 
entered into partnership with his father, under the firm name of 
M. Tyler & Son, and continued this until his father's death, al- 
though he and Alfi-ed S. Lane had active management of the 
business a number of years previously. Since that time they have 
successfully continued the business, Mr. Lane being the junior 
member and acting as manager. In 18G5, upon the organization 
of the Vincennes National Bank, Mr. Tyler became one of the 
stockholders, and in 1875 was made cashier, which position he 
filled creditably until 1881, when he accepted the position as 
president, made vacant by the death of President W. J. Williams. 
February 2, 1858, he was united in matrimony to Margaret East- 
ham, a native of Bairdstown, Ky. They have two children, Frank 
E. and Alice. Mr. Tyler is a stanch Republican in politics, but 
has never aspired to ofiice. He is a Scottish Eite Mason, and he 
and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

HENRY VIEHE (deceased) was born in Germany, Febru- 
ary 19, 1802. He came to this country with his family in 1845, 
and located near the present village of Freelandsville, Ind., where 
he entered eighty acres of land. The country was then almost a 
wilderness, and the settlers' homes few and far between. His 
wife's mother came with them to America, and was a member of 
the family. She died in the fall of 1815 or 1846, and was buried 
on the home farm. His wife died in January, 1858, and he was 
buried on the day of the presidential election, in November, 1880. 
To their marriage twelve children were born ; two died in infancy, 
one in Germany and one on the steamboat while landing at 
Evansville, Ind. His eldest son died in this country. Nine of 
the children are living; one at Vincennes practicing law, one a 
physician at Henderson, Ky., and one a missionary in Soiith Af- 
rica. The rest are well to do farmers. 

HERMAN J. WAT JEN, retail (limited) dealer in drugs, 
paints, oils and medicines, is a native of Germany, born near 
Bremen in 1841, son of John D. and Margaret Watjen, and is of 
German descent. The parents were native Germans, and came 
to America in 1848. They landed at New Orleans, and came up 
the Mississippi, Ohio and Wabash Rivers, and settled at Vin- 
cennes, Ind., in the fall of that year. Here the father died in 


1849. Subject was educated in the public schools of Vincennes, 
and in 1856 went to Indianapolis, where he served a four years' 
apprenticeship. The first year he received $4 per month for his 
services, the second year $S. In 1861 he entered the Philadel- 
phia CoUege of Pharmacy, and remained one year. In 1862 he 
enlisted in Company A, Seventieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
serving nearly three years in the war of the Rebellion. He was 
with Sherman on his march to the sea and through the Carolinas. 
He participated in the grand review at Washington, D. C, and 
was honorably discharged in 1865. He then retiu-ned to Indian- 
apolis and entered the service of his former employers, Browning 
& Sloan, and remained with them until 1867. He then came to 
Vincennes, and immediately engaged in the drug business, in 
which he has since continued, meeting with good success. He 
was married in 1865 to Louisa Eberwine, a native of Vincennes, 
born in 1844. To them were born these four children: Mamie 
A., Cora O., Woodie and Otto. He is a Republican in politics, 
and is a member of the I. O. O. F. He has been a business man 
of Vincennes for about eighteen years, and limits himself to a 
strict retail trade. . 

L. L. WATSON, who for the past fifty-one years has been a 
resident of Vincennes, was born in this city April 13, 1809. His 
father, Robert G. Watson, was of Scotch descent, and passed the 
greater part of his life engaged in merchandising and fur trad- 
ing. Mrs. Genevieve (Conoyer) Watson, his mother, was de- 
scended fi-om one of the oldest and best families of this country, 
their advent in America dating back to 1704. L. L. Watson re- 
ceived but limited educational advantages in youth, which in 
later years has been greatly benefited by desultory reading and 
close observation. In 1826 he removed with Pierre Brouillette 
to St. Loiiis, when, after learning the tailor's ti-ade, he returned 
to his native town to find employment. After a few months' stay 
he returned to St. Louis in 18-32, but in 1834 again came to Vin- 
cennes, which has since been his home. Until 1849 he worked 
at his trade, but being appointed postmaster in that year by 
President Taylor, he administered to the requirements of that 
position until 1858. The two succeeding years he served as 
receiver of toll at the lock and dam at Grand Rapids, on the 


Wabash River, then served one year as conductor of a passenger 
train on the Evansville & Cincinnati Railroad, and was then ap- 
pointed agent for the road at Vincennes. He also carried on a 
lumber yard iu partnership, which he continued four years. In 
1859 he was appointed paymaster and supply agent for the Ohio 
& Mississippi Railroad, which he resigned in 1871 to take an 
active management, in conjunction with Capt. Mass, in the Union 
Depot Hotel, which he still continues. Mr. Watson for many 
years has been one of Vincennes' most enterprising and ener- 
getic citizens, and by an honorable, upright life has won the 
high esteem of his fellow townsmen. He is a member of the 
Roman Catholic Church, and is a Democrat. November 6, 1832, 
Lydia E., daughter of Willis Fellows, became his wife, and to 
their union have been born twelve children — four sons and three 
daughters now living: Samuel W., Edward, Willis H., Robert 
G., Jane E., Ruth and Ida M. 

EDWARD WATSON was born in Vincennes, Knox Co., Ind. 
September 21, 1816, and is a son of Lewis L. and Lydia (Fel- 
lows) Watson. He attended the public schools of Vincennes and 
afterward the university at that place, also Prof. L. G. Hays' Acad- 
emy at Indianapolis and the Asbury University at Greencastle, 
Ind. In the spring of 1866 he left college and became traveling 
salesman for a shoe firm in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1867 he began 
traveling in the West, and June of the same year arrived at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, and reached the terminus of the Union 
Pacific Railroad in California, then Julesburg. At the comple- 
tion of the road he sold out his stock and returned to Salt Lake 
City, intending to return home, but was prevented on account of a 
thi-ee weeks' snow blockade. He then went to California and 
spent six months in looking over that State and, in 1869, took the 
oath of allegiance and became secretary to E. C. Doraen, pay- 
master of the United States Navy, but resigned in 1871 to take 
charge of the Union Depot at Vincennes, Ind. In the spring of 
1872 he returned to San Francico and while there was offered his 
old position with his former employer, but declined. In June of 
that year he formed a partnership with Daniel Baenhart, continu- 
ing until 1875, when he sold his interest to his brother, R. G. 
Watson. In 1876 he disposed of his entire property and took 


passage for New York yia Panama. Owing to some accident they 
were delayed on the Isthmus six days. He reached New York 
September 22, 1876, and came to Vincennes via Philadelphia. 
He was made manager of the Union Depot Hotel. April 14, 1877, 
he was married by Father Hugh Galligher in San Francisco to 
Miss Carrie Keyes. In business he is connected with the City 
Gas Light Company as stockholder and director and is also a stock 
holder in the First National Bank and the Lake Ice Company. 
He is director and one of the committee on Manufacturing Inter- 
ests of the Board of Trade and is president of the Vincennes & 
Ohio Railway. He is his father's attorney and is treasurer and 
director of the Vincennes Water Supply Company. He is a 
Democrat politically and is one of the first men of this part 
of Indiana and a partner of J. F. Sechler & Co. in the city 

G. WEINSTEIN, wholesale and retail dealer in dry goods 
and notions, is a native of Germany, where he was born in 1827. 
He is a son of L. and Hannah Weinstein. Our subject came to 
America in 1853 and settled at Cincinnati, Ohio. For three 
years he was employed as traveling salesman for a leading Cin- 
cinnati house. In 1857 he went to Gallatin, Tenn., and engaged 
in the clothing business which he continued until 1862, when he 
came to Vincennes and engaged in the dry goods business, the fii-m 
being known as Weinstein & Brother. They continued together 
until 1867, when our subject bought out his brother's interest 
and carried on the business alone until 1875, when he formed 
a partnership with a gentleman of that city and the firm is now 
known as G. Weinstein & Co. Mr. Weinstein is one of the most 
thorough and successfiil business men of this portion of Indiana. 
For many years he has been a director of the First National Bank 
of this city. Since the organization of the Vincennes Board of 
Trade he has been one of the trustees. He is a leader in busi- 
ness circles and was married, in 1857, to Eva Brownold, who died 
in March, 1884. Mr. Weinstein married Rosa Lapp, in Novem- 
ber, 1885. She is a native of Louisville. In politics he is a 
Democrat and a member of the F. & A. M. and I. O. O. F. 

CHARLES M. WETZEL, attorney at law, Vincennes. Ind., 
was born in Sullivan County, Ind., August 24, 1850, and is a son 


of Solomon and Eliza (Burris) Wetzel, both natives of Virginia. 
His father came to Knox County in 1837, was married here and 
has resided ever since, with the exception of a short residence in 
Sullivan County, where our subject was born. Solomon Wetzel 
followed there and elsewhere the occupation of a millwright, until 
*of later years, which he has spent upon a small farm. Our sub- 
ject was raised with his parents and secured a fair education in 
the common schools. At the age of seventeen he commenced the 
blacksmith's trade, and worked at it until he was twenty-one. 
Seeing the necessity of improving his education, he diligently 
applied himself to reading and study while working at his trade. 
At the age of twenty-two, having prepared himself for teaching 
school, he commenced and followed that profession in this county 
about seven years. In 1877 he began the study of law with a 
view to making that his profession. He read with Cauthorn & 
Boyle, of Vincennes, two years, and was admitted to the Knox 
County bar in 1878. On May 1, 1870, he established an office, 
and has since followed the practice of his profession, meeting with 
well-deserved success. In politics he is a Democrat, and has 
taken active part in local campaigns. He was appointed county 
superintendent of schools in 1875, and was a candidate for the 
office in 1877, but was defeated. He remains unmarried and is 
recognized as one of the enterprising and rising young practition- 
ers of the county. 

EEV. EDAVAED P. WHALLON, A. M., Ph. D., pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church of Vincennes, is a native of Indiana, 
having been born in Putnamville, Putnam County, March 30, 
1849. His father, Eev. Thomas Whallon, now in the seventy- 
fifth year of his age, residing at Oak Park, 111., preached in Indi- 
ana for nearly half a century, graduating from Miami University 
and Hanover Theological Seminary, commencing his work at 
Eichmond, and having pastoral charge last at Vevay. He was 
one of a family of thirteen, the children of James and AUie 
(Hageman) Whallon, residing near Cincinnati during their life- 
time, and descended from Irish ancestors. Eev. Thomas Whallon 
married Miss Harriet S. Bickle, of Centreville, Ind., the sister of 
Judge William A. Bickle, of Eichmond, Ind., whose parents came 
from Virginia, and were of German descent on the father's side, 


the mother's family name being Bridgland. Dr. Whallon's 
childhood was spent at Putnam ville, Eensselaer and Tipton, from 
whence he went to attend Hanover College, graduating in June, 
1868, receiving the degree of Master of Arts fi-om the same insti- 
tution in June, 1873. He has been a trustee of Hanover College 
since 1S79. He attended the Theological Seminary of the North- 
west, at Chicago; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Pres- 
bytery of Madison (O. S.) April 13, 1870, and after laboring a 
year as the home missionary at Kasson, Minn., was ordained 
April 25, 1871. He subsequently spent a year in study in Union 
Theological Seminary, New York City, where he graduated May 
6, 1872. He took charge of the Presbyterian Church of Liberty, 
Ind., the same month, where he remained for more than six years. 
Here, November 17, 1873, he married Miss Nellie M. Kitchell, 
daughter of Jacob C. and Eebecca (Bennett) Kitchell. From 
this marriage four sons have been born: Philip, Thomas, Walter 
and Albert. In August, 1878, Dr. Whallon and his family re- 
moved to Vincennes, where he has since continued as pastor of 
this church, which, with the two Indiana churches, enjoys the con- 
joint honor of being the fii-st Protestant Church organized in In- 
diana. Upon the consolidation and organization of the synod 
of Indiana he was chosen stated clerk, and has held the position 
ever since. Since the incorporation of the synod in 1884 he has 
been one of its trustees. He has twice represented his Presbytery 
in the General Assembly — at Pittsburgh, in 1878, and at Saratoga 
Springs, in 1884. He is a member of the General Assembly's 
committee on Systematic Beneficence, and is chairman of the same 
committee in his Presbji;ery and Synod. He is intimately asso- 
ciated with all practical work, being for many years secretary of 
the Knox County Bible Society, president of the Knox County 
Sabbath School Association, and of the third district of the State 
Sunday-school Union. Dr. Whallon is an active member of the 
Good Templars, Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows and Masonic 
organizations, and for five years has been th6 grand chaplain of 
the Masonic Grand Chapter, and also of the Grand Council of the 
State. He has had large success as pastor of the church here. 
Between 200 and 300 have been received into its membership 
during his pastorate, the elegant new building on the corner of 


Eifth and Busseron Streets lias been erected, and the interests of 
the church have been in many ways greatly advanced. No naan 
has warmer friends than he, and few are more warmly attached to 
the community in which he lives. The University of Wooster, in 
June, 1885, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of 

JOHN WILHELM, mayor of Vincennes, Ind., was born on 
a farm near Mt. Carmel, 111., May 10, 1S54. He is the youngest 
one of five children, and the only son of Conrad and Gertrude 
(Smith) Wilhelm, both natives of Germany. They came to the 
United States when young. The father located in Mt. Carmel, 
where he married and resided until his death, when our subject 
was but a small boy. He remained with his mother on the farm, 
securing the best education the public schools of the neighbor- 
hood afforded, attending in the winter seasons and in the summer 
remained upon the farm sharing the lot of the sturdy sons of toil. 
At the age of seventeen years he had by his industry accumu- 
lated sufficient means to pay the expense of attending school at 
South Bend, Ind., and afterward attended a business college at 
Evansville, in the same State. His first occupation in life was 
the tilling of his mother's farm until he was twenty-three years 
of age, with the exception of the time from 1872 to 1874, when 
he was engaged in merchandising in Mt. Carmel, meeting with 
reasonable success. He began the study of law in 1874, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1878. He is not a member of any church, 
biit is of liberal views. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. He 
came to Vincennes, Ind., March 18, 1878, and has been engaged 
in the practice of law since that time. His political views are 
Democratic. April 4, 1885, he was nominated on the Democratic 
ticket for mayor of the city of Vincennes, defeating James H. 
Shouse, a very popular man, hj a large majority. He was elected 
on the 5th of May following without opposition, it being the fiti'st 
time he was ever candidate for office. December 28, 1882, he was 
married to Miss Nannie Browne, of Vincennes. 

WILSON JOHN WILLIAMS (deceased), once president of 
the Vincennes Bank, was born in Charlotte, Chittenden Co., Vt., 
January 17, 1836, son of James W. and Adelia (Barnes) Will- 
iams, whose ancestors may be traced to Massachusetts. In boy- 


hood our subject received the ordinary common school education, 
and when quite young was given a position in a store in Burling- 
ton, Vt., and later worked in a bank in that place for about three 
years. Being of an energetic and enterprising disposition, he 
determined to seek his fortune in the great West. He located in 
Burlington, Iowa, where he accepted a position in the banking 
office of Coolbaugh & Brooks, but remained with them for only 
a short period. After a brief visit to New Orleans he returned 
to the "Hoosier State," locating in Terre Haute, where he clerked 
in the State Bank of Indiana. In 1863 he moved to Vincennes, 
where he accepted the position of cashier in another branch o£ 
the State Bank. In 1865 he was elected cashier of the Vincennes 
National Bank, and at the death of Mr. Ross, the president of 
the bank, he became president and remained such until his death. 
January 17, 1860, he took for his companion through life Sophia 
J. Isaacs, born in England in 1840, daughter of Abraham C. Isaacs, 
who was a native of Manchester, England, and a prominent mer- 
chant of Terre Haute at the time of his. daughter's marriage. 
Mr. and Mrs. Williams became the parents of these children: 
Adelia S., a beautiful and accomplished young lady, who died at 
the age of seventeen; Charles W., Clara R., Margaret E., Wilson 
T., Robert J., Barnes and Harry R. Mr. Williams was a Mason of 
high order, and a Republican in his political views. His death, 
which occurred May 6, 1881, was a source of profovmd regret 
and sorrow to his innumerable friends. Though he is dead, yet 
his memory will ever remain green in the hearts of the many he 
has aided in their struggles with adversity. No death which has 
occurred in the county has been more universally regretted, for 
he ever had the interest and welfare of the community at heart 
and in charity, generosity and liberality was unsiirpassed. His 
hand was ever extended to aid the weary and distressed, and his 
deeds of kindness and love will ever remain as monuments of 
glory to his memory. His literary tastes were of a high and 
cultivated order, and his library was filled with many valuable 
works. His great-grandfather. Col. Williams, was a soldier in 
the war of 1812, and he and his son, Col. Williams, our subject's 
grandfather, owned adjoining farms in Vermont, which are still 
in the possession of the Williams family, and are said to be in. 


the most romantic and picturesque portion of the Valley of 
Lake Champlain. Mrs. Williams is a member of the Episcopal 
Church, and is a lady of rare attainments. She aided her hus- 
band in his many deeds of kindness, and since his death has car- 
ried on the good work. 

Mount Carmel, 111., February 7, 1851, the son of Flemming and 
Elmira Williams. Flemming was the son of Joseph Williams, 
and is at present a well-known farmer and politician living in 
Wabash County, 111. The Williams family is of Irish descent. 
Flemming was born in New York State, and settled with his 
father in Edwards Coujity, 111., about 1830. Joseph and his 
wife, Eliza, are buried in the cemetei'y at Albion, 111. The 
mother of the subject of this sketch was born in New York State, 
her maiden name being Wardell. She was a lady of culture, ed- 
ucation and literary tastes. She died in 1875, and is buried at 
Mount Carmel. Samuel W. was educated at the Friendsville 
Academy, a Presbyterian institution, and before he was of age 
'served a term as deputy county clerk of Wabash County, 111., 
under James S. Johnston. He lived in Gibson County, Ind., 
several years, and engaged as book-keeper and clerk in Hazle- 
ton. In 1869 he located in Vincennes, Ind., where he has since 
resided. After taking a course at the old Heinly & Rank Com- 
mercial College, he became a commercial traveler for L. B. 
Smith, wholesale grocer, where he remained about two years. 
On all his trips on the road, in addition to teas, coffees and to- 
baccos, his sample cases contained a volume of Blackstone, 
Chitty or Kent, and on the trains and in the hotels he spent his 
time in solving the mysteries of the law. He then entered the 
law office of Messrs. Cauthorn & Boyle as a student, and was ad- 
mitted to the Knox County bar in 1874, and to the Supreme 
Court in 1876. He is a close student of law and politics, and 
has a well-selected and valuable private library of miscellaneous 
works. He has had a lucrative practice in his profession from 
the first, and enjoys the full confidence of his clients. His work 
is usually in contested cases, and he is recognized as a success- 
ful jury lawyer. In 1877 and 1878 he defended Henry Berner, 
in the courts of Knox and Gibson Counties, on the charge of 


murder for killing Edward Barlien, and after a hard fight suc- 
ceeded in saving his client's neck. This was the most noted 
criminal trial ever held in southern Indiana, and the ill-feeling 
against the defendant was intense. During its progress Mr. 
Williams was fi-equently threatened with assassination if he did 
not abandon the defense, and his refusal to do so made him many 
bitter enemies, some of whom have not yet, and perhaps never 
will, forget their hatred. Mr. Williams comes of a Democratic 
family, and has been on the stump in every campaign in In- 
dian beginning with 1872, when he cast his first vote for 
Thomas A. Hendricks for governor. He takes pride in the fact 
that he has never scratched a Democratic ticket. In 1877 he 
was nominated in a primary election, by the Democrats, for 
mayor of the city of Vincennes, and was defeated by reason of a 
split in the party on local issues, and the election of an inde- 
pendent. In 1882 he was nominated by the Knos County De- 
mocracy for Representative, defeating in convention W. H. De- 
Wolf, Esq., and Hon. C. E. Crane. He was elected, and was 
again nominated, without opposition, and elected in 1884. In 
the Legislature he was au active and zealous worker for his county 
and his party. In the session of 1885 he was the leader of the 
majority on the floor of the House, and served on more commit- 
tees, introduced more bills, resolutions and motions than any 
other member. He took active part in all important debates, and 
was chairman of the Democratic organization caucus. He was 
a candidate for speaker of the House in 1885, and had sixteen 
votes, but withdrew in favor of his personal friend, Mr. Jewett. 
Many of his bills passed, among them being a bill to reorganize 
the judicial circuits of the State, so as to constitute Knox County 
a circuit of itself. The highest reputation he made was over the 
introduction of his telephone rate bill, the passage of which he 
secured in the face of the strongest opposition from the Bell Tel- • 
ephone Company, the Western Union Telegraph Company, many 
of the ablest lawyers in the State, and the major part of the State 
press. Mr. Williams is a bachelor, a teetotaler, an Episcopalian, 
and a good judge of men and cigars. Young, active, full of en- 
ergy, and positive in his convictions and ideas, he has many warm 
friends and some bitter enemies. He is a charter member of 


Lodge No. 936, K. of H., and Post Grand Protector of Indiana 
of the order K. & L. of H. 

HIRAM WILLOUGHBY is a son of Charles and Elizabeth 
(Bernard) Willoughby, and was born in Beaver County, Penn., 
March 30, 1818, of Fi-ench and English descent. His boyhood 
days were spent on a farm in his native county, where he se- 
cured a limited education. At the age of fourteen he left home, 
and served an apprenticeship at the tailor trade eighteen months, 
and then completed his trade in West Virginia. At the age of 
eighteen years he started West as journeyman tailor, working in 
various parts of Indiana and Ohio. In 1840 he was married to 
Sarah Ann Miller, of Carroll County, Ohio, and resided there 
three years, and then located in Madison, Ind., and worked at his 
trade until 1862. He then came to this city and worked at the 
merchant-tailoring business on a small scale with William Huey, 
continuing eight years. In 1870 Mr. Willoughby purchased Mr. 
Huey's interest, and in company with his son and present partner, 
Aurelius M., has conducted the business with marked success ta 
the present time. The firm carries a large and select line of 
goods, and also deals in hats, controlling a large share of the 
trade in city and county. Mr. Willoughby's wife died in 1849, 
leaving these three children: Aurelius M., Elizabeth M., wife 
of D. M. McKee, and Hester E., wife of Dr. Hiram T. Clarry. 
Mr. Willoughby took for his second wife Hannah Lytle, who 
died in 1879, leaving two children: Fannie N. and Ida M. Our 
subject is a Republican in politics, and a member of the I. 
O. O. F. 

BENJAMIN M. WILLOUGHBY, attorney at law, of Vin- 
cennes, Ind., was born in Ripley County, Ind., May 8, 1855, 
and is a son of Milton and Phoebe (Osborn) Willoughby. He is 
the second in a family of eight children and is of English descent. 
His father was born in Pittsburgh, Penn., in 1828, and the mother 
in Batavia, Ohio, in 1834. Many years ago the family moved to 
Indiana, and the parents of oui- subject now reside in Ripley 
County. Our subject's early years were spent in his native county. 
In 1873 he moved to Trimble County, Ky., where he followed the 
occupation of pedagoguing about two years. He came to Vin- 
cennes, in 1875, and for one year attended the Vincennes High 


Scliool. He was made principal of the grammar department of the 
Petersburgh High School in 1876, and began the study of law in 
the office of Capt. George G. Reily, in the spring of 1877. In the 
winter of 1877-78, he taught school at Sandborn, Knox Co., 
Ind., and in the spring of the latter year, resumed his legal stud- 
ies and attended the Cincinnati Law School, graduating in 1879, 
and was immediately admitted to the Knox County bar. In 1882 
he formed a partnership with Lewis A. Meyer, and they now con- 
stitute one of the most successful law firms in the city. He is a 
warm Republican in politics, and cast his fii'st presidential vote 
for Hayes. He became a member of the Masonic fraternity Feb- 
ruary 14, 1880. 


HIRAM ANTIBUS, one of the farmers of Washington Town- 
ship, is son of Conrad and Catherine Antibus; both parents were 
natives of Maryland. There they grew to years of maturity, were 
married and lived for some years, when they moved to Pennsyl- 
vania. From Pennsylvania they went to Ohio, and later in life 
moved to Owen County, Ind., where the father died about 1835. 
After the war the mother went to Illinois with a daughter ; there 
died in 18(36. By occupation the father was a blacksmith, which 
calling he followed during his entire life. The mother was a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church. The father was a Whig in politics. He 
was a soldier of the war of 1812, and while in Pennsylvania, filled 
the office of sheriff. Hiram's ancestors on his father's side were 
English, on his mother's German. Of such ancestry was born the 
subject of our sketch in 1834, in Owen County. In boyhood he 
went to school but little, on account of having to support a wid- 
owed mother, but since he has improved himself by reading. He 
lived with his mother until twenty years of age, when he took a 
trip West, visiting Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas. After an 
absence of five years he returned, considerably better off finan- 
cially. After returning he ran an engine in the mill in Edwards- 
port, and from that went to saw-milling. In 1861 he enlisted in 
Company I, Nineteenth Indiana Infantry; he volunteered to 


sacrifice his Ijfe for the Union. He was at Bull's Run, Antietam, 
South Mountain, Wilderness and Gettysburg. At Petersburg, Va., 
he received a flesh wound from a minie-ball, but remained at 
his post. After three years of faithful service h6 returned, bear- 
ing an honorable discharge. Having come home he resumed 
his trade as sawyer, at which he has worked from time to time 
since. In 1871 he bought 120 acres of land in this township; 
since, by hard work and good management, has increased his farm 
to 196 acres, all under fence. In 1872 he was married to Laura 
Miller, born in 1852; they became the parents of these children: 
Anna, Sallie, Rebecca, Nellie, Brigham and Robert. Politically 
he is independent, voting for the man regardless of party 

JOSEPH BAIRD, the oldest man now living who was born 
in Knox County, is a son of Thomas and Jane (Johnson) Baird. 
The father was born in 1749, in Pennsylvania. The mother, a 
native of the same State, was born in 1764; both had been mar- 
ried once before. After their companions were taken away both 
moved to Kentucky, where they were married 1791. Having lived 
there till 1801 they came to this county, where they spent the 
remainder of their days. The father was a farmer, owning 200 
acres of land. In this family were fifteen children, the mother 
having three by her first marriage; the father six, and by their 
marriage also six. Both were members of the Presbyterian Church. 
He was one of the sturdy old patriots who fought in the Revolu- 
tionary war. In 1834 he died at the ripe old age of eight-five. The 
mother died in 1850. Joseph's ancestors, on both sides, were of 
Irish descent. He was born in 1805 in Vincennes Township. In 
boyhood he had only the advantage of the old time subscription 
schools. He lived with his father till twenty-eight years of age ; was 
thenmarried, in 1833, to Nancy L. Johnson, born in 1811, in Ken- 
tucky. She is a daughter of Samuel and Mary (Martin) John- 
son. To them two children were born: Thomas J., and Samuel 
J. Thomas died when a child. Samuel was one of the brave 
boys of Company H, Fifty-first Indiana Infantry. Husband 
and wife are members of the Christian Church. Mr. Baird has 
been one of the most active and trustworthy business men of his 
vicinity, having been guardian for thirty-four orphan children, 
and turned over to them more than $60,000. Soon after marriage 


he settled on the farm of 196 acres, where he now lives. When 
he located it was nearly all in the woods and destitute of 
buildings. By hard work he has put it all under fence, and has 
100 acres in cultivation. As a farmer he has been quite suc- 
cessful. He is a man ever ready to support the worthy enter- 
prises of his community, and as a citizen he is widely known and 
highly respected. Mr. Baird is a stanch Republican. He voted 
first for J. Q. Adams. 

HUGH BARE, one of the leading farmers of Washington 
Township, is a son of Robert and Hannah (Johnson) Barr. His 
father was born in Bourbon County, Ky., in 1792, and his mother 
was born in the same county in the same year, and there they 
grew to years of maturity and were married. In 1810, soon after 
their marriage, they immigrated to Daviess County, Ind.,butfi'om 
fear of massacre by the Indians, returned to their native 
county, Mrs. Barr carrying her first born on horseback. 
Not long after this, however, they returned to Daviess County 
and settled in Barr Township, where they lived until 1856, when 
they removed to Knox County to spend the remainder of their 
days with their son Hugh. They were the parents of eight chil- 
dren — six boys and two girls, all of the former except Hugh being 
farmers, in this respect following in the footsteps of their father. 
He was a member of the Christian Church, joining it at the age 
of sixty-three, a rare instance of conversion at an old age. Mr. 
Barr was a member of the Mississippi Baptist Churc^. Politi- 
cally he was an old line AVhig until the organization of the 
Republican party, when he became a supporter of its principles. 
Grandfather Barr was probably a native of Ireland, and served 
as a soldier in the Revolutionary war, being taken prisoner when 
Gen. Gates was defeated. Grandfather Johnson also fought in 
the same war and was a native of Germany. Of such ancestry 
was born the subject of this sketch in Barr Township in 1817. 
In boyhood he enjoyed very limited educational advantages, not 
having attended school in all more than five months, and during 
that time scarcely learned to read and write. At the age of six- 
teen he was hired out to work in a still-house, in which he re- 
mained seven years, notwithstanding which experience he did not 
contract a bad habit. Having accumulated a capital of $281, 


he desired to engage in merchandising. During the seven 
years he worked in the still-house he so won the coniidence 
of his employer that now he invested some $600 with Mr. 
Barr's $281, and entrusted the management to him.. With this 
small capital he stocked up in 1840 in Bruceville. Two years later 
Mr. Barr became sole projarietor. Some time after he engaged 
in flat-boating to New Orleans, making eight trips. For thirty 
years he continued the mercantile business in Bruceville, and for 
two years he ran a store at Bicknell. About 1846 Mr. Barr 
purchased seventy acres of land, and by close attention to 
business and good management he increased the number of acres 
to 350. In 1842 Mr. Barr was married to Martha B. McClure, a na- 
tive of Washington Township, Daviess County, and a daughter 
of Joseph and Mary (Gowens) McClure. Both parents were from 
Kentucky, being among the early settlers of Knox County. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Barr have been born eight children: DanielJ., Kob- 
ert N., Alice; Henry C, Ann B., Mary F., Joseph H. and John 
L. Those living are Henry C, one of the proprietors of a large 
flouring-mill at Princeton; Joseph H., a farmer of Washington 
Township; Alice, Ann B. and Mary F. Mrs. Barr died in 1882. 
Three years afterward Mr. Barr was married to Kate (Beckes) 
Nugent, who was born in 1833 in Johnson Township. Mr. Nu- 
gent was a Presbyterian minister, and both Mrs. Nugent' s par- 
ents were natives of the county. Mr. Barr is a stanch Repub- 
lican, and cast his first vote for Gen. Harrison for President. Both 
himself and wife are professing Christians, he being a member of 
the Christian Church and she of the Presbyterian. When the 
Hyatt & Co. Savings Bank failed two assignees were appointed, 
Mr. Barr and William Hyatt. Mr. Hyatt having died Mr. Barr 
was left to perform the arduous task alone. 

ROBEET P. BARE, one of the prominent farmers of Wash- 
ington Township, and a son of Eobert and Hannah (Johnson) 
Barr, was born in 1827 in Daviess County, Ind. In boyhood 
he had limited advantages for education, attending only the 
old subscription schools, and to them would go about two days 
and stay at home three. At the age of twenty, his parents be- 
ing poor, young Eobert paid his father for the remainder of the 
time his services were due, and began to battle his own way in 


the world, working by the month. For five years he thus worked, 
saving $90 in the meantime. On such a capital he set up house- 
keeping. In 1851 he was married to Matilda Gude, born in Wash- 
ington Township, 1829. She is a daughter of Jesse and Ann 
(Farris) Gude. To Mr. and Mrs. Barr five children were born: 
Martha J., William, Bobert, Alfred and Mary. Robert is one of 
the rising young teachers of Washington Township, and also car- 
ries on farming. Martha is the wife of George Elliott, a farmer 
of the to-ivnship. Husband, wife and two of the children are 
members of the Christian Church. About 1854 Mr. Barr pur- 
chased 160 acres of land where he now lives, going in debt for 
the entire amount, his brother Hugh promising to aid him. He 
was then taken sick, and so remained for one whole year. So 
thoroughly discouraged was he that he went to Hugh and offered 
to give a mortgage on the farm, thinking he could never pay for 
it ; but his brother said for him to try again, he was not afraid of 
his failure. Thus encouraged he began, and not only paid for 
that land but has increased his farm to 260 acres, of which some 
200 acres are under cultivation. As to political views Mr. Barr is 
a stanch Republican and cast his first vote for Taylor. As a 
farmer he has been quite successful. He is an example of what 
a young man of determination can do. 

WILLIAM V. BARR, one of the merchants of Bruceville, is 
a son of William Valentine and Sarah J. (Piety) Barr. The 
father was born in 1825, in Daviess County. The mother is a 
native of Washington Township, Knox County. When young 
he came to this county, and, having married, settled in Bruce- 
ville, where he spent the remainder of his days in tailoring, be- 
ing quite successful in business. In 1854 the father died. 
Some ten years later the mother married J. M. Woodruff. Since 
her marriage she has lived in Johnson County. • Subject 
is the youngest of the two children of his father. Born in 
Bruceville, in 1854, he grew to manhood under his mother's care. 
His educational advantages were limited to the common schools 
and a term's work at Butler University. At the age of nineteen 
he began to battle his own way in the world by working on the 
farm for wages. After thus working for some four years he pur- 
chased a farm of 140 acres of land and began farming for him- 


self, contimiing till 1883, when he sold his land and took a half 
interest in the store known as Willis & Barr. In 1877 he was 
married to Rebecca Willis, born in 1856 in Washington Town- 
ship. She is a daughter of Clark and Nancy J. (Simpson) AVil- 
lis. To Mr. and Mrs. Barr four children were born: Jennie, 
Walter C, Elsie M. and Myrtle. Both husband and wife are 
members of the Christian Church. Mr. Barr is a supporter of 
Eepiiblican principles, and cast his first vote for Garfield. As a 
business man he has met with fair success, having a good share 
of the respect and confidence of the community. 

JOSEPH H. BAER, one of the rising young farmers of 
Knox County, Ind., is son of Hugh and Martha (McClure) Barr, 
and was born in Washington Township in 1861. He had good 
educational advantages in his younger days, and completed his 
course at the Bruceville High School. At the age of twenty-one 
he began farming for himself on his father's place, and a year 
later was married to Susie 'B. Kelso, born in 1861 in Dubois 
County, Ind. She is a daughter of Lemuel S. and Sarah (Chap- 
pell) Kelso. Mr. and Mrs. Barr are the parents of these two 
children: Hugh and Sarah. Mrs. Barr is a member of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Barr is a stanch Repub- 
lican, casting his fii-st vote for Blaine. After marriage they moved 
on a farm of 186 acres given them by Mr. Barr's father. In ad- 
dition they have charge of 189 acres, which makes them a good 
farm. Mr. Barr devotes much of his time to raising cattle, dis- 
posing of about 150 yearly. He has met with good success, and 
promises to make a business man equal to his father. 

HERMAN B. BARROWS was born in Albion, III, in 1823. 
His parents, Herman and Mary (Kurtz) Barrows, were born in 
Massachusetts and Pennsylvania in 1788 and 1798, respectively. 
The mother, at the time of her marriage in 1811, was attending 
a boarding school, where girls were supposed to have very deli- 
cate appetites. Though only thirteen years of age, she contrived 
to make her escape, and married our subject's fatlier. They soon 
after came to Evansville, Ind., where the father worked at brick- 
making, and erected the first court house ever put up in that city. 
They finally settled in Illinois, where they lived until the father's 
death. On a trip down the Mississippi he was taken with yellow 


fever, from which he died, in 1828. The mother was afterward 
twice married. She died in 1870. In boyhood our subject at- 
tended the subscription schools, and when only eleven years old 
hired out as cabin-boy on a boat plying on the Wabash and Ohio 
Bivers, and was afterward engaged as cook on a small boat. At 
the age of fifteen he began learning the tailor's trade, and as 
compensation was to receive a quarter's schooling and a suit of 
clothes. At the end of that time he made tailoring his chief 
calling for about eleven years. In 1844 he was married to Eliza 
C, daiighter of John and Mary (Hunter) Hunter, natives of 
North Carolina and TennesseOj respectively. In 1852 he pur- 
chased forty acres, but soon sold out and purchased 100 acres in 
Washington Township. He now owns 450 acres. He at first 
knew but little about farming, but is now considered one of the 
first farmers in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Barrows became the 
parents of nine children: William W., Marshall H., Mary, John 
E., George E., Anne, Inez, Emma and Nora. William and Mar- 
shall were in the late war. George has prej^ared himself for the 
ministry at the Bible College of the Kentucky University. The 
family are members of the Christian Church. Mr. Barrows is 
conservative in politics. 

JOHN T. BOYD was born in Chester District, S. C, in 1805. 
When young he removed to Virginia, where he was married in 
1823, to Christena Arney, born in 1807. They came to Knox 
County, Ind., in 1832, and settled on a woodland farm. He in 
time became the owner of 1,250 acres of land. He was a house 
carpenter and cabinet-maker by trade. For a number of years 
he kept an agricultural implement establishment in Vincennes. 
For about two years he was township trustee and served as justice 
of the peace for some eight years. He was a man noted for his 
charity, and donated liberally to De Pauw University. He was a 
Eepublican and died in 1876. The mother's death occurred in 
1885. Matthew S. Boyd, son of John T. Boyd, was born in Knox 
County, Ind., in 1848. He secured a good common school educa- 
tion, and remained with his parents until he was twenty-eight 
years of age, when he began his career as a farmer. He received 
200 acres of land from his father's estate, which he cleared and 
improved and furnished with good buildings. In 1878 he was 


married to Violet Ruggles, born in 1851, daughter of Aaron and 
Mary M. (Wallace) Buggies, born in 1813 and 1815 in Indiana 
and Kentucky respectively. They spent the most of their lives 
in Daviess County, Ind. The father was a miller all his life 
with the exception of a few years spent in farming. Both were 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The mother died 
in 1878. The father still lives. Mr. and Mrs. Boyd are the 
parents of two children : Stanley and Myrtle. Both are members 
of the Methodist ^Episcopal Church, and he is a stanch Repub- 
lican and cast his first presidential vote for U. S. Grant. 

JOHN G. BOYD, a farmer of Knox County, Ind., son of 
John T. and Christina (Arney) Boyd, was born in 1839 in Wash- 
ington Township. In boyhood he had very good opportunities 
of attending the old-fashioned schools. Until twenty-five years 
of age he staid with his father on the farm. Then he was mar- 
ried in 1866 to Louisa Phillippe, born in 1840. She is a daughter 
of Peter and Rebecca (Fox) Phillippe. Soon after marriage Mr. 
Boyd settled on the farm where he now lives. Having bought 
200 acres in woods on credit, he went to work to clear it up and 
make a farm. By hard work and good management he has not 
only paid for it, but has cleared 140 acres and put it in a good 
state of cultivation. To Mr. and Mrs. Boyd three children were 
born: David F.. Naomi A. and Flora B. Husband, wife and all 
the children are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Boyd is a stanch Republican and cast his first vote for Lin- 
coln. As a farmer he has been quite successful. He is an 
example of what a young man of industry and good habits can ac- 

WILLIAM BRUCE, one of the oldest settlers of Washington 
Township, was born in 1776 in western Pennsylvania, where he 
lived for eight years, and then with his parents moved to Ken- 
tucky near Louisville, then a mere village. In this State he 
grew to manhood, and was married in 1798 to Sallie Polke, born 
in 1782. She was a daughter of Charles Polke. Her mother, 
herself, and three older children were captured by the Indians, 
who would have scalped them, but they could get a higher price 
for prisoners than scalps. After remaining there about a year, 
enduring all the hardships imposed upon them by their savage 


foes, they were redeeined and retiirned to their friends. Mr. 
Bruce by his first wife had fifteen children. Soon after marriage 
he bought a small piece of land, and after living on it for some 
time, an older claim deprived him of his farm. Thereupon he put 
his wife, four childi-en and household goods on horses and started 
for Vincennes, Ind., in 1805. After remaining there a year he 
purchased 200 acres of timber where Bruceville now stands, the 
town taking its name fi-om him. Having built a cabin, he set- 
tled among the few whites and many Indians. Here he spent 
the remainder of his days in agricultural pursuits. During the 
Indian troubles he was called upon to lead a company, as its 
captain, to the defense of Vincennes. From there he proceeded 
up the Wabash River, it being his duty to see that the enemy did 
not get in the rear of Harrison's army. A fort was consti-ucted 
about this time on the farm of Mr. Bruce. The war being ended 
he returned to peaceful pursuits. In 1818 his first wife died, 
and in the following year he married Hettie R. Holmes, born 
1794. She was a daughter of William and Elizabeth Holmes. 
To this second marriage eighteen childi-en were born. Mr. 
Bruce's fii'st wife was a member of the Baptist Church, himself 
also until some twenty years before his death, when he became 
a member of the Christian Chiirch, being a very prominent mem- 
ber. He was a radical Whig in politics. In 185.3 he died, and 
the mother in 1868. Of such parentage was born in 1826, John 
H. Bruce in Bruceville, he being the twentieth child. In boy- 
hood he attended the old-time subscription schools, and at the 
age of twenty-one went to Missouri and helped clear the ground 
where Kansas City now stands; having returned the same year 
and attended school for a short time, and ran on a flat-boat four 
trips down the Mississippi; then taught school about thirteen 
terms. In 1850 he was married to Angeline Threlkeld, born in 
1825 in Washington Township. She is a daughter of James and 
Sallie (Handley) Threlkeld. Her father, born 1773, was a native 
of Virginia; her mother, born 1783, of Pennsylvania. In early 
life both moved to Shelby County, Kj^ There they were married 
in 1801. In 1804 they moved to Knox County and settled near 
Vincennes. The father was taken from among the living in 1850; 
the mother in 1855. Both were members of the Christian 


Church. To Mr. and Mrs. Bruce four children were born : Sal- 
lie, Hettie, Cora M. and AVilliam E. ; all of whom, sa-ve Cora, have 
been teachers, AVilliam E. being one of the rising young teachers 
of his township. Both he and wife are members of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Bruce has been honored with several offices. For 
five years he was township clerk, and afterward held the office of 
assessor for six years. He was trustee for four years, the Bruce- 
ville Graded School building being the result of his foresight. 
In all of these positions he has shown ability and given good 
satisfaction. He is a man who takes a deep interest in all enter- 
prises tending to build up the morality and intelligence of his 

IRA DONHAM, one of the farmers of Washington Township, 
is a son of William and Sarah (Arthur) Donham. The father was 
born in 1784 in Pennsylvania; the mother, a native of Virginia, 
was born in the same year. AVhen young both moved to Ohio, 
where they were married and lived till 1833, when they came to 
Indiana and settled in Vigo County, where both died. By occu- 
pation the father was a farmer, and for some years ran a grist 
and saw-mill. During his entire life he was an industrious and 
energetic worker. Both parents were members of the Baptist 
Church, and politically he was an old-time Democrat. The father 
died in 1849 and the mother in 1863. Ira's ancestors on his 
father's side were natives of Spain. About the time of the In- 
quisition they were so persecuted on account of their religious 
views that they decided to come to America. In order to do that 
they were obliged to change their name. Their original name 
was Singleton, but in order to get away with their lives they 
changed it to Donham, which they have borne ever since. From 
Spain they went to Wales, and finally to America. His ancestors 
on his mother's side were of Scotch descent. Of such ancestors 
was born, in 1817, the subject of this sketch in Clermont 
County, Ohio. In boyhood he had meager advantages for edu- 
cation, having to go six miles to the old time subscription schools. 
At the age of twenty-one he began to do for himself. For three 
years he helped survey the canal from Terre Haute to Evansville. 
Then having received eighty acres of land from his father he be- 
gan farming, and after making several changes finally settled in 


Knox County in 1872 on the farm where he now lives. In 1838 
lie was raarried to Cynthia A. Townsley, born in 1822 in the same 
county as the husband. To this union eleven children were born : 
Elizabeth, Nathaniel, America, Susan, Abel, George A., Joseph, 
Cinderella, Sarah, William and Lena L. All the sons are farmers. 
Eight of the children have been married. America was married 
to Perry West, who died from exposure in the war, leaving his 
wife, without property, to raise four little girls, the eldest about 
eight years of age. She has brought them up in a praiseworthy 
manner. The eldest is now one of the iirst teachers in Palmyra 
Township. She secured her education by working by the week dur- 
ing summer and going to school in winter. Lena L. married 
Lawson B. McNeece, who was killed by a runaway team. In 
1839 Mr. Donham bought eighty acres of timber land in Clay 
County, for which he largely paid with coon skins at $1 a piece. 
Here he settled in a log house 18x20 surrounded by howling 
wolves and other wild animals. Now he has 111 acres of good 
land. Mrs. Donham is a member of the Baptist Church. For a 
time he was trustee in Fountain County, justice of the peace in 
Clay County and assessor for fourteen years. He is a stanch 
Democrat, his first vote being cast for Van Buren. 

GEOKGE AV. FLEMING is a son of Eubus and Louisa 
(Byers) Fleming, who were born in Smith County, Va., in 1812 
and 1819, respectively. In 1838 they moved to Mississippi, 
where they spent the remainder of their days. The father fol- 
lowed blacksmithing until about fifteen years before his death; 
when he turned his attention to farming. Both were members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and he was a Whig and a Demo- 
crat. The mother died in 18-48, and about three years later he 
married Julia Avery. His death occurred in 1883. George W. 
was born in Virginia in 1836. He received a good education in 
Mississippi, and at the age of twelve years he and his youngest 
sister came to Knox County, Ind., to live with their relatives. 
George lived with an uncle until twenty-one years of age, when, 
with a horse and a suit of clothes, he began to do for himself. 
For five years he worked by the month, saving his wages and 
keeping it on interest. After renting land some time he pur- 
chased 136 acres, where he now lives. In 1863 he was married 


to Elizabeth Brentliuger, born in Knox County, in 1844, daugh- 
ter of George and Mary (McClure) Brentlinger. To them were 
born four children: Hugh E., Daniel E., Mary J., and George 
B. Hugh is a salesman in a grocery store in Kansas. Mrs. 
Fleming is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
Mr. Fleming is a stanch Democrat, and cast his first vote for 
Douglas. He has always been very industrious, and is now 
reaping the reward of his labor. 

PETER FOX, a farmer of Washington Township, Knox Co., 
Ind., son of Stephen and Hannah (HoUings worth) Fox, was born 
in 1837 in Washington Township. In boyhood he had the disad- 
vantages of the old log schoolhouse and the old-time teachers. 
His being the oldest son obliged him to stay at home to get wood 
and do odd jobs, so that his school-days were few. He remained 
with his father until twenty-six years of age, when he was mar- 
ried, in 1863, to Mary Phillippe, born in 1846, in Washington 
Township. To this union seven children were born: Edward D., 
William E. (deceased), Martin L., Marion B., Alice P., Joseph C, 
and Charley B. Soon after his marriage Mr. Fox's father gave 
him eighty acres of land without improvement and mostly in the 
woods. By hard work and good management he has since in- 
creased it to 160 acres, of which some 125 acres are under culti- 
vation, furnished with a good house. Both husband and wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Fox is a 
stanch Democrat, and cast his first vote for Douglas. He has 
made farming a success. Having started with a small beginning, 
he has arisen to the ownership of a good farm. He is a man 
ever ready to support public enterprises. 

STEPHEN FOX, one of the pioneers of Knox County, Ind., 
is a son of Peter and Mary (StefPey) Fox. The father was born 
ifi 1763, in Pennsylvania. The mother, a native of Virginia, was 
born in 1775. When a young man the father went to Virginia and 
met Miss Steffey, to whom he was married in 1793. By occupa- 
tion the father was a farmer, and in connection with that built log 
houses and barns, being one of the most noted hewers of his 
times. It is said he could hew a log without leaving a nick 
from either broad or narrow ax. The largest building he ever 
erected was a log barn, 38x90 and 48 feet to the comb. In 1833 


he with his family came to this county and settled in Washington 
Township. Here they sjjent the remainder of their days in agri- 
cultural pursuits. Both were members of the Lutheran Church, 
but as there was no such church in reach they united with the 
Presbjdierian. In 1840 the father was called from among the 
living; the mother lived till 1853. Our subject was born in 
1811 in Wythe County, Va., and was raised in Washington 
County. In boyhood he had very limited • advantage for 
education, going a short time to both English and German 
schools. When only twelve years old he walked a distance of 
three miles, his father being the teacher. At the age of sixteen 
he took charge of his father's farm of 312 acres, which he con- 
tinued to manage till their deaths. In 1836 he- was married to 
Hannah HoUingsworth, born in 1811. -She is a daughter of Peter 
and Sarah (Young) HoUingsworth. He was a native of North 
Carolina and she of South Carolina. He came to this county 
about 1805 and she some three years later. After their marriage 
they settled here on the farm where they spent the rest of their 
days. To Mr. and Mrs. Fox nine children were born: Peter, 
Ferdinand, William, Martin V., James P., Mary, Sarah, Adam and 
Ellen. Mr. Fox, wife, and all the children are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Democrat, and cast his 
first vote for Van Buren. In 1836 Mr. Fox bought 175 acres of 
land, largely on credit. He not only paid for that, but by hard 
work and good management he and his boys have increased the 
farm to 726 acres, all of, which has been given to the children. 
Both he and his wife are still living at the ripe old age of seventy- 
four. They reside on the old homestead, tenderly cared for by 
their son Adam, enjoying the respect and confidence of all who 
know them. 

HENEY W. FOX was born in Knox County, Ind., in 1839. 
He is a son of Henry and Catherine (Snyder) Fox, who were 
born in Virginia in 1794 and 1798, respectively. They were mar- 
ried in 1816, and came to Indiana twelve years later. The father 
gave a four-horse wagon and a watch for 100 acres of land, but soon 
sold out, and purchased 200 acres, where Henry now lives. Both 
parents were members of the Lutheran Chui-ch in Virginia, but 
after coming here they united with the Presbyterian Church, in 


which the father was a deacon for many years. One of his chil- 
dren became a minister, two elders, and one a deacon. The father 
died in 1867, and the mother yet lives with our subject. In early 
times she spun and wove flax and carded and spun the wool, and 
made the clothing for the entire family. In boyhood Henry re- 
ceived a common-school education, which he has since improved 
by reading. He is a great lover of music, and in early times was 
a teacher of vocal music, having for one of his pupils James D. 
Williams, afterward governor. In 18G5 he went West to dig gold, 
and after remaining two years in Montana was called home by 
the death of his father, and purchased his home place, where he 
yet lives. In 1877 he was married to Eliza Wampler, born in 
1854, daughter pf Abraham and Ann M. (Dunn) Wampler. To 
them were born four children: David, Alvah D., Anna C. and 
Mamie A. Both husband and wife are members of the Presby- 
terian Church, he being an elder since about 1868. He supports 
the Democratic party, and while in Montana was chosen a dele- 
gate to the convention for the nomination of officers, he being one 
of the few temperance men in that region. He voted squarely 
against the whisky -ring leaders, thus aiding in defeating them 
and their candidate, a proceeding which surprised them not a lit- 
tle. Here, as there, he always supports the worthy, and is con- 
sidered by all a first-class farmer and citizen. 

GEOKGE W. GANOE is a sou of James and Martha (Mead- 
ley) Ganoe. Where the father was born is not definitely known. 
The mother was born in Kentucky in 1808. She came to this 
State and county with her parents at an early day, and lived for 
some time in a fort. The father came here when a young man, 
and worked by the month for some time. In their family were 
these children: George W., Lucy A., Nancy J. and Catharine. 
Both parents were Baptists, and the father was a Whig. He died 
in 1841, and the mother in 1883. George W. was born in Knox 
County, Ind., in 1833. His educational advantages were limited, 
as the schoolhouses were very few and far between. He lived 
with his parents until their death, when he and two sisters sold 
their interest in the home farm and purchased 160 acres where he 
now lives. His sister, Nancy, then married and took forty acres 
of the farm, and since then he and his sister, Lucy, have lived to- 


gether. Mr. Ganoe is a stanch Democrat, and his first vote was 
cast for the candidate of the Know-nothing party. He has been 
moderately successful as a farmer, and he and sister belong to the 
Christian Church. 

WATT, HILL & MAYFIELD are the proprietors of the 
Bruceville Tile Factory, which was established in 1880, by Barr 
& Witherspoon, who operated it one season, and then sold out to 
the above-named men, who went in debt for it, but by honesty and 
determination to succeed they have built up a paying business. 
The excellence of their work is shown by the demand for their 
product, not only at home, but also from surrounding counties, the 
annual product being about 8,000 rods. 

DANIEL G. HILL, one of the projDrietors, and at present a 
teacher in the graded school of Bruceville, is a son of William 
and Martha B. (McClure) Hill, and was born in 1854. He at- 
tended the common schools in boyhood, and at the age of eighteen 
began to make his own way in the world. For about three years 
he worked at Terre Haute, in a lumber yard, and afterward in a 
confectionery store. In 1876 he commenced teaching in the dis- 
trict schools of Knox County, In 1884 he was given a position 
in the Bruceville schools, and the following year was elected as- 
sistant principal of the same. In 1880 he began working in the 
tile factory, and the following year became one of the proprietors. 
In 1883 he was married to Bettie Umbarger, born in Virginia, in 
1860, daughter of Alexander and Jane (Clemens) Umbarger. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hill are the parents of one son, Harry. Mr. Hill is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church, and Mrs. Hill of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. He is a Republican, and cast his first 
vote for Hayes. 

GEORGE W. MAYFIELD, teacher, and one of the above 
firm, is a son of John and Elizabeth (Col ton) Mayfield, and was 
born in Bruceville in 1856. He attended the schools of that 
town, and also the county normals. At the age of eighteen he be- 
gan teaching, and has followed this during the winter seasons ever 
since. He worked for the tile firm of Barr & Witherspoon dur- 
ing 1880, and the following year became one of the proprietors, 
and has operated it during the summer seasons ever since. In 
1880 he was married to Mary J. Gude, born in Bruceville, in 1857, 


daughter of Alfred and Jane (Holmes) Gude. They have two 
children : Hattie G. and Susie S. Mr. Mayfield is a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and his wife of the Christian 
Church. He is a Kepublican, and cast his first vote for Garfield. 
He has been a successful teacher, and is doing well at his present 
business. His father, a retired physician of Bruceville, was born 
in 1821, in Sullivan County, Ind. He studied medicine under 
Dr. J. H. Paxton, and took a course of lectures at Eush Medical 
College during the winter of 1849-50. He then practiced until 
1853-54, when he completed his course. In 1854 he located at 
Bruceville, where he had an extensive practice. He was married 
in 1850, and his wife bore him these children: Kobert P., Ellen, 
Kate, George "W., Mary, Amelia, Joseph B., John T., Elizabeth 
and Stella. All the family are church members. Kobert P. is 
chief of division of bank accounts in the United States Treasury. 
For four years Mr. Mayfield was assessor of Washington Town- 
ship. He is a Bepublican, and cast his first vote for Polk. In 
1863 he moved onto a farm, where he remained ten years, and 
then returned to Bruceville. He retired from practice in 1880. 

WILLIAM HILL, one of the early settlers of Washington 
Township, was born in 1811 in East Tennessee. When about 
three years of age he came with his parents to this State and 
settled near Paoli. In 1817 they moved to this county. At 
the age of eighteen he began to learn the saddler's trade. 
Having finished his trade and worked some two years at jour- 
ney work, he, in connection with D. G. McClure, opened a 
harness shop in Bruceville, about 1834, continuing here three 
years. In 1837 he was married to Martha B. McClure, who was 
born in 1816 in Washington Township. She was a daughter 
of Charles and Margaret G. (McDonald), McClure. Her father 
was a native of Kentucky and her mother of South Carolina. 
Her grandparents were among the first settlers of Knox County. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hill reared a family of eight children, five of whom 
have been school teachers. In 1838 Mr. Hill went to Darwin, 
111., but two years later he returned and went into partnership 
with Mr. McClure again. Having quit the harness business, he 
opened a shoe shop in 1843 and there continued to work until 
1879, when failing eyesight compelled him to quit the business, 


and after staying in his son's store for some time, he retired from 
active life at the ripe age of seventy-three. All the family are 
members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Hill is a Republican 
in politics and cast his first vote for Henry Clay in 1832. Both 
parents still live. 

CHARLES M. HILL, one of the leading merchants of 
Bruceville, is a son of William and Martha B. (McClure) Hill. 
He was born in 1845 in Bruceville. In boyhood his father gave 
him the opportunites the old-time schools afforded. At the age 
of eighteen he volunteered in Company A, One Hundred and 
Eighteenth Indiana Infantry and served therein some seven 
months. Having been honorably discharged, he returned 
home and worked on a farm and brickyard. In 1866 he began 
the mercantile business as a salesman for Roberts & Baird. 
After clerking some ten years he and his brother formed a part- 
nership known as Hill Bros. At first they began on a very 
small stock, worth about $()00. Since then, by close attention to 
business, they have become proprietors of a good stock and store, 
besides other property. In 1873 he was married to Emma J. 
Moore, who was born in 1854 at Attica, Ind. The fi-uits of this 
union are five chilch-en: W. Herbert, Harry M., Gordon M., Rob- 
ert G., and Ruth I. Both husband and wife are church members, 
he of the Presbyterian Church and she of the Christian. Mr. 
Hill is a stanch Republican, and cast his first vote for Grant. 
Mr. Hill has met with good success as a just reward for industry 
and good management. He is a man who takes a deep interest 
in every enterprise that is for the benefit of society and as a citi- 
zen is well known and respected. 

CHARLES P. HOLLINGSWORTH is a native of Knox 
County, Ind., where he was born in 1841, son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Palmer) HoUingsworth. In boyhood he attended 
school only in the winter time, as his services were very much 
needed at home during the summer. In 1861, at the breaking 
out of the Rebellion, he enlisted in Company M, Third Kentucky 
Cavalry, and participated in the battles of Murfi-eesboro, Perry- 
ville, siege of Corinth, and was with Sherman on his memorable 
march to the sea. Some fifteen months before the expiration of 
his term he was commissioned second lieutenant, and held that 


position until the close of the war. After nearly four years of 
faithful service he returned home, and soon after took a trip West, 
visiting Missouri. On his return he turned his attention to farm- 
ing, and now owns an excellent farm of 378 acres. In 1870 he 
took for his life companion Alice, daughter of Hugh and Martha 
(McClure) Barr. She was born in Knox County in 1849, and 
has borne her husband these children: Grace, Martha and Blanche. 
Mr. Hollingsworth is a Democrat in politics, and his first vote 
was cast for Seymour. 

MILTON HOLLINGSWOETH one of the farmers of Wash- 
ington Township, is a son of Bernard and Nancy A. (McKee) 
Hollingsworth. The father was born in 1791, in South Carolina. 
The mother, a native of Kentucky, was born in 1798. Both came 
to this county when young and their matrimonial rites were sol- 
emnized in 1816. After marriage they settled in Washington 
Township, where they spent the remainder of their days. By 
occupation the father was a farmer, being quite a large land- 
owner. During his entire life he was an industrious and ener- 
getic worker. When a young man he joined the Baptist Church, 
but afterward became a member of the Christian Church. He 
was a Kepublican. In 1876 the father was called from among 
the living. The mother died two years before. Our subject was 
born in 1842 in Washington Township. In boyhood he had 
very ordinary advantages for education, having to walk two miles 
to school. In 1861 when the dissolution of the Union was threat- 
ened, Milton, thougli only nineteen years of age, enlisted in 
Company H, Fifty-fii-st Indiana Infantry. At Stone Eiver, Shi- 
loh, Corinth and Nashville, he with the other brave boys of Com- 
pany H fought manfully for home and country. After the last 
named engagement they were ordered to San Antonio, Tex., 
where they remained until the close of the war. At Stone River 
he received three wounds, and as a partial compensation receives 
$2 per month from the Government. Having served his country 
faithfully for over four years he returned, bearing an honorable 
discharge. In 1868 he was married to Martha A. Martin, born 
in 1850, in Washington Township. She is the daughter of 
James P. and Martha (Chambers) Martin. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Hollingsworth eight children were born: Ulysses G., William 


S., Ellis H., James TJ., Urania G., John, Anna and Logan. Mrs. 
Hollingsworth is a member of the Christian Church. Mr. Hol- 
lingsworth is a stanch Republican and cast his first vote for Lin- 
coln. At the death of his father our subject receiyed 138 acres 
of land, of which about 100 acres are under cultivation. As a 
farmer he has been qiiite successful, and is considered one of the 
first citizens of the county. 

GEORGE M. HOLMES, one of the old settlers of Washing- 
ton Township, is a son of Josiah L. and Margaret (McClure) 
Holmes. The father was born in 1775, at Carlisle, Penn. The 
mother, a native of Kentucky, was born about four years later. 
Both came to this county about the same time — 1804. Here they 
were married in 1818. By trade the father was a tanner, which 
calling he followed throughout life. He was a man of some 
public note. For four years he was deputy sheriff under John 
Purcell, besides being constable for a number of years. In the 
war of 1812 he took an active part, being in the battle of Horse- 
shoe Bend, and also at the battle of New Orleans. At the latter 
place he was promoted to captain. In 1837 the father died. The 
mother died in 1832. George's ancestors on both sides were of 
Irish descent. He has had the pleasm-e of seeing seven genera- 
tions, looking backward and forward. He was born in 1822, in 
Vincennes Township. In boyhood he had very poor advantages 
for education, attending the old-time subscription school, and not 
more than five months all told. When only about seven years 
old he and his brother, a ten-year-old lad, went week after week 
some eight miles up the river, to cut a boat-load of wood for winter 
use. In a little log shelter they stayed of nights, but when Satur- 
day came they would gladly return home to spend Sunday and 
get a new supply of provisions. For some time he followed driv- 
ing stage, going from Evansville to Vincennes, or from Vincennes 
to Terra Haute, etc. In 1842 he began his career as a farmer. 
His first crop of corn was raised on a rented place, and sold for 
8 cents per bushel delivered at a station five miles distant. Hav- 
ing no team, he was obliged to give $1.50 per 100 bushels to get 
it hauled. He thus received §13 for 200 bushels. Times being 
hard, he thought to make some money by chopping wood. He 
was paid 25 cents a cord for wood split fine and made out of the 


body of the tree only. In 1842 he was married to Berrila Pen- 
ington, born in 1824 in Lincoln County, Ky. She is a daughter 
of Isaac and Elizabeth (Price) Penington. Her father was a na- 
tive of Tennessee, and her mother of Kentucky. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Holmes thirteen children were born: Josiah-, Isaac, Harriet, 
"Weston, Benjamin, James, Margaret, George, Mary, Martin, Eliz- 
abeth, Laura and Obediah, all of whom are living on farms. The 
husband, wife and nine of the childi-en are members of the Chris- 
tian Church. Mr. Holmes is a stanch Democrat, and cast his first 
vote for Van Buren. For four years he has held the position of jus- 
tice of the peace. Two of his sons, were in the late war — Isaac, 
who served four years in the Rebellion and three years as a regu- 
lar soldier, and Weston, who served three years in the Rebellion 
and three years as a regular soldier. In 1860 Mr. Holmes moved 
to Washington Township, and bought 145 acres, on which he still 
lives. As a farmer he has been quite successful ; having started 
with nothing, he has arisen to the ownership of a good farm. He 
has been engaged to some extent in literary work, having written 
a number of stories for periodicals. Though he had such meager 
opportunities in early life, he acquired broad information by read- 

SAMUEL HOUSE, a farmer of Washington Township, Knox 
Co., Ind., is a son of Burket and Eliza (Fairhurst) House. The 
father was born in 1789, in Virginia. The mother, a native of 
the same State, was born in 1796. In that State they grew to 
years of maturity and married. Soon after they moved to Ohio, 
where they remained until 1816, when they came to Vincennes, 
Ind., and lived two years. Having moved to this township, they 
here spent the rest of their days. By occupation the father was 
a farmer, which calling he followed during his entire life. In 
their family were thirteen children, all of whom have been farmers. 
Th&.father was a member of the Baptist Church and his wife of 
the Christian Church. As to political preferences he was a Whig, 
and after the death of that party became a Republican. In his 
early settling here he was a great hunter. Many a wolf and deer 
have been a prey to his skill as a marksman. In 1874 the father 
died. The mother outlived him four years. Samuel's ancestors, 
on both sides, were of English descent. He was born in 1820, 


in Washington Township. In boyhood he had almost no advant- 
ages for education, attending the old-time schools at a distance of 
from two to three miles, and not going but two or three days in a 
week. At the age of twenty-one he began to battle his own way 
in the world. Having learned the carpenter's trade, he thouglit 
that too dependent a calling, consequently he turned his attention 
to farming, and in connection with that has followed his trade to 
a limited extent. In 1844 he was married to Julia Boyd, born in 
1827 in Virginia. She is a daughter of John T. and Christina 
(Arney) Boyd. ' To Mr. and Mrs. House ten children were born: 
Ellis, Martha, John B., Caroline, Mary, Alice, Helen, Anna, James 
M. and an infant, deceased. James is one of the teachers of 
Washington Township. Mrs. House is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. Mr. House is a stanch Republican, and 
cast his first vote for Clay. Having saved the money he earned 
at 12i cents a day, he bought 100 acres of land in 1843, for which 
he largely went in debt. Since, by hard work and good manage- 
ment, he has increased his farm to 340 acres. Having moved the 
large house in which he now lives a mile distant to its present 
position, he kept postoffice in it during the war. As a farmer he 
has been quite successfid. He is an example of what a young 
man of determination can do. Having started with nothing, he 
has arisen to the ownership of a good farm. 

CAPT. ELLIS HOUSE, son of Samuel and Julia (Boyd) 
House, was born in Knox County, Ind., in 1845. In boyhood he 
had very poor advantages of education, attending the old-time 
schools, and not going more than two terms altogether. At the 
age of sixteen, when the nation was calling for "more troops," he 
enlisted as a private in Company E, Fifty-first Indiana Infantry, 
in 1861. From private he arose to corporal, and in 1864 he be- 
came first lieutenant. In 1804 he was veteranized and made captain 
of his company. He was at Stone River (where he was wounded), 
Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, Blount's Farm. Pulaski, Columbia, 
Franklin, and Nashville. At the latter engagement a minie-ball 
shattered his left arm, for which the Government pays him $14.50 
per jQonth. After serving faithfully for over four years he re- 
turned home and began farming. In 1866 he purchased 167 
acres of land where he now lives, which he has increased to 207 


acres. He was married, in 1866, to Nancy E. Robinson, born in 
Knox County in 18i8. To them were born these children: Ora 
A., Ephraim W., John L., Estella G., William E. and Louis C. 
Mr. House is a stanch Republican, and cast his first vote for U. 
S. Grant. He, wife and four children are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

SAMUEL T. JOHNSON, one of the prominent farmers of 
Washington To-miship, is a son of Samuel and Mary (Martin) 
Johnson. The father was born in 1771, in Maryland. After reach- 
ing manhood he married, but his wife soon died. Having removed 
to Kentucky he met Miss Martin, to whom he was married in 
1810. In that State they remained till 1826, when they came to 
this county and State, and located where Samuel T. now lives. 
By occupation the father was a farmer, owning at his death about 
800 acres of land. Both he and his wife were members of the 
Christian Chvirch. During his entire life he was an industrious, 
energetic worker. Both died but a few hours apart in 1845, and 
were buried in the same grave. Samuel's ancestors on his moth- 
er's side were of Irish descent; on his father's lineage uncertain. 
Our subject was born in 1819, in Bourbon County, Ky. In boy- 
hood he had only the advantages of the old-time schools. He 
lived with his parents until their deaths. In 1845 he was married 
to Catherine Bruce, born about 1826. After the brief period of 
a little more than two years she died. In 1849 he was again 
married, this time to Mary (Lenien) Post, the widow of Peter M. 
Post, by whom she had two children, Eliza and William H., who 
died in a hospital at Knoxville, Tenn. To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson 
seven children were born: James B.. Samuel, Clara B., Thomas 
L.. Mary R., Nancy E. and Joe B. Both husband and wife are 
members of the Christian Chiirch. Mr. Johnson is a stanch 
Republican, though he voted the Democratic ticket till the break- 
ing out of the war. As a farmer he has been fairly successful. 

HARRIS KARNS, one of the farmers of Washington Town- 
ship, is a son of Henry and Elizabeth (Stalk) Karns. The father 
was born in Virginia. The mother was a native of Maryland. 
When young both moved with their parents to Tennessee, where 
they were married and spent the remainder of their days. In 
their family were twelve children, ten of whom they raised. By 


trade the father was a blacksmith, and in connection with that ran 
a small farm. He was a member of the Lutheran Church, his 
wife of the Presbyterian. During liis entire life he was an indus- 
trious, energetic worker. In 1845 the mother died. The father 
lived ten years longer. Harris' ancestors on both sides were of 
German descent. He was born, in 1815, in Knox County, Term. In 
boyhood he had very poor opportunities of schooling, not attend- 
ing more than twelve months all told. At the age of twenty-one 
he began to battle his own way in the world. After working by 
the month for a short time he mounted his horse and went to 
southern Illinois, where he was married, 1839, to Susan Buchan- 
an, born in 1820, in Wabash County, 111. Having lived in that 
State some four years, he moved to Posey County, Ind., and final- 
ly back to Tennessee. To Mr. and Mrs. Karns five children were 
born: Emily, Elizabeth, Liza J., John W. and Henry P. Mr. and 
Mrs. Karns, and all the children, are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Mr. Karns is a stanch Eepublican. His 
first vote was cast for White. During the war he was actively 
engaged in secretly transporting Union men out of the rebel 
country. Language cannot express the dangers, hardships and 
privations he and his family had to endure. In 18G4 he left 
Tennessee for this State. At first he bought 100 acres where he 
now lives, mostly in the woods. By hard work and good manage- 
ment he has since increased his farm to 200 acres, of which some 
170 acres are under cultivation. In 1870 Mrs. Karns died. Mr. 
Karns still lives at the ripe old age of seventy, widely known and 
highly respected. 

WILLIAM M. KESSINGEE, one of the farmers of Wash- 
ington Township, is a son of Peter and Susannah (Morette) Kes- 
singer. The father was born in 1788, in Lancaster County, Penn. 
The mother, a native of the same State, was some three or four 
years younger. There they grew to years of maturity, and were 
married in Cumberland County. The family consisted of nine 
children, seven of whom reached manhood. One of the girls, 
Mary, was a teacher in Lutherville College, Maryland. By trade 
the father was a carpenter, which calling he followed in early life, 
but afterward betook himself to farming, which calling he fol- 
lowed till his death. Both parents were members of the Lutheran 


Chui'ch. When a young man, the father was a Federalist, later 
in life he changed to a Democrat, which he continued to be till 
the breaking out of